Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2005)

Managing A Gas Loss Turnaround Project
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: ?? Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, ?? Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, ?? Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and ?? Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants.
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Document ID: E64CA952

Trenchless Technology Project On City Island In The City Of New York
Author(s): James Meyers, Tony Hranicka
Abstract/Introduction:
City Island is an old fishing community with an aging infrastructure located in New York Citys borough of The Bronx. The New York City Department of Design and Construction (NYC DDC) was replacing 14,300 feet of 6, 8 and 12 diameter distribution water mains throughout City Island. In addition, the NYC DDC was replacing 8,500 feet of sanitary and storm sewers ranging from 10 to 60 in diameter as well as 36 catch basins. The work encompassed 32 city blocks. City Island, in total, runs approximately 1- miles long and mile wide and has one main avenue running north to south at its midpoint.
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Document ID: 182490C0

Principles For Development Of A Reasonable And Effective Distribution Integrity Management Approach
Abstract/Introduction:
Industry and government have long been committed to operate the nations 2.2 million mile natural gas pipeline system with outstanding integrity. Regulators, legislators and pipeline operators independently and jointly have been examining natural gas distribution practices to determine the most effective approach to distribution system integrity and safety. The membership of the American Gas Association (AGA) and the American Public Gas Association (APGA) welcome the opportunity to participate in the review of any proposal to enhance the safe, reliable and efficient delivery of natural gas to our customers. In developing recommendations for an effective, systematic approach to distribution integrity, its vital to take into account the unique qualities and functions of gas distribution lines. AGA and APGA offer the following principles and findings:
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Document ID: F0A4D8EF

Summary Of The American Gas Foundation Study Safety Performance And Integrity Of The Natural Gas Distribution Infrastructure
Abstract/Introduction:
The study sponsored by the American Gas Foundation was performed to provide an independent technical insight into natural gas distribution system safety performance and integrity features. The study performed a detailed analysis review of the natural gas distribution industrys safety performance an overview of current regulations and industry practices that address threats to the natural gas distribution infrastructure a description of the unique characteristics that differentiate natural gas transmission pipelines from distribution pipelines and identification of industry and government initiatives that are currently in-place to ensure continual improvement in regulation and practices affecting distribution integrity.
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Document ID: 2E3CC65C

AGA Technical Note: Directional Drilling Damage Prevention Guidelines For The Natural Gas Industry
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 94A06374

Is There A Simple Correlation Between Pac And Rcp?
Author(s): Pamela L. Maeger
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been proposed in the literature in the last few years that a room temperature charpy test (referred to as PAC by Dr. Norman Brown) can predict Small-Scale Steady-State (S-4) rapid crack propagation (RCP) behavior . This paper explores the proposal further and presents findings demonstrating that a correlation between PAC (Pennsylvania Accelerated Crack) and S-4 is not particularly strong. Rather, it is found that the Charpy ductile to brittle transition temperature (Tdb) provided for a much better correlation to S-4.
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Document ID: BE17A662

Accelerated Main Replacement Program
Author(s): Gary Hebbeler
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6C15A4D2

Revisions In The 2006 National Fuel Gas Code Ansi Z223.1/NFPA 54
Author(s): Paul Cabot
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 4506B664

How Sarbanes Oxley Has Affected Gas Measurement In Distribution And Pipeline Systems
Author(s): Ardis Bartle
Abstract/Introduction:
Also known as the Public Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act, Sarbanes- Oxley(SOX) is a name of the piece of U.S. compliance legislation which was signed off in 2002. Its designed to prevent financial malpractice and accounting scandals such as the Enron debacle. The most relevant , Section 404 of SOX (Management Assessment of Internal Controls) determines the companys internal system of checks and balances. Any public company with stock worth more than 75 million must issue such information in their annual reports. By providing transparency to financial reporting, this overhaul legislation will reduce the string of corporate implosions, earnings restatements and subsequent criminal probes that put thousands of workers out on the street, cost billions of dollars and has led to more than 300 convictions and guilty pleas (according to Justice Department).
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Document ID: 3C6C6007

Technology Towards A Simple, Flexible Distribution Integrity Assessment Plan
Author(s): W. Bryce, G. Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
The area of integrity management of pipelines is one of growing interest. In many pipeline applications, the aging infrastructure is posing a challenge for pipeline owners and operators. Particularly in applications involving potentially hazardous materials this is an issue that needs to be approached proactively. The Natural Gas Distribution industry is one falling into this category and new Pipeline Integrity Management Regulations are currently being considered by the federal Department of Transportation. Separate from the pending regulations, Gas Utilities are also proactively examining the integrity of plastic pipeline systems. This paper reviews the changing approach and pending legislation for managing the integrity of plastic distribution system materials. Existing technological tools that can be employed to advance Distribution Pipeline Integrity Management (D-PIM) are reviewed. Technology gaps in assessing the Functional Integrity (a subset of the overall D-PIM approach) of a pipeline are identified and explored.
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Document ID: D9E19864

Operator Qualification, Phase II: Surviving The Audit
Author(s): Linda Burger
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of how Avista Utilities survived the auditing process of its Operator Qualification Program and what we did to prepare for the audit is the focus of this paper.
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Document ID: D3EA7704

Alternative Shoring Technologies
Author(s): Alicia Farag
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing alternative shoring systems that meet the specific needs of gas utility companies. Traditional shoring systems are not versatile enough to accommodate increasingly congested excavations. Additionally, traditional shoring systems are heavy, difficult to transport and install, and expensive. Alternative shoring systems are being developed at GTI that are lightweight and versatile enough to be built around other crossing utility lines. The goal of this program is to increase the use of shoring in congested excavations and decrease the time and cost associated with transporting and installing shoring.
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Document ID: 16E67FD6

Gas Distribution Facilities Decision Making, Discussing An Asset Management Approach
Author(s): Glyn Hazelden
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays environment, utility companies are faced with restructuring business operations due to deregulation, continued merger and acquisition activity, increased competition, and growing pressures to increase shareholder value. In order to be successful, there will be a requirement to optimize the efficiency of all assets, equipment and people, in order to increase shareholder value. One way to improve the quality of managing and decision making in rehabilitation or maintenance, is to implement effective asset management practices to extend infrastructure service life. In the Gas Industry we often hear the term asset management used as an equivalent to, and as a substitute for, prioritization of main replacement. Asset management is much more than a replacement ranking mechanism it is a whole discipline of managing the property that gas companies own. In this paper I would like to discuss the approach that asset management brings to a local gas distribution company (LDC).
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Document ID: 93F5F36B

Natural Gas Measurement Using A Vortex Meter With Built-In Flow Computer And Temperature Sensor Pressure Values Read-In From An External Pressure Transmitter Via Hart Communication
Author(s): Rainer Hcker
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass flow measurement of natural gas today typically requires a volumetric flow meter, a temperature sensor, a pressure sensor, a flow computer, wiring for all instruments and power supplies for all instruments. Besides the relatively high total cost of this solution, there are numerous error possibilities in setting up such a measurement point. A better solution is to have a vortex flow meter with build-in temperature sensor and with build-in flow computer. The new (patent pending) issue here is to obtain the missing pressure values from an external pressure transmitter using the standard HART communication, thereby allowing the use of standard pressure transducers and recalibration routines.
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Document ID: DE02B467

Uncertainty Analysis Of Meter Volume Measurements - Part 3, Applications To Systems
Author(s): T.M Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a continuation of two previous papers on uncertainty analysis1,2. The first paper presented a simplified approach to the uncertainty analysis of a volume measurement based on an ultrasonic or turbine meter. The various components that contribute uncertainty were characterized based on manufacturers specifications. The second paper illustrated the interpretation of calibration results for inclusion into the uncertainty analysis. The development incorporated considerable discussion of the impact of systematic and random effects. This paper expands previously developed uncertainty analysis techniques from single to multiple meter based volume measurements. The development includes the concept of correlation and illustrates the effect on the overall measurement uncertainty. A statistical simulation technique is applied to implement the uncertainty analysis.
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Document ID: 3D983E5D

Automated Meter Reading Deployment-Lessons Learned
Author(s): Russ Kopidlansky
Abstract/Introduction:
During the late nineties, the Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPS) started to study the feasibility of installing an Automated Meter Reading System (AMR) on the electric and natural gas meters used to measure customer usage. Early on in the process the determination was made that AMR was going to include all of the meters in the system, not just certain classes. It quickly became apparent that no one technology solution would satisfy the entire system requirement and that multiple technologies would have to be used.
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Document ID: 1A8DE27F

The Dependence Of Small Scale Steady State (S4) Critical Pressure On Pipe Geometry
Author(s): Mark Lamborn, Bryan Hauger
Abstract/Introduction:
Crack growth analysis is used to investigate the specimen geometry dependence of the critical pressure test results provided by the small-scale steady-state (S4) test. This study demonstrates that S4 critical pressure is indeed dependent on the pipe diameter and standard dimension ratio (SDR), as anticipated. Stated another way, S4 critical pressure does not specifically characterize the rapid crack propagation (RCP) resistance of the pipe resin. Rather, S4 critical pressure characterizes the RCP resistance of the pipe. An understanding of this geometry dependence is important, as it provides the basis for the efficient selection of pipe sizes for S4 critical pressure tests, as well as interpretation of S4 test results. Comparison of measured and predicted critical pressure results demonstrate that the crack growth analysis can be used to conservatively estimate the critical pressures for specific pipe geometries.
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Document ID: 7E495B93

Development Of A Measurement Technician Training Program Training Matrix
Author(s): Richard Marsh
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past organizations have approached work related problems from an improvement initiative perspective. This process would begin with a needs analysis by the training department in order to identify the gap between an actual situation and a desired outcome. A situation could be job performance, knowledge, skills, behaviour or attitudes. A program was developed and conducted to attack the problem and everyone was happy. Not so! In effect what organizations were doing was targeting one problem, or a set of problems, one at a time. Today, at Union Gas, the training department is taking a new approach when designing training programs. We begin with a Training Matrix.
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Document ID: FF74CC7E

Engineering Evaluation Of Integrated Data-Immediate And Future Integrity
Author(s): Rick Mcnealy, Ming Gao
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines are subject to multiple threats, often requiring the integration and engineering evaluation of data from multiple in-line tools and other data to discovery conditions defined by regulation. Pipeline operators must determine the impact of such conditions on immediate integrity-pipeline integrity at the time of the assessment. They must also consider future integrity-the growth of time-dependent threats prior to the next inspection. Depending upon the number and the condition of pipelines to be assessed, data evaluation can be a relatively straightforward task or can become extremely complex. In the case of large amounts of pipeline data or numerous discovered USDOT Conditions, the application of computer algorithms to align data and higher-level assessment methods can conserve valuable discovery cycle time and minimize costly repairs by allowing operators to leverage actual data rather than rely on conservative assumptions.
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Document ID: C2EAF154

High Performance Bimodal Pe 100 Materials For Gas Piping Applications
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the key features of high performance bimodal PE 100 materials, which have a unique combination of the highest pressure rating for a PE material, outstanding resistance to SCG (slow crack growth) and outstanding resistance to RCP (rapid crack propagation). We will review the higher pressure rating of PE 100 materials obtained from ISO 9080 and ISO 12162 called the MRS (minimum required strength) and compare it to the North American pressure rating method called the HDB (hydrostatic design basis) obtained from ASTM D 2837. We will then review the changes that the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) members are making to several ASTM standards so that these PE 100 materials can achieve the same higher pressure ratings of the ISO method using ASTM standards. The new pipe material designation code for these PE 100 materials using the new ASTM terminology will be PE 4610. Finally, we will show that the pipe cost for the traditional PE materials (PE 2406 and PE 3408) is actually higher than the new high performance PE 4610 materials. These high performance PE 100 materials rated using the ISO method not only have all the benefits we will describe, but they also have the lowest cost.
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Document ID: 2F0DEBC4

Prevention Of Energy Diversion
Author(s): Pete Klipa
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 2003, NiSource commissioned a Theft of Service team to explore opportunities to improve our companys control of theft. That team was tasked to design a theft of service/unauthorized use process for each NiSource LDC that maximized recovery and included participation from all key NiSource stakeholders. A process owner and defined measurements were part of the expected outcomes. The team was made up of personnel from across the NiSource family of companies. Team members represented Regulated Revenue, Meter Reading and Collections, Operations, Revenue Recovery, Billing Exceptions, and our Call Center departments. This cross functional group completed many tasks in support of the team goal, but significant milestones included: Creation of a process to increase safety awareness, completion of the AGA Revenue Protection survey, definition of theft of service, development of a common NiSource theft of service process, recommendation of accountability or process ownership of theft, recommendation of a process to reduce theft uncollectibles, completion of tools for ongoing measurement of results, quantification of theft billings, collection, and write-off, completion of design process steps for appropriate legal action, changes to policy and procedure, creation of an implementation process plan, and development of stakeholder analysis and buy-in strategies.
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Document ID: C354BBE9

Robotics Technology Goes Live For Repairing Gas Mains
Author(s): George Ragula, Gerard T. Pittard
Abstract/Introduction:
United States gas distribution companies spend in excess of 1 billion/year to inspect and repair leaking gas mains and services. Repairs are generally performed by excavating over the pipe and performing an external repair. A newly developed robotics system has the potential to reduce repair costs by combining both inspection and repair activities into one piece of equipment, reducing the number of excavations, and making multiple repairs up to 1,000 feet in each direction from a single entry point. The system operates in a live environment (i.e., gas flowing through mains during inspection and repair) without interruption of service to customers. This paper will outline capabilities and potential limitations of various components in the robotic system.
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Document ID: 1D9D8903

Sustainable Environmental Stewardship - A Held Value
Author(s): John H. Shafer
Abstract/Introduction:
NiSource is comprised of electric and gas utilities as well as a number of innovative subsidiaries that help our customers compete successfully while enhancing environmental protection and social responsibility. With 8,600 employees, our businesses provide energy to approximately 3.7 million customers located within the high-growth energy corridor that runs from the Gulf Coast through the Midwest to New England.
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Document ID: AE7C522B

Gas Measurement Communication Systems
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation of the natural gas industry over the last several years has created change to our gas measurement processes as never before and increased the complexity to the way we do our business. With the unbundling of services, customers of all sizes are opting to choose their own gas suppliers, and when people need to make choices they demand information on which to base those choices. This new environment has created a widespread need for gas volume information on a more frequent basis to multiple parties. Today, its not just the pipeline companies that need to know the meter readings, but also the customers, brokers, and suppliers. Customers demand for timely information has accelerated gas distribution companies shift to electronic technologies especially those involving communications.
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Document ID: FE6352C7

H2S Contamination In Natural Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
in the system, can have a variety of detrimental effects on the pipeline itself and on associated equipment such as flow computers, meters, regulation and control systems, overpressure protection equipment, compression facilities and condensate/liquid recovery systems. If the gas containing H2S is delivered to end users, the impact on their systems can be devastating, depending on the concentration of the H2S, and again on the moisture content of the stream. It must also be remembered that throughout the distribution chain, emissions of H2S or its combustion/reaction byproducts, even in low concentrations, may have a detrimental effect on equipment and on the environment. This paper will discuss the potential impacts of H2S in natural gas pipeline and distribution systems and on the methods for determining H2S levels in natural gas streams. Some discussion will be included concerning corrosion inhibitors and process methods for reducing H2S and/or moisture content to good operating levels. Additional discussion will cover some basics for determining H2S levels in natural gas streams. One point to consider in this presentation is that although produced gas often enters a gathering system for a gas processing facility prior to being delivered into a distribution system, it is quite common for produced gas to enter a distribution system almost immediately, with very little processing beforehand. When malfunctions occur at delivery points near the wellhead, the impact can be immediate.
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Document ID: 1E55B61B

A Traceable Calibration Procedure For Hydrocarbon Dew Point Meters
Author(s): Henk-Jan Panneman
Abstract/Introduction:
Gasunie Engineering and Technology (formerly Gasunie Research) has carried out a number of tests for several gases with the new Condumax II Hydrocarbon Dew Point Analyser manufactured by Michell Instruments Ltd. The results were compared with liquid drop-out measurements carried out according to ISO 6570.
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Document ID: 435A11CC

The Harmonized European Gas Cubic Meter For Natural Gas And Its Relationship With The International BIPM/CIPM Key Comparison Reference Value For The Natural Gas Cubic Meter
Author(s): D. Dopheide, B. Mickan, R. Kramer
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the background of the European Harmonized Reference Value for the cubic meter of Natural Gas at high pressure, which is in use in Germany, The Netherlands and France since May 4th, 2004. The harmonization process began on November 1st, 1999 between Germany and The Netherlands and has been finalized on May 4, 2004 due to the incorporation of the French BNM to the Harmonized Reference Value. The outcome was named: Harmonized European Natural Gas Cubic Meter as realized by three independent National Metrology Institutes. The prerequisites of the harmonization process, underlying procedures, results obtained so far and the mutual benefits will be pointed out as well as the economic consequences for the European market as well as for the international user. The paper shows the degree of equivalence between the three participating NMIs PTB, BNM and NMi-VSL.
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Document ID: FA7D9082

Comparison Of ISO / Cd 17089 Part( 1) And Revised Draft Version Of AGA 9 On Ultrasonic Meters For Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jan G. Drenthen
Abstract/Introduction:
As ultrasonic meters have replaced traditional measurement technologies for the past ten years, the applications have become more demanding. One of the most challenging problems for designers to surmount has been the operation of these meters near large noise sources such as control valves, regulators and -to some extend- also flow conditioners. Being at the forefront of technology both manufacturers and users have taken their part of the challenges and have overcome most of them by sharing their experiences.
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Document ID: 5E214CC5

Testing Of The GERG-2004 Equation Of State A Wide-Range Reference For Natural Gases
Author(s): m. Jaeschke
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermodynamic properties of the main component of natural gas, methane, and of natural gases have frequently been investigated because of their industrial importance. The most recent equation of state for thermodynamic properties of methane was reported by Wagner and de Reuck 1. The equations of state for natural gases by Jaeschke et al. 2,3 (GERG88 equation) and by Starling and Savidge 4 (AGA8-DC92 equation) are now routinely applied in energy billing. They are the current internationally accepted standards for density or compression factor calculations under pipeline conditions 5. With the help of these equations the volume metered under varying, actual field conditions is converted to welldefined reference conditions.
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Document ID: E8C710C7

Wet Gas Experience With A Single Path Ultrasonic Meter
Author(s): Skule E. Smrgrav
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic gas flow meters are gaining popularity every year and they are also being introduced to more and more different applications. FMC developed a 3 path version of the MPU 1200 6 path fully fiscal ultrasonic meter which was tested with wet gas at CEESI, Colorado in 1999 1. In 2002 FMC was encouraged by a Russian client to develop a single path ultrasonic meter based on the MPU technology for single well monitoring directly on the gas well header of wet gas producing fields in Russia. FMC then manufactured a 4 single path ultrasonic meter called the MPU 200. This meter was first flow calibrated at the Advantica facility in October 2002. It was then shipped to the gas field in Siberia. The meter was installed and commissioned directly on the gas well header in March 2003 and remained there for a 3 month test period. During this period it was tested under very varying conditions including extreme cold ambient conditions, semi dry gas at a wide flow range and wet gas with several different percentages of liquid content. The meter is still on site and in use in 2005.
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Document ID: 50AEEAC7

Automated Meter Reading: A Technology At Its Inflection Point
Author(s): Tim Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: C3158A4B

Development Of Methods For Assessing Corrosion Metal Loss Defects In Well Bore Casing Strings
Author(s): Tim Illson, James Philo, Ramon P. Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the existing gas storage within the United States is in depleted natural gas fields. During the lifetime of these fields, there is the possibility that the structural integrity of many of the original completions may be compromised as a consequence of mechanical damage and/or corrosion. While considerable effort has been made by the research community to assess the integrity of transmission pipelines, there is very little specific guidance on how to assess the structural integrity of damaged well casing components. The Underground Storage Committee of Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. (PRCI) recognized this issue and concluded that the industry would benefit from having specific guidance to assess the integrity of damaged casing/tubing components. In particular, the gas storage industry requires guidance for deciding when repair and replacement of casing/tubing should be carried out. Advantica has already undertaken a considerable program of work on behalf of PRCIs Materials Technical Committee to develop methods for assessing the remaining strength of corroded transmission pipelines it has also led a group sponsored project to develop new and improved methods for assessing corrosion damage in pipelines 1. Assessment methods developed by Advantica are now embodied into internationally recognized fitness-for-purpose (FFP) standards such as BS7910 2 and DnV RP-F101 3. Consequently, PRCIs Underground Storage Committee contracted Advantica to initiate the development of a method for assessing corrosion metal loss defects in gas storage well casing strings. This paper describes the results of this work.
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Document ID: 1541562B

Transmission Pipeline Digs
Author(s): Michael R. Zerella
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 975C6922

A Review Of The Ngc+ Interchangeability Work Groups White Paper On Natural Gas Interchangeability And Non-Combustion End Use
Author(s): Henry W. Hank Poellnitz III
Abstract/Introduction:
Projected demand along with high natural gas prices seems to have fueled LNG developers to propose a number of projects for the US however there are numerous technical challenges surrounding adding a significant amount of regassified LNG to the US grid. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) held a technical conference on gas quality issues (PL04-3-000) on February 18, 2004. As a result of the conference, a technical working group under the leadership of the Natural Gas Council (NGC) was formed to identify and propose resolution to the interchangeability issues associated with high Btu LNG imports. The NGC+ Interchangeability Work Group developed a technical White Paper, which was presented by the NGC Steering Committee to the FERC on March 2, 2005. This document, White Paper on Natural Gas Interchangeability and Non- Combustion End Use, describes the main issues surrounding Interchangeability and proposed how to resolve them for each stakeholder group. It also recommends metrics for measuring Interchangeability along with interim levels.
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Document ID: 22A4564D

Gas Industry Applications For AGA Report #10
Author(s): Warren Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
With the release of Transmission Measurement Committee Report #10, the natural gas industry has expanded its tool set for solving thermodynamic problems. This paper outlines ten potential applications in measurement, compression, regulation and process control. Topics include meter verification, compressor efficiency, Joule-Thompson cooling and sonic nozzle sizing.
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Document ID: 8A584C90

Remote Operations - Odorization Systems At New York State Electric & Gas And Rochester Gas & Electric
Author(s): Steven A. Craver, Frank J. Ferland, John C. Breitung
Abstract/Introduction:
New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) and Rochester Gas & Electric Corporation (RG&E) are the New York local distribution companies (LDCs) of Energy East Corporation, providing electric and gas energy in upstate New York. NYSEGs service area includes 13 divisions located throughout upstate New York. Service is provided to 253,000 gas customers in service areas throughout upstate New York including the cities of Binghamton, Elmira and Ithaca. RG&Es service area includes the nine county region centering around the City of Rochester in upstate New York with more than 296,000 gas customers
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Document ID: 6259DA4D

Protocols For First Response To Contractor Damages
Author(s): Richard S. Di Loreto
Abstract/Introduction:
Third Party contractor damage to natural gas pipelines is a major concern to gas utilities countrywide. Contractor damages have become, all too often, an everyday occurrence on gas distribution systems, and presents the greatest potential risk for catastrophic event each and every time it occurs. While there are numerous preventative measures in place to allay the risks posed by contractor damages, they continue to occur at an alarming rate. While the majority of these jobs are mitigated in a timely and safe manner, every damage presents the potential of endangering life and property, along with extensive outages and inconveniences to the gas consumers. In addition to the serious ramifications mentioned, it can also cast doubt on the industrys ability to provide safe, reliable service.
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Document ID: B40ED2EB

Integrating Technologies To Enhance Gas Emergency Response
Author(s): John A. Garrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE) was founded in 1816, making it the nations oldest gas distribution company. It traces its origin to the days of Rembrandt Peale and the first gas light. Today BGE, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Constellation Energy, delivers gas to approximately 620,000 customers located in a service territory that covers about 800 square miles of central Maryland. We operate and maintain over 6,000 miles of pipeline in our system that delivers approximately 113 million dekatherms annually.
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Document ID: FAC8A79B

Annulus Communications Diagnostics And Repair Using Pressure-Activated Sealant
Author(s): David W. Rusch
Abstract/Introduction:
Sustained casing pressure has been experienced in a number of underground storage wells. Sustained casing pressure can be a significant safety hazard and, on a number of occasions, has resulted in uncontrolled releases from such wells. Sustained casing pressure results from the migration of fluids in the annulus. The most common path for migration of fluids is through channels in the annular cement. To safely and economically eliminate sustained casing pressure on storage wells, an injectable pressureactivated sealant technology has been used to seal channels in the annular cement of the welsl and eliminate the casing pressure. The mechanical integrity of the wells has been restored using this technology.
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Document ID: 43AC22E9

Transmitter Data And Redundancy Manage Measurement Impacts
Author(s): Rick Rans
Abstract/Introduction:
Daily supply/demand management of over 12,000,000 GJs/day (12 BCF/d) of natural gas commodity allocated to 350+ shippers/connecting pipeline operator accounts presents a significant challenge to management of TransCanadas 1300+ meter stations. New technology, hourly measurement, automated validation, exception based problem reporting and energy impact based prioritization is used to meet customer demands of identifying and managing measurement impacts to meet Near Time deadlines.
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Document ID: BBD0CEEF

Performance Of High Potential Magnesium Anodes: Its Not All Good
Author(s): Mark Yunovich
Abstract/Introduction:
Magnesium anodes are provided to the corrosion control industry by a number of domestic and international manufacturers and distributors. Due to the difficulty and time involved in performance testing, anode composition is commonly the only criterion used for quality control by the end users. However, experience has shown that compliance of the anode chemical composition with the ASTM B843 Standard Specification for Magnesium Alloy Anodes for Cathodic Protection can be misleading and does not always differentiate between the anodes of different quality. It has been shown that anodes that pass both chemical composition requirements and a simple anode potential test can have a wide range of efficiencies based on the ASTM G97 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Evaluation of Magnesium Sacrificial Anode Test Specimens for Underground Applications.
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Document ID: 8A8CD4D2

Transmission Pipeline Integrity Inspections In An Urban Environment
Author(s): Cindy Graham
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 5927CFA1

Dominion Ecda Program 2004
Author(s): Victor Magazine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: E54A510E

Nox Nox Reduction Techniques For Reduction Techniques For LNG LNG Sub Sub-X Submerged Combustion Submerged Combustion Vaporizers
Author(s): Norm Pelletier, Peter Falcone
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: EDB3EB00

Inspection Solutions For Unpiggable Pipelines
Author(s): S.F. Biagiotti Jr., Mark J. Slaughter, Divya Mittal
Abstract/Introduction:
One third of the 540,000 km (335,000 miles) of pipelines worldwide are considered unpiggable because of access and valve restrictions, multi-diameter designs, impassable fittings and a myriad of other configuration issues. Notwithstanding these obstacles, many countries have emerging regulations that will require these pipelines to be inspected on a continuing basis. Currently, there is a significant demand for inspecting unpiggable pipelines, particularly in sensitive High Consequence Areas (HCAs) where consequential risk to the public or the environment is high. In the petroleum transmission and distribution sector over 12 billion1 is spent each year on corrosion. Investment in technology is imperative to control costs as the pipeline infrastructure continues to age. The development of the technology discussed in this paper is an excellent example of using technology to resolve difficult pipeline integrity challenges. With that in mind the authors wish to add that the Department of Transportation provided funding assistance for the development technology discussed in this paper.
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Document ID: 8305DFF8

Acoustic Resonance Technology For Dew Point And Energy Content Measurements
Author(s): Alwarappa Ram Sivaraman
Abstract/Introduction:
GTI is developing a state-of-the-art cost effective, fast, accurate, and field deployable real time BTU measurement device utilizing acoustic resonance technology. The acoustic resonance technology has also been utilized for dew point measurements for a multi component gas mixture. The paper presents this acoustic resonance system.
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Document ID: 005C4448

New Developments In Nde For Pe Pipe
Author(s): Angelo Fabiano
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene (PE) pipe has been successfully used by the gas industry for more than three decades for applications ranging from low pressure transmission pipeline to residential distribution lines. PE materials have become the material of choice for new and replacement installations. The standard method for joining PE pipe is butt fusion for larger sizes and electrofusion fittings for smaller diameters, including service lines. Although considered to be a small number, some companies opt to use socket fusion in some cases. As in any pipeline application, the quality of the joints greatly affects the overall operational integrity of the system. While failures of PE systems such as fusion joint failures are fortunately infrequent, the consequences of a pipeline or fitting failure can be severe.
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Document ID: 5B45E8FA

A Risk-Based Approach To Orifice Meter Maintenance
Author(s): Warren Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditional schedule-driven maintenance plans are giving way to modern, risk-based programs for measurement equipment. This paper provides an overview of a new program for 1100+ orifice meters, ranging in size from 2 to 24. Risk factors, technology selection and early experiences are discussed.
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Document ID: 81BFAB7A


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