Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2006)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and th
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Document ID: C46C55AE

Basic Properties - Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: 990615C2

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful odorization program.
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Document ID: AB9AAFB1

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems. NATURAL GAS DEFINITIONS Natural gas is a mixture of gasses extracted from reserves trapped deep below the earth or ocean. Natural gas and most hydrocarbons such as waxes, oils, propane, etc. are derived from the decomposition of plants and animal trapped below the earths surface or the ocean floor. Natural gas is extracted on its own but in many cases refined from the extraction of other hydrocarbons. The predominant gas that composes natural gas is a hydrocarbon known as methane. It consists of one atom of Carbon, and four atoms of Hydrogen. In a perfect world, the natural gas extracted from the ground would be 100% methane. In order for the extraction and refining process to be economically feasible, the gas composition produced is somewhat less than perfect. Methane typically makes up 90-96% of natural gass composition,
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Document ID: AAA6EBAE

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures. Pressure control is used in all phases of the delivery system as follows: Production Wells Up to 5,000+ psig Compressor Stations Pumping into Storage or Boosting Transmission Supply. City Gate Stations Reduce Transmission Pressures to Distribution Pressures. District Regulation Stations cutting pressures for safe delivery End User Regulation Providing a safe pressure for end user appliances.
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Document ID: 144FE80A

Factors Affecting Orifice Accuracy
Author(s): Reji George
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Measurement is a proven method of gas measurement. As an industry, we have been talking about this metering method and problems associated with it for more than seven decades. In 1939, Mr. C. A. Smith (Superintendent of Gas Measurement, West Virginia Gas Corporation, Charleston, West Virginia) speaking at the Second Annual Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course, said the following about orifice plates: The orifice plate is the main part of the orifice meter, and must not be overlooked. You can have your meter gauges in the best possible working condition, but if an inferior, warped, or dirty plate, or dull edged orifice is used, you can have inaccurate results in gas measurement. That statement still holds true in 2003. This paper will highlight a few maintenance practices that will support good orifice measurement in addition, some errors associated with the primary orifice element will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 22F31915

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber. A rotary piston meter was invented in the late 1800s, but it was primarily used a blower. In the 1940s a Roots- Connersville dimensional rotary meter was used. The style of rotary meter in use today was first used in the 1960s in the cast iron version, the extruded aluminum style came out in the 1970s. The modern turbine meter was developed in the 1970s. It has had minor modifications over the years, but the basic operation is the same. Ultrasonic measurement was first developed in the 1980s and has been refined over the years.
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Document ID: 27279961


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