Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2005)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA flow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities.
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Document ID: 59C8B148

Security Surveillance
Author(s): Dominic A. Furlano
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for security at many important buildings and utility locations has become a major issue recently.There are many intrusion,motion and illegal entry alarming devices that have been used in the past and their usage has increased dramatically. Security systems are a growing business and the addition of surveillance capabilities has dramatically improved the performance of those systems The cost to add video cameras and recorders to the list of devices available is no longer considered a major expense. The increased use of video cameras and recorders is evident in the daily news reports of accidents,burglaries,personal attacks,and robberies. The ability to record the incident on video equipment and replayed for investigations and identification of the violators or attackers has resulted in faster crime solving and undoubtably acts as a deterent to would be criminals or terrorists.
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Document ID: 0883E632

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements.
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Document ID: 4E1E4D3E

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): Michael J. Placzek
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion control for a measurement/regulation station can be very challenging. The majority of scenarios that can cause corrosion occur at M&Rs. Corrosion at an M&R can be broken into three major categories: External (external surface of the piping in contact with the soil or water electrolyte), Atmospheric (external surface of the piping in contact with the air) and Internal (internal surface of the piping exposed to liquids, bacteria or other contaminants in the product or gas flow).
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Document ID: 5E4BF0CB

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program Revised( For 2005)
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants. The value proposition to most companies is that a physical loss of gas directly affects their bottom lines as either a loss of revenue or as an expense.
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Document ID: FAA20216

Protection Of Measuring Station Instrumentation And Communication Equipment
Author(s): David Crandall
Abstract/Introduction:
Instrumentation installed on gas pipelines is forced to survive exposure to surges from lightning and electrical utility disturbances. The environmental setting is extreme compared to other types of installations. Without giving proper attention to protect instrumentation in this outdoor setting the chances of an instrument surviving the full extent of its useful life can be very low. This paper examines transients and surges and how to protect installations from those effects.
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Document ID: 14061F9C

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas that the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: 0FDDC7FD

Fundamentals & Development Of LNG Facilities
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
AGENDA History and Projected Role of LNG in USA Properties of LNG Design of LNG Facilities Development & Implementation of LNG Projects Project Examples
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Document ID: C110C8CC

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was flared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the field pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its first use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfields and even then many times it was flared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment. No effective transportation system was in place to distribute the gas from the remote fields to metropolitan areas. It was not until after World War II that cross country pipelines were laid and large and reliable supplies of gas were available for residential, commercial and industrial consumers. The natural gas industry as we know it has developed in approximately 50 years. Im sure the wildcatters of the early 1900s would be amazed that today you could buy and sell 100 million BTU of gas from a computer screen in any given day!
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Document ID: 186D0A8A

Performance Evaluation Of Gas Storage Wells Through Field Testing
Author(s): Alan Brannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Storage wells are continually evaluated by comparing well tests over time to determine if there has been any deterioration in performance. This is typically accomplished by performing certain types of tests on a pre-determined schedule. One of these methods involves performing a flow test where a well is flowed at several rates for certain durations. This type of testing is referred to as back pressure testing, where the well in question is tested at these predetermined rates and static shut in pressures before each of the flows are recorded and the final end of duration flowing pressures and rates are recorded. These tests can be performed while on injection or withdrawal but are typically performed on injection when the source gas can be controlled and the demands on the system are not as critical as they are during the withdrawal season when pipeline supply is being supplemented by storage withdrawals. Well tests that are performed on a continual basis can be collectively reviewed by the technician or engineer to determine if degradation in performance is indicated or if the well has responded to remedial operations. Also, these welltests can be used to predict overall storage field performance under certain conditions to help in deciding if various storage services are viable.
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Document ID: 04E59DA6

Coalbed Methane Resources In Pennsylvania: An Overview
Author(s): Antionette K. Markowski
Abstract/Introduction:
National demand for natural gas is increasing, with the resource now heating 50 percent of United States homes and fueling 95 percent of new power plants (Pinsker, 2000, p. 34). By 2020, demand for natural gas is forecast to increase by 53 percent coupled with the fact that during the 1990s United States production capacity did not keep pace with demand growth (Holtberg and others, 2000). This large, domestic shortfall was met by Canadian natural gas imports (American Gas Association, 2000). Another way to reduce this deficit is to fully develop known domestic reservoir basins and explore for untapped sources of natural gas, one of which is coalbed methane (CBM). CBM or coal seam natural gas is one of the fastest-growing energy plays in North America today.
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Document ID: 54AF4955

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage.
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Document ID: 5621725F

The Basics Of Well Tendering
Author(s): Twain Faulkner
Abstract/Introduction:
The well tenders job duties are classified into the following areas: 1. Safety 2. Field Integrity and Inventory 3. Deliverability Maintenance 4. Troubleshooting 5. Operations
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Document ID: 8C5A2E6E

Theory And Application Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Most natural gas custody transfer contracts today use MMBtu rather than Mcf as the accounting units of gas transfer. 1 MMBtu 1 dekaTherm Btu is the three letter acronym for British thermal unit. One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (SI)). Heat, Btus, is gained from the burning of Natural Gas, that is Oxidation, as is shown in the chemical equations below:
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Document ID: 0EC31AE3

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to effectively drying natural gas is planning and proper design. With increasingly stringent environmental concerns, dry bed desiccants are gaining rapid acceptance over traditional methods such as triethylene glycol. By properly selecting the correct desiccant, and operating the system in a way that is conducive to effective dehydration, costs can be kept to a minimum. Engineering support, coupled with adequate product choices, has dramatically reduced dehydration costs. Proper design of the entire system is probably the single largest cost saver. Historically, gas dehydration equipment has been non-integrated, with parts being purchased separately and assembled in the field, without considering how the plumbing, vessels, and desiccants work together. Our new approach offers an integrated system, where plumbing, gas flow, dryer design, and desiccant performance are all considered. Additionally, new technology has enabled us to dry gas at nearly two linear feet per second, compared with traditional velocities of 0.5 - 0.75 ft/s, while at the same time greatly increasing the amount of water removed per pound of desiccant (referred to as dilution rate). The benefit to the operator is that vessels can be smaller, thereby reducing equipment costs. Consequently, gas dehydration units can contain multiple vessels on the same skid, allowing either multi-stage drying, which greatly reduces costs by removing as much water as possible with lowercost desiccants, or increased flow capacity by flowing gas in parallel through several vessels.
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Document ID: 8DF70D4C

The Impact Of API 14.1 And Other Standards To Practical Considerations For Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 69ED383F

Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Andrew J. Marcinko
Abstract/Introduction:
Moisture analysis is essential to the natural gas industry for a variety of reasons. This article will present a brief overview of problems associated with moisture in natural gas, as well as different means to measure and control moisture. Problems encountered with measuring moisture and some of the different technologies used to make the moisture measurement will be covered.
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Document ID: 456259E7

Basic Electronics For Gas Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, the use of electronics in gas measurement and control has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, it is very important to measure, control and communicate gas related field parameters on time, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketing, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas industry moves gas from wellhead to burner tip, several types of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control. Most of these devices utilize electronics to do their function. It is important for gas industry field service personnel to understand the basics of electronics to specify, purchase, operate and maintain these devices effectively. However, the material covered in this paper is not limited to personnel in the gas industry. It may also be useful for anyone wanting to refresh his or her knowledge, or begin learning basic electronics.
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Document ID: 05EE7BC6

Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley, Bristol Babcock
Abstract/Introduction:
The communications revolution has accelerated in recent years, so it is no wonder advancements in measurement technology and SCADA systems have become standard conversation in the gas industry. Accurate, readily available flow data and control capabilities are critical to many gas production, transportation and storage companies. Data in the gas industry relates to profit and accountability to customers. The complexity of a remote flow computer, transmitter or process controller linked to the usability and data handling of a SCADA environment makes instantaneous information and historical retrieval a reality. Provided here is an overview of advancements in measurement and SCADA technology over the recent years. Each section tracks the historical progression of the major components of a SCADA environment.
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Document ID: EBF9CD27

Hybrid Lightning & Surge Protection For The Gas Pipeline Industry
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
The challenge facing the gas measurement and pipe line industry today is how to accurately compress, transfer, quantify, odorize, and deliver millions of cubic feet of gaseous hydrocarbons as reliably, efficiently and economically as possible. In order to accomplish this task, the industry increasingly relies on field instrumentation, much of it smart, connected via copper pathways to microprocessor based SCADA and PLC networks that form the backbone of the measurement and delivery control system. At the very same time, these control systems are highly vulnerable both in design and location to natures fury in the form of 200,000 ampere bolts of lightning! Is lightning a reality for a particular location? Where does it come from? How does it actually get into the control network? Is lightning the only form of surge to be concerned with? What devices can be used to prevent lightning and surge damage to both field instruments and I/O? Can proper grounding be the ultimate answer?
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Document ID: 582DCEC2

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: 1127DC2D

Basic Properties - Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: 5C9C55F4

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: A6198E52

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure control is the fundamental operation of all natural gas delivery systems. It provides a safe and reliable energy source for manufacturing and heating systems throughout the world. Pressure control is utilized to balance the system supply demands with safe delivery pressures.
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Document ID: A5BCF435

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth J. Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the common communications mediums used to convey intelligence for the gas industry. The gas industry requires fast and reliable communications for the conveyance of data for control and measurement applications. The data may be analog, digital, or even voice types of signals and may require transmission over a short distance of less than a couple of feet to over several hundred miles. As the gas is passed from the well head to the final user, many types of electronic devices are employed for fast and accurate measurement of the process. The link that is used to pass this information to the billing, control, or safety system is the communications system. Several communications circuits are required in order to convey the data and there is not any one perfect system that will meet the requirements in all situations.
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Document ID: 7CA9653E

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber. A rotary piston meter was invented in the late 1800s, but it was primarily used a blower. In the 1940s a Roots- Connersville dimensional rotary meter was used. The style of rotary meter in use today was first used in the 1960s in the cast iron version, the extruded aluminum style came out in the 1970s. The modern turbine meter was developed in the 1970s. It has had minor modifications over the years, but the basic operation is the same. Ultrasonic measurement was first developed in the 1980s and has been refined over the years.
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Document ID: 7BA4512C

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, longterm accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets. This paper will present basic operating principles of rotary gas meters, sizing of meters, accuracy and rangeability, installation of meters, maintenance and testing, meter instrumentation and finally a brief glimpse at the industry trends in rotary gas metering.
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Document ID: 92AE6F23

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: A0AB64E5

Advanced Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Jeff Randolph
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss advanced communication options for the gas industry. The advanced communication options are not necessarily new technologies, but possibly new technologies to the gas industry.
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Document ID: FF17EC4D

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization injection and monitoring technology has advanced dramatically in the past 15 years. A former Chairperson of the Appalachian Short Course, Harold Englert of Columbia Gas Virginia, used to refer to odorization as, A little bit of science, and a whole lot of magic. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with practical solutions to develop a solid odorization program, even in dense urban environments, in the hope of removing the, Magic, to a successful odorization program.
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Document ID: 43798698

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates. They are found in a wide array of elevated pressure applications ranging from atmospheric conditions to 1440 psig. Turbine meters have also become established as master or reference meters used in secondary calibration systems such as transfer provers. A significant number of both mechanical and electrical outputs and configurations have become available over the past 50 years of production. This paper will focus on the basic theory, operating principles, performance characteristics and installation requirements used in turbine meter applications. A discussion of fundamental turbine meter terminology is also included.
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Document ID: B44C58CA

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifice meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifice meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefly discuss the orifice meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view. For field technicians and anyone else, who will be directly involved with orifice meter operations and maintenance, this class is an introduction and will give you an understanding of the basic concepts. However, it is not a replacement for your companys operating procedures but is, rather, a supplement to them. No prerequisites are assumed, just a genuine interest in the topic. At the same time, in order for you to truly understand orifice meters, I highly recommend that you also attend a class on gas law basics and, if you have further interest, an intermediate or advanced class on orifice meters as well as other meters.
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Document ID: FE50EEF7

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: B035A732

The Value Of Regular Odorization Audits
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
A question often posed concerning odorization is Why odorize? The answer is simple. Odorization of a gas system is done with a single purpose in mind: Provide the public with an effective warning device to alert them when there is a possible problem. Difficult to document, yet it continues to prove itself effective as gas companies continue to receive odor complaints on a regular basis. Odor can be imparted to natural gas in two ways, either through naturally occurring odor compounds, or by injecting a man made odorant material. Regardless of method, the utility must be vigilant in its recognition that an odor is always present, as numerous problems can befall the odor in the gas.
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Document ID: D98D04B6

Basic Principles Of Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Michael Garvey
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot Operated Flexible Element Regulators are capable of providing very accurate control in natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines. The Pilot Operated Regulator provides advantages over both self-operated regulators and control valves. Primary benefits include simplicity of operation and elimination of any fugitive emissions caused by atmospheric bleed gas. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of the pilot operated flexible element regulator and apply it accordingly. The original Flexible Element Regulator, the Flexflo, was developed by the Grove Valve and Regulator Company circa World War II. The original intent for the regulator was to regulate water in submarine ballasting systems. However, Grove quickly recognized that the Flexflo regulator product was ideally suited for pressure control applications in natural gas pipelines. Many advances have been made since the original Flexible Element was created more then fifty years ago, but the same basic operational advantages and principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: 8039EAF3

Odorization: A Discussion Of Code Compliance And Liability Issues
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
A question often posed concerning odorization is Why odorize? This paper discusses two answers to that question: Regulations and Liability. The first answer, Regulations, is an easy one. Pipeline safety regulations promulgated by the Department of Transportation Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) contain specific requirements in 49 CFR 192.625 that gas contain an odor. So, by law, operators are required to deliver odorized gas. The second answer, Liability, also seems easy. Odorization of a gas system is done with a single purpose in mind: Provide the public with an effective warning device to alert them when there is a possible problem. Difficult to document, yet it continues to prove itself effective as gas companies continue to receive odor complaints on a regular basis. Now that the easy answers are identified, lets explore some of the more complicated issues behind each one.
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Document ID: 93869654

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 16FAA822

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: 8789CC22

Diaphragm Meters Applications, Installations And Maintenance
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental design concept and operating principle of current diaphragm meters has been around for over 160 years. Through the years there have been significant improvements in materials, assembly and calibration, but the basic operating principle has weathered time. Its dif- ficult to displace a technology that fits the intended use extremely well, lasts 25+ years, and is very economically affordable. This presentation will review and highlight some of the reasons why this technology has survived the test of time for so long.
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Document ID: C4206603

The Proper Application Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Starting & Running Differential Accuracy
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Document ID: AD5147A8

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.A. Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over a hundred years ago, the Brothers Root were searching for an innovative way to convert water into power. Their search led to two figure eight shaped lobes. Legend has it that the lobes did not pass water efficiently, but when the contraption blew one of the brothers hats into the air they knew they had an industrial strength blower. Nearly eighty years ago, the Roots Brothers Blower Company decided that their basic design, when a counter replaced the blower motor, could be used as a gas measurement device. The era of rotary gas measurement was born.
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Document ID: 08016649

Troubleshooting Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Field
Author(s): Dave Shepler
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of you who have, or will have, experience in troubleshooting diaphragm meters, know it can be very frustrating at times trying to figure out the problems that can be encountered in the field. This presentation will hopefully address most of those problems and provide some solutions.
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Document ID: EC5C0998

Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine the accuracy of a natural gas meter, a known volume of air is passed through the meter, and the meter registration is compared against this known volume. The known volume of air originates from the meter prover. In earlier times, the gas meter prover was a stand-alone device (usually a bell-type prover), manually operated without any electronics or automation. Today, the majority of gas meter provers are fully automated computer controlled and operated, and responsible for other job functions besides the proving of gas meters. The bell-type meter prover - though still commonly used in the industry - is not the only kind of meter prover used today. The advancements and developments in electronics and computer technology has lead to an evolution of meter proving equipment - far from the manual proving methods that were commonplace only a few decades ago. Many utilities have replaced the bell-type prover with sonic nozzle and transfer provers. Provers can now store and retrieve information from a utilitys meter management system, reduce the human error factor in the proving operation, and provide self-diagnostics to assist the prover operator in maintenance and in troubleshooting problems.
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Document ID: 5FD46AD2

Meter Inventory Management
Author(s): Gregory S. Veraa
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter value is not just the cost of the meter. Meter ownership starts at the selection of a meter vendor and ends when the meter is retired from service and scrapped. It is important to manage the meter inventory and meters in service to maximize their value to the utility and to protect a valuable asset. By metering the gas delivered to customers, the accuracy of the meter and its in-service performance are critical to the revenue of the utility. In order to maximize the value of the meter to the utility it is necessary to evaluate the whole life cost of ownership of the meter.
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Document ID: D02FC3F5

Clamp-On Gas Flow Technology Advancements Increase Performance And Diagnostic Capabilities For Check Metering And Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Mark Imboden
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent buzz created by the clamp-on wide beam technology in the gas measurement world has compelled even the gas industry skeptics among us to take notice. Rapid acceleration of successful installations across the globe and the surprising performance results being obtained (as shown in the following pages) has only added fuel to the excitement. Field clamp-on gas flowmeters provide a unique tool for solving flow related challenges without interrupting the operation of a gas pipeline.
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Document ID: 6BC1AFE1

Coriolis For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base of more than 400,000 units. Newer designs have increased low-flow sensitivity, lowered pressure drop, and increased noise immunity enabling performance characteristics that are similar or better than traditional metering technologies. Coriolis also has attributes that no other fluid measurement technology can achieve. Some of these attributes are the meters immunity to flow disturbances, fluid compositional change, and it contains no wearing parts. With more than 25,000 meters measuring gas phase fluids around the world, many national and international measurement organizations are investigating and writing industry reports and measurement standards for the technology.
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Document ID: 1B0236A5

Factors Affecting Orifice Accuracy
Author(s): Reji George
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Measurement is a proven method of gas measurement. As an industry, we have been talking about this metering method and problems associated with it for more than seven decades. In 1939, Mr. C. A. Smith (Superintendent of Gas Measurement, West Virginia Gas Corporation, Charleston, West Virginia) speaking at the Second Annual Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course, said the following about orifice plates: The orifice plate is the main part of the orifice meter, and must not be overlooked. You can have your meter gauges in the best possible working condition, but if an inferior, warped, or dirty plate, or dull edged orifice is used, you can have inaccurate results in gas measurement. That statement still holds true in 2003. This paper will highlight a few maintenance practices that will support good orifice measurement in addition, some errors associated with the primary orifice element will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 73C2B55C

Large Volume Measurement Using Turbine Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
Back in the sixties Rockwell Manufacturing Company created the Gas Turbine Meter (Series G). It was considered to be the replacement for orifice meters. Many ori- fice meters were replaced with turbine meters, because of its range ability. Large volume stations such as City Gate stations were ideal for turbines, where range ability was needed.
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Document ID: E4D12EB9

Methods Of Proving High Volume Meters
Author(s): T.M. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
The past several years have seen increasing use of large ultrasonic meters. In many instances these meters can handle much higher volumes than large orifice or turbine meters. A thirty inch ultrasonic meter, for example, can handle the same volume as ten twelve inch turbine meters. Such high capacity meters require specialized proving or calibration services, the first part of this paper describes the basic process of calibrating large volume ultrasonic meters. The second part briefly describes some options when a meter re-calibration is being considered.
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Document ID: A4F90CB6

How Todays Advanced Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics Solve Metering Problems
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into todays electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9 Ref 1. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers.
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Document ID: E9B96B79

Whats In Your Pipeline? And( Do You Really Want To Know?)
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of natural gas measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of natural gas has changed.
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Document ID: 590B52C0

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measurement And Regulator Stations
Author(s): Tracy D. Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of turbulence on measurement and regulator stations can cause erroneous measurement as well as pipe fatigue, noise levels that are not healthy for the human ear, and a host of other undesirable elements.
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Document ID: 3DB65D93

Selection And Sizing Of Control Valves For Natural Gas
Author(s): Carol L. Nolte
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to help the user understand the information needed to properly select and size a control valve for natural gas service. With so many different manufactures of control valves we wont focus on one however the information listed is required by all manufactures in order to provide you with the best valve for the application. Most manufactures will assist you in sizing your application. The first step in sizing a control valve is to determine the required Cv or capacity required through the control valve at different operating conditions. It is not enough to size for one condition, rather all the conditions must be considered.
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Document ID: 69441F4B

Freeze Protection For Instruments And Instrument Supply Lines
Author(s): James E. Mueller
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas systems suffer from time to time from bothersome equipment failures or line shut-off due to freeze-up. Cold, moist climates accentuate the problems of external freeze-up. With the temperature drop accompanying gas regulation, ice often accumulates on instrument gas regulators, plugs the vents and makes the equipment inoperable.
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Document ID: 6B219B4A

Gate Station Design
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
The City Gate or, Take, Station, is the interchange of natural gas between: Two interstate pipelines An interstate pipeline and a local gas distribution company (LDC) An interstate pipeline and a large industrial end user (usually a power plant) The City Gate station is one of the more complex designs a natural gas engineer will deal with in the course of a career. Like all projects, a properly designed and constructed gate station begins with good preliminary engineering. In preliminary engineering, all of the major project goals and hurdles are defined. If the preliminary engineering document is written properly, it will serve as the backbone for the entire project.
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Document ID: 7DBCD67B

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: 443BF9AE

Overpressure Protection
Author(s): David C. Hiatt, Donald E. Holtman
Abstract/Introduction:
In a gas distribution system, each piece of pipe must be protected against overpressure or exceeding the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus allowable build-up. This includes all feeder line, distribution mains and all service lines.
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Document ID: 17392212

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators that utilize a single rubber element that performs the same function as both valve and actuator are known as flexible element regulators. The first type of flexible element regulator was developed and manufactured by the Grove Regulator Company in the 1950s. The Grove Flexflo was referred to as an expansibletube type because a tube or rubber sleeve was stretched over a slotted metal core separating the inlet and outlet of the regulator. The tube expanded when flow passed through the regulator.
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Document ID: 1DCF0940

District Regulator Station Design - A Case Study
Author(s): James P. Davis, Scott A. Laplante
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines a recently developed design concept for buried district regulator stations. It will focus on the research and design findings used by NSTAR to develop the smallest practical prefabricated buried vault considering the following: 1. Standardization of design 2. Regulator sizing flexibility 3. Code mandated venting requirements 4. Installation flexibility 5. Best egress and ergonomics 6. Material selections 7. Cost savings A process improvement team worked three years to develop an approach that has rewarded NSTAR with designs and final installations warmly received by field technicians while saving costs in both capital and O&M.
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Document ID: 42DA26F1

Controller Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID. In this paper we will go over the practical aspects of using and tuning mechanical, pneumatic, and electronic controllers. In our natural gas business nearly all control systems maintain pressure. However, there are many systems that require flow, temperature, level, blending and other types of control. The basic reason for using a controller is to automatically maintain the desired level or value of a given product being supplied to a user. The easiest place to start is with the most popular controller, by far, in our industry - a spring-loaded regulator. The spring-loaded pressure regulator, as found on about a billion and a half meter sets, is a proportional-only controller. So we can call a spring regulator a P controller. This is a good time to start talking about the proportional part of a PID controller. First, lets define some terms that will make it easier to talk about controllers.
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Document ID: D5EA705D

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems that the next logical step for our increasingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and flow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural, with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas. Already, many electronic correctors are being used to store load profile and other timerelated data in onboard memory. This can be downloaded into a handheld terminal, a portable computer or into a remote computer via telephone modem link.
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Document ID: E6BC0995

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices.
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Document ID: 8C1C37E0


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