Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2006)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas which the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: 7D1130E2

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Dean Lightfoot
Abstract/Introduction:
FUNCTION OF A REGULATOR A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly. Take, for example, a furnace using some type of combustible fluid as a fuel (See Figure 1). In a steady state operation, the number of molecules of fluid being consumed by the fire must equal the number of molecules of fluid passing through the regulator. Should the load or demand for the molecules decrease, then the flow of the fluid through the regulator must decrease or too much fluid will be forced into the downstream piping causing its pressure (P2) to increase. If the load increases, then the flow through the regulator must also increase to compensate for the increased lose of fluid molecules. Otherwise P2 will decrease from a lack of fluid being available to replenish that being used. To meet these fluctuations in demand the regulator senses the downstream pressure, compares it to the set point pressure (its standard), and opens or closes as neede
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Document ID: B9020A64

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Paul Reynold
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device. The orifice meter body, tube and orifice plate are considered the primary measuring device. This primary device is equipped with pressure taps that allow for the hook-up of a secondary device to sense the output signal of the primary orifice meter. The secondary device is some type of recorder or datalogger that allows for the recording of the events (i.e. signal levels and changes) that are created in the primary device. For many years, the most widely used secondary device of the natural gas industry has been the circular chart recorder. The repeatability and accuracy are important factors when determining the volume of natural gas that is moved through a given measurement point within a given time frame.
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Document ID: B2067A1D

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate themwhere applicableinto my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss:
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Document ID: 3340A515

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Try this at home. We are professionals. If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment. Todays Measurement Technicians and Engineers are required to operate and maintain a variety of Hi-Tech field measurement equipment. Most of the field instrumentation is tightly integrated in a complete system functional environment. The larger the metering station, the more complex the system.
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Document ID: E26F8831

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, fluctuating gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every energy delivery company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data.
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Document ID: 9EA16615

Flow Meter Installation Effects
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter station piping installation configuration is one of a number of effects that may adversely impact meter accuracy. Some piping configurations can distort the flow stream and produce flow measurement bias errors (i.e., offsets in the meter output) of up to several percent of reading. Valves, elbows, or tees placed upstream of a flow meter are just some of the piping elements that can distort the flow stream. In this paper, installation effects are discussed with respect to two of the four main components of a flow measurement system: the meter, or primary element, and the secondary (pressure and temperature) instrumentation. The effect of the velocity profile of the flow stream on orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine flow meters is discussed next. Installation conditions that may adversely impact the accuracy of pressure and temperature measurements are discussed after that. The gas chromatograph and the flow computer, the third and fourth components, are treated in separate courses.
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Document ID: DAF0DBE5

Unaccounted Gas Study
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Gas Distribution business Unaccounted Gas is referred to by various names or terms such as: Lost and Unaccounted-For, LUG, L&U, and UAF. In simplest terms, Unaccounted Gas is the result of the formula gas receipts minus gas deliveries. For the Measurement Group the process amounts to a gas inventory reconciliation based on the recorded volumes into the system(s) less the sum of the volumes out of the system(s). This can be a town by town or a total-system reconciliation.
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Document ID: 98A1CB37

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 8C8DDF72

Periodic Inspection Of District Regulator And Relief Valves
Author(s): John Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators and Over Pressure Protection Devices (OPPD) must be inspected in accordance to Federal and State Law and Company policy. Over pressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream piping in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include a relief valve, a monitor regulator, or a positive pressure shut off. In Texas, inspection interval must be at least once per calendar year, at intervals of no more than 15 months.
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Document ID: 7AECFB1A

Automatic Meter Reading
Author(s): Dan Kritz
Abstract/Introduction:
Automated meter reading (AMR) is the collection at a remote central location of data from meters and other devices at customers premises via telecommunications. The AMR industry has grown steadily over the past 30 years. Today, a few established players dominate the natural gas AMR sector, with many other smaller companies competing for sales as well. Technological, regulatory, and economic trends are driving the further evolution and adoption of AMR solutions.
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Document ID: 78C3D323

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Enoch E.Z. Elizondo
Abstract/Introduction:
The term Cash Register of the company has become synonymous for the natural gas industry when it comes to describing the gas meter. In todays competitive energy markets, price of natural gas and operating under the FERC Order 636, the accuracy of natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important concern. Therefore, the selection of the proper meter to be installed at a metering facility is critical for both the efficiency and economic success of a company
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Document ID: 440B8C29

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
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Document ID: 925F4814

How To Perform A Lost And Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: ?? Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, ?? Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, ?? Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and ?? Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants.
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Document ID: 562F1F54

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bob Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate and economical measurement of process fluids and natural gas. Orifice Meters, sometimes referred to as Orifice Fittings, satisfy most flow measurement applications and are the most common flow meter type in use today. The Orifice Meter, sometimes also called a head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other available flow meter types.
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Document ID: 1B891CF3

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters For Custody Transfer Measurement
Author(s): Jim Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principals and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation, and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3-path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter however, many of these issues can be generalized to meters manufactured by others.
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Document ID: 8900EC98

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Nicole Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant who labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the receipts from the gas producers with the end-customer deliveries.
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Document ID: 5FFD4E71

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): John Michalak
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary gas meters have been in use for over sixty years in the natural gas distribution industry. Over the years, the construction has switched from heavy cast iron bodies to lighter, high strength aluminum. Advances in manufacturing techniques such as CNC machining centers have enhanced the measurement performance of the rotary meter. Traditionally rotary meters are installed on applications requiring a flow capacity of 1,000 to 38,000 cfh.
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Document ID: 1A7172D5

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic, and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large-volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1,440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems, such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production.
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Document ID: 286BCC22

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the non-linear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan.
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Document ID: 25023839

Composition Analysis In Pipeline Gas & Ngl With Process Spectrometry
Author(s): Larry E. Sieker
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass Spectrometry (MS) can be found in most industrial laboratories for detailed compositional analysis of process fluids and gases. Though accurate, fast, and complete, laboratory analysis using MS can only provide process information regarding intermediate or final product analysis for quality control programs and production history.
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Document ID: 85FD14F7

Coriolis For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base of more than 400,000 units. Newer designs have increased low-flow sensitivity, lowered pressure drop, and increased noise immunity enabling performance characteristics that are similar or better than traditional metering technologies. Coriolis also has attributes that no other fluid measurement technology can achieve. Some of these attributes are the meters immunity to flow disturbances, fluid compositional change, and it contains no wearing parts. With more than 25,000 meters measuring gas phase fluids around the world, many national and international measurement organizations are investigating and writing industry reports and measurement standards for the technology.
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Document ID: 6457951A

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Paul Minier
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about, and with on daily basis. So why is it that no one likes to work with odorant? Could it be the distinctive smell that gets on our clothing, causing problems with family, friends, neighbors, and the public in general?
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Document ID: 19EF88B2

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the amount of natural gas that is unaccounted for. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money.
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Document ID: 1665CCD1

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
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Document ID: 2892108D

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3 / AGA 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Tom Cathey
Abstract/Introduction:
In April of 2003, revisions to the specification and installation requirements for orifice meters was published by the American Gas Association in the form of the AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2, Fourth Edition. The revisions or changes in the following categories are significant when compared to the 1991 Third Edition publication of AGA Report No. 3 and will be discussed in greater detail throughout this paper:
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Document ID: C55C9CC8

Ultrasonic Flow Meter Calibration Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Wayne Haner
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased use of natural gas as the primary source of energy internationally, combined with the increased market price is driving the expansion and modernization of gas transportation infrastructure and is encouraging more accurate measurements of gas flows. To ensure the fair transaction at custody transfer locations, gas pipeline companies are demanding credibility and excellence of meter calibration as a main parameter in ensuring accountability for the gas invoiced.
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Document ID: B32518C9

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: C2133AB7

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: 787FD738

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sample conditioning is essential to providing a representative sample of natural gas to the analyzer. Sample conditioning consists of extracting a sample from a process stream, transporting it to an analyzer, and conditioning it so that it is compatible with the analyzer. Conditioning generally consists of controlling the gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate. It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process.
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Document ID: DA6687F6

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
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Document ID: 5876E967

Lessons Learned From The API 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 413CDACF

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: 6343C9F2

Understanding The Different Standards That Govern Measurement Barry Balzer
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a standard? Why are standards important? Merriam-Webster dictionary defines standard as: 1) a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem 2) something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example 3) something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality 4) the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins 5) the basis of value in a monetary system 6) a structure built for or serving as a base or support
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Document ID: E4C0DE40

An Overview And Update On AGA Report No. 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. This paper also discusses changes that will be incorporated in the next revision. At the time of this paper the expected publication date is the Fall of 2006.
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Document ID: 743ADC32

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results
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Document ID: 93DF1EE8

AGA Calculations - 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 382BF0ED

Techniques Of Composite Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The level of interest in effective and accurate gas sampling techniques is currently at a very high priority within the natural gas industry. With the fluctuating ranges in natural gas prices, exploration interests, profitability, deregulation and consolidation of the work force, recoverable revenue must be accounted for. At large volume delivery points, a 3-5 BTU error in energy determination can cost companies tens of thousands of dollars within a very short time period. Accurate sampling techniques must be implemented with equal interest as is given to accurate volume measurement. MMBTU is the total of volume and energy. Sampling is the energy determination delivery system for this equation.
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Document ID: 26EB98B8

Flow Conditioning And Effects On Accuracy For Fluid Flow Measurement - American School Of Gas Measurement Houston 2006 Gas Flow Conditioning
Author(s): B. D. Sawchuk,D. P. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last several years research has shown that by improving on the flow conditioners used in natural gas metering applications, measurement is improved and installation cost can be reduced. The new standards developed for orifice meters (AGA 3/API 14.3 and ISO 5167) addresses the question of flow conditioner design and testing to ensure the meter performance when subjected to various flow perturbations.
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Document ID: 036EA698

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Ronald C. Geib
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standard gases are essential to quantitative analytical measurements in petrochemical processes, natural gas, environmental compliance, and health and safety programs - among others. The calibration gas standard establishes a known analyzer response to a certified chemical component concentration which enables the conversion of sample responses to a concentration with a determinable accuracy. In consideration of the criticality of calibration standard gases to valid measurements in chemical processes and environmental monitoring programs, the objective of this paper will be to provide an in-depth review of how calibration standard gases are manufactured, certified, and properly maintained
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Document ID: C2B49F79

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters.
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Document ID: A60CFEBF

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.
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Document ID: 7E73A600

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Joseph Mcmenamin
Abstract/Introduction:
H2O vapor is an undesirable component of natural gas. It takes up space in the pipeline and provides no fuel value. In higher concentrations it can condense into liquid water in the pipeline and cause corrosion, especially in the presence of carbon dioxide or H2S. Liquid water can also cause damage to the equipment utilizing the gas, for example to turbines. Because of this, most gas transfer tariffs include a limit on the acceptable concentration of H2O in the gas stream. This paper reviews the devices that can be used in the field to determine the amount of water vapor present in a natural gas stream.
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Document ID: 27CB5967

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology.
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Document ID: 0EBD8AFF

Whats In Your Pipeline? And( Do You Really Want To Know?)
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of natural gas measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of natural gas has changed.
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Document ID: 9DE343E4

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in-depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small.
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Document ID: DB8013D9

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically.
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Document ID: F9F8668E

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a companys corporate image in the 21st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: 6096707D

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
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Document ID: 851ECC92

Considerations For Selecting A Host System For Upstream And Midstream Gas Operations
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Operators of gas assets face a bewildering number of options when considering the installation of a central host system to monitor and control field operations. These options generally fall into two categories as described below.
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Document ID: C9D4A33F

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Tom Felker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the United States needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas, and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: 063E8607

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
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Document ID: C1408CFE

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Chris J Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern business and security imperatives coupled with rapid technological change require key new architectural elements for SCADA systems. These elements are discussed along with more traditional block diagram fundamentals, so that the reader might better understand migration and adaptation strategies for their transmission pipeline operations in the new millennium
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Document ID: 8344C93B

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Britt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations.
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Document ID: 3E70FA28

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 7197800D

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman, Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Our industry has seen tremendous progress in the accuracy of natural gas measurement since the implementation of electronic gas measurement (EGM) in the 1980s. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented impact on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts should include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, they should represent both buyer and seller in the most equitable manner possible. This writing discusses some of those challenges while recommending more up-to-date measurement provisions for gas contracts.
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Document ID: 22D6F6CB

Training Of Office Measurment Personnel
Author(s): Linda Mccourt
Abstract/Introduction:
Effective office training is a crucial part of a companys accuracy and accountability. Volumes are relative to every purchase and sale of gas, directly or indirectly. The money and time spent for accuracy of the primary elements is just the beginning and can all be forgotten if the information in the measurement office is reported inaccurately.
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Document ID: 1EDF93C7

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays natural gas industry, it is of paramount importance that we focus on the accuracy and timeliness for the transfer of gas measurement data from the field measurement sites to a centralized gas measurement database to be verified, edited, and shared with all applicable groups.
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Document ID: A85BE30D

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Convergence in the Oil and Gas Sector Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprise-wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: 1FD6DC47

Grounding Practices For Automation Controls
Author(s): Sam Chreiteh
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether lightning damage or lightning voltages induced between equipment cabinets as a result of multi-grounding causing mis-operation of computerized electronics, improper grounding can account for up to 40 percent of power-related problems including costly damage and downtime. In addition, transient overvoltages-a high voltage spike or impulse of very short duration-can account for another 40 percent if not adequately suppressed. Transient overvoltages can be produced by lightning, power companies switching feeders or capacitor banks, or load switching at customer facilities. These large voltages, lasting only a short period of time, are injected into power and data circuits causing equipment destruction and safety hazards.
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Document ID: 0E0B46A2

Training Field Measurement Personnel Overview Of A Comprehensive Curriculum And Program
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The knowledge base expectation that exists today for the measurement technician is extremely demanding. From the latest in electronic controls to pneumatic controlsfrom communication system support to dual-disciplined or even tri-disciplined techniciansfrom the measurement equipment they support to the procedures that must be followedfrom the regulatory requirements governing the facilities to the training of field personnel all create a tremendous and ongoing challenge to meet these demands.
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Document ID: 5121C47F

Basic Scada Communication Design
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of many aspects of SCADA systems. It begins with defining the systems while also covering communications technologies, system design and radio equipment.
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Document ID: 8F934325

Communication Between The Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next, corporate downsizing has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing requirements with a daily closing schedule are knocking on the door and have already arrived at some locations. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: 3648F122

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry flow chart recorder was the state of the art recording device for custody gas measurement.
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Document ID: 53558F4E

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained, has created the need for an electronic data management system. Properly designed and implemented, a measurement data management system adds functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: FF4DDCDA

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 090B4C2D

Internet Based Measurement Monitoring & Control
Author(s): Brad Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the Internet, PCs, client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed. No longer do only the most productive wells or gathering systems receive consideration for automation. In todays technologically advanced environment even marginal producing wells can now benefit from the data monitoring and management services previously economical on only the more productive locations.
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Document ID: 5D8E4479

Determination Of Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Andy Benton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper considers the requirements for control of hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas and how measurement of this important gas quality parameter can be achieved. A summary of the commercially available on-line instrumentation is provided covering:
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Document ID: 266C0802

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As the gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas. Many researchers have studied the effect of entrained liquids on orifice measurement. The existing literature can provide much information about orifice flowmeter errors. This information can be used to determine the course of future orifice plate research efforts
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Document ID: 9FFB3A02

Operations Of On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume.
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Document ID: E6E5DE49

Various Methods Can Be Used To Verify Gas Chromatograph At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most On-line gas chromatographs operate for long periods of time without developing biased or even outright unacceptable measurement. Therefore, most users undertake system- wide performance testing infrequently. But as rising gas prices demand increased scrutiny on measurement data - flow volume, energy content, and often hydrocarbon dewpoint analysis -- many measurement staffs may search for better performance testing of GCs, often for the first time. Others may already have adequate performance testing in place but want to review it for completeness. The following points out various factors to be considered.
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Document ID: 65D41CAA

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature.
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Document ID: 321E53BD

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): Ray N. Adcock
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: DBC002D4

Techniques For Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described.
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Document ID: D85C5853


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