Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (2005)

Implications Of Semi Standard E12-0303 On Volumetric Flow Reporting
Author(s): Chiun Wang, Bill Valentine
Abstract/Introduction:
SEMI standard E12-0303 (formerly E12-96) defined the standard flow rate as the volumetric flow rate of the gas at the standard density, with the standard density defined as the molecular weight divided by 22413.6 grams per cubic centimeter. When the flow rate is measured by using a mass-measuring instrument, the SEMI standard provides a method for calculating the exact number of moles of fluid delivered. However, when the gas flow rate is measured by using a volumetric device, such as a bell-prover or a piston-prover, where the volume rather than the mass is the measurand, the above definition cannot be directly applied to the calculation of the standard flow rate. A clear method is lacking in SEMI E12-0303 for calculating the standard flow rate from volumetric measurements. For gases with welldocumented equation of state, this article justifies the inclusion of the compressibility factor in converting the volumetric flow rate into the standard flow rate. It also reviews the impact of the compressibility factor on the use of Boyles law and Charles law.
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Document ID: 06B10FDF

Advances In Transfer Coupler Reciprocity
Author(s): Joseph F. Zalesak
Abstract/Introduction:
The transfer coupler reciprocity technique is an improvement over the conventional coupler reciprocity in that it can provide absolute calibrations for hydrophones that are not specifically designed for use in a coupler and it can do so with high accuracy. The method uses two couplers to perform a calibration. The first coupler or reference coupler uses two similarly constructed reciprocal transducers. The acoustic compliance of this coupler is precisely known so that the reciprocity parameter is well known. The transfer impedances of the two transducers in this coupler are measured. This is the only measurement in which these transducers are electrically driven. This is desirable because transducers are more stable when used as hydrophones than as transmitters. The second coupler or transfer coupler uses the same two transducers as the first coupler as well as the hydrophone under test and a sound source. The two transducers from the first coupler as well as the hydrophone under test are symmetrically positioned in a circular arrangement with the sound source at the center of the arrangement. This arrangement provides the most uniform ensonification of the two transducers from the first coupler as well as the hydrophone under test. Using this technique an uncertainty approaching 0.1 dB with a coverage factor of 2 can be achieved.
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Document ID: 70DC7378

Management, Measurement, And The Metrology Handbook
Author(s): Jay L. Bucher
Abstract/Introduction:
No matter the project, program, or problem if timely, effective results are desiredone should be making measurements and acting on the data throughout the management process. Such was the case with writing The Metrology Handbook. With eight coauthors located between Wisconsin and Texas, Georgia and California, and a few points in between, this could have been a management nightmare. However, by assigning areas of responsibility, time lines for completion of writing, reviewing, and commenting, and closely monitoring each of these processes, the impossible became the probable, and our aggressive deadlines were met. Even in the face of non-performers, and when participation was interrupted by job and family requirements, alternative solutions and switch hitters stepped up to the plate. Should this be considered a piece of cake? Not by anyones imagination. This paper explains what processes were put in place how they were managed and the obstacles that were overcome. Included are some lessons learned that might help others as they try to herd a group of cats.
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Document ID: 8F8EC881

The Asq Certified Calibration Technician Exam Report
Author(s): Dilip A. Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
The ASQs Certified Calibration Technician (CCT) Exam is now two years old and over 250 candidates have passed the exam since its first offering in June of 2003. This presentation provides the report on the exam progress, industry acceptance and the body of knowledge covered. The Measurement Quality Divisions involvement with the exam sponsorship, development and exam volunteer opportunities are discussed.
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Document ID: 66542D02

A Survey Of Key Comparisons
Author(s): Adriana Hornikov, William F. Guthrie
Abstract/Introduction:
Key comparisons are international inter-laboratory studies used to establish the degree of equivalence between national measurement standards. These studies, carried out by National Metrology Institutes, are time-consuming, but necessary to facilitate international trade. Since the signing of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) in 1999, approximately one hundred and twenty key comparisons in a wide range of metrological areas have been completed and have results posted in the Key Comparison Database (KCDB) maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in France and in the International Comparisons Database (ICDB) maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the U.S. As with many new standardized procedures, however, the translation of the guidelines for the conduct of key comparisons outlined in the MRA from theory to practice has not always been smooth or obvious. Different groups of metrologists working in different areas have interpreted the MRA in different ways. The practicalities of collecting data that support a specific measurement goal from laboratories all over the world has also had varying impact on the decisions made by the scientists who have planned and participated in key comparisons. Now, supported by a large set of completed comparisons from the KCDB and the ICDB, an opportunity has arisen to study the methods that are being used to conduct key comparisons. This paper summarizes work on currently completed key comparisons and offers recommendations for the design, analysis, and interpretation of future comparisons.
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Document ID: 2B98F7FA

An Approach To Performing A Process Capability Study In An Automated Testing Environment
Author(s): D. Bruce Galloway
Abstract/Introduction:
Taking a process view of automated testing, this paper presents a variety of analyses, some familiar and some novel, that my be applied to the analysis of the resulting test data. Traditional SPC analyses of individual measurements and moving range are contrasted with X bar and R analyses. The individuals charts are shown to be more prone to type I error than the X bar and R charts when the data set used is all of the available data. Given this situation, an approach to determine a reasonable trade off between type I error and a reasonable sample size and frequency is presented using operating characteristic curves and the concept of rational subgroups. An algorithm for automating part of the process is suggested. Once the data has been appropriately sampled, implementation of the Western Electric Company rules for sensitizing the control charts is presented along with approaches for automating the analysis. Having determined statistical control, various summary statistics are computed for each sample including capability estimates and failure rate prediction. An approach that can be easily automated is presented that allows you to determine which samples behave well and which do not. Follow on steps for establishing a robust SPC program for automated test systems are suggested.
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Document ID: A1910D46

Measurement Risk Analysis Methods
Author(s): Dennis Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
Risk analysis is generally used to defend the need for calibration. By the use of risk analysis, one can show that calibration to maintain an acceptable level of measurement uncertainty also lowers the probability of making bad test decisions. Since bad test decisions have a directly measurable consequence in terms of unnecessary maintenance dollars and lowered system reliability, metrology personnel can directly demonstrate the benefit of calibration. When test instruments are used to determine if a unit under test (UUT) is in tolerance, incorrect decisions can be made. These errors can result in an out of tolerance UUT being accepted, or an in tolerance UUT being rejected. Both of these incorrect decisions have economic and operational consequences. Estimating the probability of making incorrect decisions in a tolerance testing scenario is called measurement risk analysis. This paper develops the mathematics for calculating the probabilities in the test decision matrix.
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Document ID: A3837B02

Isolation Of Test System Variables Data Variance Components Using Gage R&R And Random Effects
Author(s): D. Bruce Galloway
Abstract/Introduction:
The application of a random effects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to the assessment of test system data allows us to isolate the sources of variation in our measurements. Utilizing a traditional gage R&R approach, the paper shows how data collected in a systematic way can be used in this structured analysis. The approach allows for the determination of significant sources of variation due to the units under test, the testers themselves, and the interaction between the two factors. In addition, point estimates of the variance due to each of the three sources are computed giving the analyst insight as to where the source of the most variation in a set of measurements lies. Armed with the results of the omnibus ANOVA, the paper shows how to disentangle the specific sources of the differences using the analysis of simple effects, simple comparisons, and interaction contrasts. Making corrections to keep the familywise Type I error rate at acceptable levels is presented.
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Document ID: 821F3CCF

Lower Cost Methods Of Measuring Optical Bandwidth
Author(s): Thomas R. Hettenhouser
Abstract/Introduction:
Third party calibration laboratories need cost effective, multi-purpose test equipment while maintaining high quality measurements. Current methods for proving the optical bandwidth of reference receivers include time-domain impulse response measurement and frequency-domain heterodyne measurement. In the time-domain measurement, a mode-locked laser is used to generate sub-picosecond optical pulses. The optical pulse is recovered in the time domain, using the reference receiver under test, and Fourier transformed into the frequency domain, giving both magnitude and phase information on the reference receiver. The mode-locked laser is expensive and has few additional uses within a calibration laboratory. Also, this method is difficult for laboratories that work on multiple model types as the data must be gathered from the device under test (DUT) and some do not have automated output to the math program. A simpler method of proving optical bandwidth is the heterodyne method. This method has been shown to be accurate by various national measurement institutes (NMI) and requires a minimum of signal processing. The lasers used need to be highly stable. The concept is that if two lasers of the same power level and polarization are mixed together, as the wavelength of one is tuned slightly off of the other, a microwave modulation signal will develop. As long as the power level of both lasers remains the same as the tuned laser is adjusted, the resultant modulation will be flat with frequency. It is our intent to work with heterodyne method of proving optical bandwidth and experiment with lower cost tunable and fixed lasers to develop an acceptable test that meets our customers uncertainty needs. This paper will cover both the success and failures of these experiments.
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Document ID: 2BF93E51

The Harmonized European Gas Cubic Meter For Natural Gases: Prerequisites And Benefit For The National And International User And Metrology.
Author(s): Dietrich Dopheide
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the background of the harmonized reference values for the cubic meter of Natural Gas, which are in use in Germany, The Netherlands and France since May 4th, 2004. The prerequisites of the harmonization process, underlying procedures, results obtained so far and the mutual benefits will be pointed out as well as the economic consequences for the European and international market. This harmonization process can be considered as the first realization of a European unit of volume for Natural Gas at operating conditions. The so-called Harmonized European Reference Value for the Natural Gas Cubic Meter will disseminated allover Europe very soon. In the meantime it has been accepted also on other continents, e.g. Canada via NRC, MC and TCC.
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Document ID: 92B37D26

Performance And Applications Of A New 10-OHM High Temperature Platinum Resistance Thermometer
Author(s): Mingjian Zhao, Xumo Li, Deming Chen, Matt Newman
Abstract/Introduction:
A 10-ohm high-temperature platinum resistance thermometer (HTPRT) with a temperature range from 0C to 1000C was developed in 2003. Its resistance drift at the triple point of water R(tp) is better than the equivalent of 0.003C after the HTPRT is exposed to 1000C for 100 hours, and 0.025C after 1000 hours. To further improve and verify the performance of the HTPRT, more thermometers were manufactured, tested, and calibrated. In this paper, improvements to the structure and design of the thermometer are described. The stability test methods and test results are presented. Main applications for the HTPRT are discussed.
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Document ID: CD89393D

Choosing The Right Power Splitter: Two-Resistor Or Three-Resistor
Author(s): Benny R. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Power splitters are frequently used in RF and microwave measurements. The two-resistor splitter is widely used and available. The three-resistor splitter is less common and is offered by fewer vendors. Both types have their place, but the two-resistor splitter has been the dominant choice, even when it is not the optimum choice. This paper will explore the differences between them and show how to decide which to use in order to minimize the measurement uncertainty contributed by the power splitter.
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Document ID: A051A0C3

A More Accurate Method To Measure The Frequency Deviation Of The Modulated Signals With Modulation Index 0.2
Author(s): Yeou-Song Brian Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The Bessel Null or Carrier Null method is the most accurate way to measure the frequency response of frequency-modulated sources. It is used to control deviation since frequency deviation is independent of the modulating frequency. The actual method of finding a null appears to be accurate and easy. The first null can be observed at the modulation index of 2.4. The subsequent indexes are larger than one. For modulation index less than one, a null is hard to be located. By numerical solving the Bessel Function and employing the spectrum analyzer, a simplified approach is ideal for accurately determining the frequency deviation. It is very similar to the narrowband solution for frequency modulation. In this paper, we would compare the results with the narrowband approach and by solving the Bessel functions in determining the accuracy of the frequency deviation.
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Document ID: 4BACD9BD

Conformity Assessment And Business Process Improvement
Author(s): Carroll Brickenkamp, Sharrill Dittmann, Ernest Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
Conformity assessment comprises all activities demonstrating that specified requirements relating to a product, service, process, system, person, or organization are met 1. Product testing, laboratory accreditation, and personnel certification are all parts of the conformity assessment landscape. The customers confidence in the quality of products and services has been greatly enhanced by organizations that have sought to meet conformity assessment standards quality systems and standards, and continuous improvement efforts, are essential to meeting conformity assessment standards.
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Document ID: 3BBF8D50

Business Process Improvement For The Technical
Author(s): Ernest L. Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
My laboratory runs just fine. It doesnt need any improving! Okay, has any single customer or employee complained about something about the laboratory? For every complaint we hear about, studies have shown another 10-20 complaints gone unvoiced to the organization. Most unhappy customers simply leave our organizations for other sources of product or service. Most employees simply find ways to cope: If the organization doesnt care about the problem, why should I? Okay, so maybe I have gotten one complaint this past year, but how do you know that it wasnt a one time only problem? It does not matter if the product or service was a custom job or just part of routine work. In order to determine whether there is a larger problem that needs analysis and solution, we have to determine where the problem likely arose in our process. This paper will explore the rudiments of business process improvement practices specifically targeted for laboratories and other technical organizations. From defining the objectives and the process to be targeted, through benchmarking, to redesign and re-engineering, we will discuss the impacts that our organizations culture, management, and leadership have on the potential for opportunities and successes in process improvement.
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Document ID: C38558E3

Uncertainty Specification For Data Acquisition Devices (DAQ)
Author(s): David W. Braudaway
Abstract/Introduction:
Specification of uncertainties has historically been done by a variety of methods with differences in the results, especially for instruments and standards that achieve small values of uncertainty. This problem has been addressed in the new Draft being considered for IEC Standard on Data Acquisition Devices (DAQ) by use of coverage factor rather than other popular methods of specifying uncertainty. The source and history of statistics/uncertainty are reviewed popular current techniques for specifying uncertainty are compared. The components of uncertainty specified for DAQ are reviewed and their effects discussed.
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Document ID: 7484DF9A

The Study Of A Measurement Equipment Bias
Author(s): Carmen Simion
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy and precision are two terms that must be understood in all measurements, so a measurement system can be described in five ways: bias, linearity, stability, repeatability and reproducibility. To assess any measurement system, companies use usually Repeatability & Reproducibility studies, but to know more about the measurement system, one needs to be able to evaluate measurement system bias, stability and linearity. The aim of this paper is to point out the bias study steps and to show a measurement equipment bias case study that was made in a major automotive company. Lack of equipment bias is not as predominant a measurement system error as repeatability and reproducibility, nevertheless, it should be identified.
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Document ID: 355D1E6C

The Art Of Interferometric Flatness Measurement
Author(s): Steven Toothaker
Abstract/Introduction:
Flatness assessment of reflective surfaces using interferometric techniques is in common use everyday. The simplicity of the technique is such that an unskilled technician can learn quickly how to evaluate surface flatness error as small as several millionths of an inch. There are several methods of interferometeric flatness measurement in common use, but each method has distinct advantages and disadvantages. This paper will help you determine the best methods for your laboratory to utilize to meet your customers needs.
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Document ID: 4E82300A

Measurement Of 3D Volumetric Positioning Accuracy Using Laser Vector Technique
Author(s): Charles Wang, Gianmarco Liotto
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of 3D volumetric positioning accuracy becomes more important for quality assurance and to achieve higher accuracy. The introduction of B5.54 and ISO230-6 machine tool performance measurement standards are increasing the popularity of laser interferometer body diagonal, sequential step diagonal or vector technique for the calibration and compensation of machine tool errors. This is because the reduction in calibration time these methods can provide over the conventional laser interferometer based measurement.
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Document ID: D2D0A4FD

The Latest Trends In Technology Asset Management: Total Life-Cycle Integration Across The Enterprise
Author(s): Christopher J. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the latest industry trends and resultant benefits associated with extending beyond conventional lab-centric information management tools and business processes, and achieving true asset life-cycle integration across the planning, procurement, tracking, service management, redeployment, and disposal phases. In a competitive technology enterprise, a unified asset management system and business process provides everyone from the production foreman to the CEO with crucial decision-making information and total asset visibility across multiple facilities. Key points covered in this paper include: o Having the right assets in the right place at the right time to support lean manufacturing and minimize production and test operations downtime. o Standardizing life-cycle management processes, service procedures and asset data attributes across multiple facilities or labs. o Optimizing asset utilization to reduce capital expenditures and cost-of-ownership, thereby increasing earnings. o Leveraging email, web browsers, handheld computing devices, and other modern communication technologies to provide access to timely and accurate information from anywhere in the world. o Choosing an appropriate strategy to implement this model and overcoming the challenges entailed.
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Document ID: 81DE80CE

Metrology Training - 30 Years Of Challenge
Author(s): Mike Czech, Kris Marcotte
Abstract/Introduction:
Metrology training over the past 30 years encompasses a myriad of programs and execution systems. These range from basic on-the-job training to structured formal programs designed to teach small and large groups of people about specific measurement parameters and measurement systems. We will explore a few of these approaches, thestrengths and weaknesses of each, and approximately when they appeared in industry.
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Document ID: 4F6A661C

Everything You Need To Know About ISO 17025
Author(s): Benny R. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Have you ever read the text of ISO 17025, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories? If so, this paper will reinforce your understanding and provide insight into some subtle issues that you may not have considered. If you have never read the standard, perhaps out of fear or procrastination, this paper will de-mystify it and give you the understanding that you need to make decisions about the standard within your organization. It will also dispel some myths that have grown up around the standard.
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Document ID: C90D533F

Converting Technical Training To Computer-Based Training
Author(s): Susan Dass
Abstract/Introduction:
Converting a technical training class such as basic mass metrology to a computer-based training (CBT) product could be a daunting task. Most CBT developers follow the instructional systems development process as a guide to creating a product that meets the needs of the student population. Its a systematic approach based on a 5-step building process: analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate. Although not foolproof, the approach fosters discussions and reviews at critical points in the development of the training. Early discussions focus on understanding the overall objective of the training, the complexity of the content, and the availability of existing documentation and subject matter expertise. As development continues, specific, measurable learning objectives are defined as well as the content that supports those objectives. As progress continues, presentation style, media elements (graphics, narration, video), and interactivities must be selected, designed, and developed in accordance with the content and learning objectives. Finally, the training package is assembled, reviewed, implemented, and evaluated. This paper will review the 5-step process, explain the activities associated with each step, highlight typical questions and issues, and illustrate example content delivery techniques.
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Document ID: 20459A46

Measurement Of Femtoamp Current Using A Keithley 642 Digital Electrometer
Author(s): m. Owen, Shen Zhu
Abstract/Introduction:
Developing a traceable standard to measure low densities of nano to micron aerosol particles presents a challenge due to the transient nature of aerosols. One method used to quantify particle density is to measure an electric current by collecting the single-positive charged particles of a monodisperse aerosol.
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Document ID: 735736AB

Metbench Race Procedure Editor
Author(s): David Kinkade
Abstract/Introduction:
The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Corona Division has developed for the METBENCH program a calibration engine that seeks to eliminate disconnects between both manual and automated calibration procedures and to the process of procedure development such that procedure writers can produce automated procedures without being computer programmers. By organizing calibration procedure elements in a relational database format, RACE provides the mechanism whereby a single calibration procedure can be executed in either a manual, automated, or semi-automated fashion. It supports pre-engineered standard substitution, is cross platform, and seeks to preserve the investment of nearly 5000 existing calibration procedures in the Navys inventory.
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Document ID: 81DF930A

Maintaining ISO 17025 Compliance In Automated Procedures
Author(s): Jorge Martins
Abstract/Introduction:
To meet the ISO 17025 requirements for accredited calibration procedures, almost all laboratories have created a myriad of documents and processes, especially if an automated procedure is involved. They usually comprise of an uncertainty analysis document, the automated accredited procedure, a calibration process document with the calibration requirements and applicable specifications, the validation process and respective data, the revision control document, etc. Their maintenance, management and control are one of the most difficult tasks of any laboratory. This paper describes how all these documents can be incorporated in a commercially available software product, greatly reducing the time spent on these essential tasks.
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Document ID: 6CE7D1CF

Metbench Relational Automated Calibration Engine Race()
Author(s): Richard Schumacher
Abstract/Introduction:
The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Corona Division has developed for the METBENCH program, a calibration engine, which seeks to eliminate disconnects between both manual and automated calibration procedures. It s the process of procedure development such that procedure writers can produce automated procedures without being computer programmers. By organizing calibration procedure elements in a relational database format, RACE provides the mechanism whereby a single calibration procedure can be executed in either a manual, automated, or semi-automated fashion. It supports pre-engineered standard substitution, is cross platform, and seeks to preserve the investment of nearly 5000 existing calibration procedures in the Navys inventory. Recognizing the need to work in multiple deployed environments, RACE has been authored to ensure maximum flexibility with regard to required hardware and software. The engine can operate both with and without an installed operating system and relational database server. Well-defined interfaces have been designed to ensure interoperability with other laboratory software elements such as scheduling, reporting, and measurement uncertainty. This paper will detail the development approach of RACE and share the current progressof the product.
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Document ID: 461A46D6


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