Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2007)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 89BCA80E

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: 790673CD

Whats In Your Pipeline?
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of natural gas measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of natural gas has changed.
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Document ID: 8336E606

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee, Ray G. Durke
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters, there is a need at many installations to decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, poorly designed filters can be ineffective or expensive to operate. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
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Document ID: B49E5983

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Tom Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the United States needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas, and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation. The department of Transportation (D.O.T.) Title 49 covers the rules and regulations for the manufacture, handling, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Whether you use specially-built sample containers, old homemade sample containers, old World War II oxygen bottles, gigantic sample containers, or very small cylinders, if you are transporting those sample containers in your vehicles or you are shipping them by common carrier and they have hazardous materials in them, you must be aware of the rules that govern the handling of those cylinders.
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Document ID: 1171BD0D

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment utilized in the production, gathering, transportation, and distribution phases. There is an increasing reliance on the use of electronics for performing important tasks relating to measurement, control, and safety. Coupled with increased reliance is the demand by users for increased reliability.
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Document ID: 60339783

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 44FBA5DF

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA systems provide for safe, reliable, semi-efficient operation of gas transmission systems. Advanced applications and interfaces to business systems provide the keys for highly profitable operation. This paper introduces the basic building blocks of the SCADA system, including field devices. The SCADA host and advanced applications are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with a discussion of SCADA trends.
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Document ID: 1B7A31B6

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Britt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations. Several key efforts are worthy of further explanation concerning the companys approach to the rule. The first effort by the company dealt with writing a general OQ compliance procedure that outlined how the company would comply with all aspects of the OQ rule. Next was the task of establishing Panhandles interpretation of a Covered Task List, which is guided in the rule by the four part criteria listed in Subpart N 192.801 (b) (1), (2), (3) and (4). Since the rule also applies to contractors performing OQ tasks on the system, we determined that it would be best to use an Industry Standard task list numbering system (developed by Veriforce, an OQ contractor qualification firm, and multiple pipeline operating groups) to reduce confusion in the task identification for the field.
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Document ID: 62854199

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bill Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose to this paper is to discuss the fundamental components used in orifice measurement.
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Document ID: 7F629146

Fundamentals Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental issues relative to ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical operation of todays Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter (USM). The USMs diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be discussed with test results. Finally, recommendations for installation will be provided, including an example of a good piping design.
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Document ID: F2FAFBC5

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more indepth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small.
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Document ID: 79D4861A

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the East Coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success, New York businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc. and the new U.S. gas distribution industry began to flourish.
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Document ID: 7533AA4A

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically. In the past it was a standard practice to use a primary standard for pressure calibration. That standard was normally a dead weight tester or a manometer. Today with more accurate secondary standards available there is a larger choice in what can be used for pressure calibration. What is used normally will depend on the requirements that have to be met and the equipment that is available. This paper discusses issues that should be taken into consideration when choosing a pressure calibrator from the many that are available today
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Document ID: 356DF643

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Lawrence H. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished using two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance, and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets.
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Document ID: 7FCAC131

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: 44E41B0C

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the nonlinear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan.
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Document ID: E5D55D78

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a companys corporate image in the 21st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: 3B8565D1

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: E94B850A

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Gregg Schneider
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. It is only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 96468470

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement. Natural gas has served as an important fuel through the centuries. It is believed that the first commercial use of natural gas was by the Chinese in 900 BC. The Chinese used a system of hollow bamboo to transport the natural gas from shallow wells. The gas was used as a fuel to extract salt from sea water. In 1816 manufactured gas from coal was first used in the United States to fuel gas lights. In 1821 near Fredonia, New York the first natural gas well was drilled in the United States. William Hart, a gunsmith, drilled the twenty-seven foot deep well near a creek outside Fredonia where gas bubbles had been noticed. As a result of this well, Hart is considered the father of the natural gas industry in the United Sates. In 1843 cast iron pipe started replacing wooden pipelines and the use of iron pipe provided the first reliable and safe method of transporting gas to market.
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Document ID: 5F6BAE8A

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Paul Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device. The orifice meter body, tube and orifice plate are considered the primary measuring device. This primary device is equipped with pressure taps that allow for the hook-up of a secondary device to sense the output signal of the primary orifice meter. The secondary device is some type of recorder or datalogger that allows for the recording of the events (i.e. signal levels and changes) that are created in the primary device.
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Document ID: DAE64F01

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base expectation that exists today for the measurement technician is extremely demanding. From the latest in electronic controls to pneumatic controlsfrom communication system support to dualdisciplined or even tri-disciplined techniciansfrom the measurement equipment they support to the procedures that must be followedfrom the regulatory requirements governing the facilities to the training of field personnel all create a tremendous and ongoing challenge to meet these demands.
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Document ID: FABC0F8B

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them?where applicable?into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Stating & Running Differential Accuracy
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Document ID: 4DEBD6C3

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Dale Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written with the idea of presenting basic electronic principles and how to apply these to common applications in the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: E4BF4261

Fundamentals Of Egm Electrical Installations
Author(s): Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard of or seen the devastating effects of a direct lightning burst. Communication equipment destroyed. Transmitters and EFM devices vaporized into slag metal. Complete process and measurement systems down with extended recovery times. These effects are the most dramatic and the easiest to trace. However, these kinds of events are rare. The more prominent events are those that occur on a day-to-day basis without we, the user, even knowing. With the advent of the transistor and today when surface mount electronics is the norm and not the exception, transient suppression has become a science of necessity. Tight tolerances of voltage requirements and limited current carrying capabilities makes the new compact integrated circuits much more susceptible to many types of transients.
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Document ID: 08325555

Composition Analysis In Pipeline Gas & Ngl With Process Mass Spectrometry
Author(s): Larry E. Sieker
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass Spectrometry (MS) can be found in most industrial laboratories for detailed compositional analysis of process fluids and gases. Though accurate, fast, and complete, laboratory analysis using MS can only provide process information regarding intermediate or final product analysis for quality control programs and production history. MS is currently evolving from a laboratory instrument to an on line process analyzer so that a continuous compositional analysis can be utilized for process control purposes. There has been tremendous interest from the Natural Gas market, particularly in NGL production, for utilizing the speed of response and multi-component analysis that Mass Spectrometry can provide.
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Document ID: 27C26186

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing the gas, for example to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 42CDA195

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: CBD57576

Effects Of Wet Gas Flow On Gas Orifice Plate Meters
Author(s): Josh Kinney, Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plate meters are one of the most widely used technologies in industry for gas flow metering. This is due to their relative simplicity, the extensive publicly available data sets that led to several orifice plate meter standards 1, 2, 3, 4 and the fact that they are a relatively inexpensive method of gas metering. However, it is common in industry for gas meters to be installed in applications where the flows are actually wet gas flows, i.e. flows where there is some liquid entrainment in a predominantly gas flow. This is usually done out of economic necessity or due to the fact that the system designers were not aware at the systems conceptual design stage that the gas flow would have entrained liquid. Therefore, with the orifice plate meter being such a popular gas flow meter it is by default possibly the most common wet gas flow meter.
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Document ID: 4F82571E

Operations Of Online Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph (GC) is an integral component of the natural gas custody metering station and has a large impact on the accuracy of the fiscal flow calculation. For this reason it is imperative that you install, operate and maintain the GC with the goal of maximum reliability and accuracy.
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Document ID: 12BB7F03

Verifying Gas Chromatographs At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Shane Hale
Abstract/Introduction:
Verifying the correct operation and accuracy of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) is an integral part of a custody transfer metering system, and involves ensuring the accuracy of the analyzer at the time of testing, as well as confirming that the GC performed properly during the periods between validations and assessing the likelihood of continued proper functioning until the next validation. Because the GC will be offline during much of a validation procedure, the validation should only be performed at a time when the composition of the gas flowing through the metering station is relatively stable.
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Document ID: 2385E2DB

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
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Document ID: 35B74639

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): David Haydt
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: E7C33E0B

Strategic Implementation Of Wireless Technologies
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This SCADA design overview reviews the six key steps for specifying basic system requirements, followed by the primary considerations for developing a radio communications system that includes technology best meeting your objectives.
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Document ID: D2E6F8DC

Communication Between Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next, corporate downsizing has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing requirements with a daily closing schedule is knocking on the door and has already arrived at some locations. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: C7D4E441

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): George L. Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
A natural gas sample may collected as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph. The most important things in taking a sample are where and how the sample is taken.
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Document ID: DA55679A

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described.
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Document ID: 36C9523F

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry flow chart recorder was the state of the art recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process.
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Document ID: A93288A6

Gas Flow Conditioning Devices Used To Pre-Condition The Gas Flow Profile Prior To Measurement
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe fittings such as: bends, Tees, reducers, headers, valves, filters, strainers, heat exchangers, etc, affect the velocity profile in the downstream pipe. These profile distortions are known to affect the performance of flow meters. The magnitude of the effect depends upon both the severity of the distortion and the sensitivity of the meter (Ref. 1). One solution to these problems is to use long straight lengths of pipe upstream of the meter. Friction effects on the wall of the pipe will eventually extend to the center of the pipe to produce a fully developed velocity profile, which no longer changes with any additional pipe length. Unfortunately in certain applications this can take very long lengths (hundreds of diameters), which is often neither practical nor economic.
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Document ID: 673CAD0A

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained, has created the need for an electronic data management system. Properly designed and implemented, a measurement data management system adds functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: 02060F3D

Considerations For Selecting A Host System For Upstream And Midstream Gas Operations
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Operators of gas assets face a bewildering number of options when considering the installation of a central host system to monitor and control field operations. These options generally fall into two categories as described below. Measurement systems, which come in two basic flavors: Systems provided by EFM vendors, such as Totalflows WinCCU and NuFlos ScanWin Larger scale third party measurement systems such as FlowCal and Quorum SCADA systems, which also come in two basic flavors: Generic HMI development systems such as Wonderwares InTouch and GEs Intellution which are typically customized for gas operations by a system integrator True SCADA systems, especially those specifically developed for oil and gas such as SCADA Vision from ABB and Oasys from Telvent.
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Document ID: 1414DE20

Internet Based Measurement Monitoring & Control
Author(s): Brad Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the Internet, PCs, client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed. No longer do only the most productive wells or gathering systems receive consideration for automation. In todays technologically advanced environment even marginal producing wells can now benefit from the data monitoring and management services previously economical on only the more productive locations.
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Document ID: 71EBAB49

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Fred Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration Standards are known concentrations of components of interest used to confirm or determine component concentrations in samples. Calibration standards are used for quality assurance, quality control, measurement and balance, quantitative sample analysis and custody transfer. They should be used anytime it is important to know the composition of your samples and to determine if your process is performing as expected. There are different techniques for the manufacturing of calibration standards. The following is a partial list of commonly used practices: Pressure blending, combination of pressure blending and gravimetric blending, gravimetric only, analytical only, gravimetric and analytical, gravimetric verified by analysis and gravimetrically prepared NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable by weight with the gravimetric values verified by one or more analytical methods. This paper will discuss how to properly manufacture a gravimetrically prepared, NIST traceable by weight calibration standard in which the gravimetric values are verified by one or more analytical methods. The gravimetric uncertainty of this standard is 1% per component.
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Document ID: B0916FF1

Determination Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Andy Benton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper considers the requirements for control of hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas and how measurement of this important gas quality parameter can be achieved. A summary of the commercially available on-line instrumentation is provided covering: Manual, visual technique with chilled mirror dewpointmeter Equation of state calculation from extended composition analysis by gas chromatograph Automatic, optical condensation dewpointmeter The role of each measurement technology is described and assessed in terms of the effectiveness of the measurement method utilised together with other technical considerations as well as initial and operating cost implications. Full consideration is given to the specific difficulties to be confronted resulting from the complex nature of the parameter concerned. Such peculiarities include the effects of pressure, fractional condensation, the minute proportion of heaviest molecular weight components within the gas composition that contributes to the formation of condensate at the hydrocarbon dew point, and the overall subjectivity of the measurement itself where no absolute reference or definition is possible. A case is presented for the use of advanced optical techniques in an adaptation of the fundamental chilled mirror principle to provide automatic on-line measurement with a degree of objectivity and repeatability unobtainable with other measurement techniques.
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Document ID: AB4FE14F

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include: Volume and pressure/temperature recording gauges Mechanical pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic flow computer
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Document ID: FB1B7E84

Gas Contracts Measurement Language And Its Evolution
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
The business environment in our industry has seen tremendous change since early 1980s. This has in turn forced the industry to change its measurement technology and the process. Open access concept with multiple shippers through the same meter requires timely data to monitor nomination and allocation and to comply with commercial terms. The introduction of digital flow computer for electronic gas measurement (EGM) system has resulted in almost real time transactional information with enhanced accuracy and reliability. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented impact on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts had to evolve with time and include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, such contract language should represent transporter and shipper or buyer and seller as the case may be in the most equitable manner possible. This paper discusses gas contract language from a measurement perspective addressing some of those challenges while recommending more up-to-date measurement provisions for gas contracts.
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Document ID: 132D34D9

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consist of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consist of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air.
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Document ID: 00ABCC8A

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Experience is the best teacher. Weve all heard that saying, but, what if there arent any experienced personnel left to hire? After years of downsizing, mergers, and attrition, the industry finds itself in a shortage of good trained personnel. The only way to overcome this problem is to provide the new employee with comprehensive training. Successful training is paramount to the success of the gas measurement department and your company.
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Document ID: 78ADFF75

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide meter station designers with a basic methodology for selection of an appropriate flow meter (or meters) for a given application. Since many applications require that a meter station operate over a broad range of flow rates or loads, examples are be provides on how to address system rangeability while maintaining accurate flow measurement. Detailed technical discussions pertaining to the various available gas metering technologies is beyond the scope of this paper, but information of that type can be found in other papers in these Proceedings.
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Document ID: 1773AE08

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is of paramount importance that we focus on the accuracy and timeliness for the transfer of gas measurement data from the field measurement sites to a centralized gas measurement database to be verified, edited, and shared with all applicable groups. Measurement of wellhead deliveries, pipeline interconnects to town plants, city gates, and ultimately the end-user must be efficient and verifiable. To achieve this goal, various methodologies for gathering EGM data have evolved and improved over the past few years.
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Document ID: BA37894B

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprisewide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: 07769C6E

Grounding Practices For Automation Controls
Author(s): Alan Rebeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether lightning damage or lightning voltages induced between equipment cabinets as a result of multi-grounding causing mis-operation of computerized electronics, improper grounding can account for up to 40 percent of power-related problems including costly damage and downtime. In addition, transient overvoltages-a high voltage spike or impulse of very short duration-can account for another 40 percent if not adequately suppressed. Transient overvoltages can be produced by lightning, power companies switching feeders or capacitor banks, or load switching at customer facilities. These large voltages, lasting only a short period of time, are injected into power and data circuits causing equipment destruction and safety hazards.
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Document ID: 556E0F46

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
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Document ID: 9DB5B9D1

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many (likely most) gas pipeline companies struggle with lostand- unaccounted-for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom line as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 0.6 percent to .25 percent, a typical company with a 2 BCF daily throughput could save almost 18 million annually based on 7.00 gas prices, which is a daily loss of 49,000.
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Document ID: B614BAD1

Application And Verification Of Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early 1980s, Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in gas, liquid, and slurry applications with an installed base of more than 500,000 units. Through significant design enhancements in the early 1990s Coriolis meters have rapidly gained worldwide acceptance in gas phase applications with over 35,000 meters installed world wide and most notably the 2003 publication of AGA Report Number 11, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: 6831E0BE

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
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Document ID: 45ECEC62

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the amount of natural gas that is unaccounted for. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money.
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Document ID: E9BE4CC7

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely impact meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
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Document ID: FB1DAB4E

Unaccounted Gas Study
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation. In a perfect world the gas receipt point is a single town border or city gate, and the deliveries are made to customers via a totally gas tight piping system. The city gate station measurement period and that of the customers meters are all based on the same time period. All meters have an uncertainty of less than 0.5%. All of the volume determinations and reporting is done in a single Gas Measurement System, and no revisions to original volumes is ever necessary. Regrettably not too many perfect world situations exist in the gas distribution business.
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Document ID: 7D71EF20

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 195035E4

Periodic Inspection Of District Regulator And Relief Valves
Author(s): John Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators and Over Pressure Protection Devices (OPPD) must be inspected in accordance to Federal and State Law and Company policy. Over pressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream piping in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include a relief valve, a monitor regulator, or a positive pressure shut off. In Texas, inspection interval must be at least once per calendar year, at intervals of no more than 15 months.
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Document ID: 22BD51B7

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
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Document ID: FE561563

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
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Document ID: 6888D171

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process. Equations of State (EOS) software programs are useful tools for modeling the behavior of natural gas as it flows through a sample system. With the use of an EOS program one can determine if conditions in a particular sample conditioning system are conducive to the proper sampling of a specific natural gas composition.
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Document ID: E6FE4F81

Lessons Learned From The API 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Darin L. George, Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1999, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), and Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling research program at the Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for recent revisions to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1, Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer. The research supported revisions that produced both the 5th edition of the standard, published in 2001, and the new 6th edition, published in February 2006.
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Document ID: 4A827EC7

An Overview Of Industry Standards Related To Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support From these definitions, it appears that one could conclude that a standard should have value be established by general consent or by an organization be a yardstick to measure quantity, quality, and value and be a base or support upon which one can built procedures and policies.
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Document ID: 880DFE03

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
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Document ID: 31424964

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 70 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results.
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Document ID: 4D7A7B6A

AGA Calculations - 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 584A1A09

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3 / AGA 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Tom Cathey
Abstract/Introduction:
In April of 2000, revisions to the specification and installation requirements for orifice meters was published by the American Gas Association in the form of the AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2, Fourth Edition. This purblication is also correctly known as API 14.3, Part 2, ANSI/API 14.3, Part 2-2000 and GPA 8185, Part 2. This report applies to fluids that are considered to be clean, single-phase, homogenous and Newtonian measured using concentric, square edged, flange-tapped orifice meters.The requirements for the construction of orifice meter tubes, as defined in this publication, will be discussed in greater detail throughout this paper.
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Document ID: F65DAF79

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibrations Considerations And Benifits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. The latest revision of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters, Second Addition Ref 1, now requires flow calibration for ultrasonic flow meters when being used for custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 8EE8A173


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