Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2006)

A New Algorithm For Calculating Cricondentherm And Joule-Thomson Line Of Natural Gases
Author(s): J. Zaghloul, A. Sadegh, M.A. Adewumi
Abstract/Introduction:
A fast algorithm for accurate determination of Cricondentherm (CCT) and Joule Thomson Line (JTL) recommended by FERC is presented. This algorithm calculates CCT and JTL within 0.8 F of the phase envelope method. Tested with 1,740 field compositions, the algorithm is approximately 10 times faster than the phase envelope method.
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Document ID: 2C5F7E40

Ultrasonic Meters And Direct Energy Measurement
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff, Richard Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of natural gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and new federal regulations, all buyers and sellers of natural gas are looking at ways to improve their natural gas volume and energy measurement and reduce maintenance. While natural gas still has many advantages and its usage is increasing it is no longer a cheap fuel. One Btu of energy from natural gas costs as much or more than a Btu produced from oil. The Btu in one barrel of oil is equivalent to approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 10.00 per thousand cubic feet or million Btu, the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil is 56.00 equal to, or more than the cost of a barrel of average grade crude oil.
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Document ID: C4AA6D85

Using Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy To Measure Water Vapor And Carbon Dioxide In Natural Gas
Author(s): Joseph Mcmenamin
Abstract/Introduction:
Tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy is a mature technology that has been in use for over 20 years. This paper will review the background of TDL spectroscopy, the theory of operation, and the measurement performance that can be achieved. It will also present data comparing TDL measurements to a Bureau of Mines type chilled mirror. TDL spectroscopy can provide accurate measurements of moisture and carbon dioxide in natural gas much faster and more reliably than other methods.
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Document ID: D4DD55B9

Utilizing Equation Of State Eos() Software In Sample Conditioning Of Natural Gas Applications
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process. Equations of State (EOS) software programs are useful tools for modeling the behavior of natural gas as it flows through a sample system. With the use of an EOS program one can determine if conditions in a particular sample conditioning system are conducive to the proper sampling of a specific natural gas composition. EOS software can be useful to the engineer or technician during the design, operation, and maintenance of a natural gas sampling system. This paper will discuss the types of information an EOS program can provide and how this can be utilized to solve common sample conditioning problems.
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Document ID: FCF0E048

Wobbe Calorimeters For LNG Blending And Natural Gas Interchangeability
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing importation of LNG has caused interchangeability issues and has resulted in Pipeline Gas Blending issues. Pipeline Blending occurs when more than two or more sources of gases are mixed together within a given pipeline to satisfy demand or concurrently maintain gas quality within a given Wobbe range.
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Document ID: 5B96491C

AGA Bulletin #36 And Weaver Interchangeability Methods: Yesterdays Research And Todays Challenges
Author(s): Rosemarie Halchuk-Harrington, Robert D. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing demand for natural gas has resulted in the delivery of new gas supplies to the U.S. marketplace, many of which look, and will continue to look, very different than the historical supplies. The natural gas industry has a long and extensive history of appliance testing and mathematical modeling to assess the effect of changing gas supplies on appliance performance, but it is currently challenged to verify the sixty-year old methods for todays gases and appliances and other end-use equipment. This paper reviews the development of the most common models used in the U.S., AGA Bulletin #36 and Weaver, and evaluates the application of the calculations to current natural gas quality issues. Graphs of the calculated results to define a range of acceptable gas quality variability are presented. The results demonstrate potential model limitations related to the disparity between the original and current test gases and burner designs as well as uncertainty about published index limits. Re-examination and enhancement of existing models that reflect current burner designs and gas compositions are recommended so that these valuable tools can be utilized to develop acceptable ranges of gas quality.
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Document ID: 2CA2765A

Setting The Standard In Standards: Why Quality Should Be Top Priority When Selecting Calibration Standards
Author(s): Ashley Wolfe
Abstract/Introduction:
In an industry where price is a key factor, and sometimes the only factor, when determining where to buy calibration standards, it is becoming more and more essential for companies to think about how much of their business relies on the accuracy and quality of its standards. We are at the point where companies must demand higher quality from its standards manufacturer. Calibration standards are mixtures of known quantities of components used to compare to unknown concentrations in samples. Standards are mainly used for quality assurance/quality control purposes, but they can also be used for measurement and balance as well as quantitative sample analysis or more generally, anytime it is important to know the composition and/or concentration of samples.
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Document ID: AD843E3A

Developments Of Transducer Technology And Reciprocity In Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Skule E. Smrgrav
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs) are gaining increased popularity for custody transfer and allocation metering of gas and oil. AGA recommendations on gas USMs were issued in 1998 1 (this document is presently under revision), a handbook on uncertainty evaluation of gas USM metering stations was prepared in 2001 2,3, an API standard on liquid ultrasonic meters was issued in February 2005 4, an ISO standard on gas USMs is under development 5, etc.
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Document ID: E20A0555

Energy Metering At The Flow Measurement Station
Author(s): Reed Mitchell, Barry Balzer, Paul Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Most natural gas custody transfer contracts today have at least a Btu specification and many use MMBtu (million Btu) rather than gas volume for custody transfer measurement. A Btu, British thermal unit, is a measure of heat or Calorific Value, CV. One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (A CV of about 1055.056 Joules (SI)). Heat (Enthalpy or Btus) is gained from the burning of Natural Gas in air, is called Oxidation. The higher the Btu content, the more energy can be obtained from burning the gas. It just doesnt take as many cubic feet of gas to heat the home hot water tank if the gas is 1090 Btu instead of 940 Btu per Scf. The Btu, then, is the measure of the actual amount of heat energy contained in a cubic foot ( cf ) of this natural gas.
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Document ID: 94175741

Explanation And Use Of Hdp To C6+ Gpm Correlation Methodology
Author(s): Henry W. Hank Poellnitz III
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2004, the Natural Gas Council presented a White Paper to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) entitled White Paper on Liquid Hydrocarbon Drop Out in Natural Gas Infrastructure(HDP White Paper). The HDP White Paper states that the Task Force found that the C6+ GPM Correlation is valid for use as a control parameter to control hydrocarbon liquid dropout. This paper gives an explanation of the use and advantages of using C6+ GPM methodology to control hydrocarbon liquid dropout.
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Document ID: 8005E3D0

Is Your Gc Ready For LNG?
Author(s): Mark Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs typically used to analyze pipeline quality gas may encounter problems when LNG is added to the mix. Potential errors in ethane measurement will be discussed along with possible solutions to these problems. Topics such as calibration gas, retention time, valve timing and microprocessor based pressure control are covered.
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Document ID: C055F260

Recent Tests Of Crossed Diameter Paths 10D Downstream Of A Multihole Flow Conditioner
Author(s): James Jed Matson
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the simplest and most robust multipath configurations in an ultrasonic transit time flowmeter consists of two tilted diameter paths which intersect. To achieve 0.5% and better inaccuracy despite nonideal flow conditions, these simple paths are combined with a flow conditioner and straight lengths upstream and downstream. Recent air and natural gas calibrations with steady flow data and field experiences are presented.
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Document ID: 105A983A

Reynolds Number Calibration Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Alan Ranseth
Abstract/Introduction:
Reynolds number Calibration of Turbine Meters refers to the calibration of the meter under conditions replicating those under which the meter will undergo in service. Reynolds number has been found to effectively encompass the factors that affect the overall accuracy of the meter. The use of Reynolds number allows us to effectively describe the conditions that the meter will experience in service. This allows us to replicate these conditions when calibration of the meter is performed.
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Document ID: 6C556B85


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