Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2005)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: 11148628

Fundamentals In LNG
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The following discusses the historical use and future opportunities relating to natural gas, LNG and geological gas storage. New opportunities are presented by the non-linear 23.5 tcf/y US gas use and declining production. This fact has created a significant need for LNG imports and LNG distributed assets in the US. In addition it has created a need for market based and production based geological storage with services ranging from firm contracts, wheeling and hub based park and loan.
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Document ID: 0644E490

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Paul Murtaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry, there are two basic types of regulators used for both pressure reducing and back pressure (relief) control. The two types are: 1.) Self Operated Type 2.) Pilot Operated Type The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the basic principle of Self Operated and Pilot Operated Regulators including components of the system, principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages, and some maintenance and inspection procedures.
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Document ID: 3417901D

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, fluctuating gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every energy delivery company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data. Companies have standardized on one or more models of EGM equipment that meets its particular requirements. Its associated components usually include the computer, differential pressure transmitter, pressure transmitter, solar-panel, battery, and possibly a communications system of some type. This could be a modem for a telephone line, radio data system, or cellular data collection unit.The manufacturers of the solar-powered computers provide recommended installation procedures based upon agency approvals that they applied for. There are many other techniques that can be utilized to insure that optimum performance is realized from the EGM equipment. Solar-powered EGM equipment must use a low amount of power from the battery source in order to keep the PV system small enough to remain cost effective. Low power consumption makes the system a high impedance device. Solar-powered EGM equipment requires special attention to installation details for proper operation under most conditions. This paper will look at the installation of solar-powered flow computers of the most common configurations available. There are several recommendations presented to improve upon the manufacturers installation procedure based upon isolation, insulation, and grounding.
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Document ID: 42465D41

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate themwhere applicableinto my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Stating & Running Differential Accuracy
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Document ID: 1E56BEC7

A14 - Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Dale Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written with the idea of presenting basic electronic principles and how to apply these to common applications in the oil and gas industry.
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Document ID: 4DE890C2

Fundamentals Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Mike Scelzo, Steve Milford, Nick Mollo, Jed Matson
Abstract/Introduction:
Although they are considered relatively new, transit-time ultrasonic flow meters for natural gas measurement date back more than 25 years. In the late 1970s, Columbia Gas Research undertook a cooperative program to develop ultrasonic check meters for Columbia Gas Pipeline, with Panametrics, Inc., then a company that was well known for ultrasonic nondestructive testing technology. At that time, transit-time ultrasonic technology was well established for liquid flow metering utilizing both wetted and clamp-on installation methods, but the technology had not yet been commercialized for gases. The difficulty that had to be overcome when using ultrasonic flow meter technology for gas metering was the mismatch of acoustic impedance between the ultrasonic transducers and the gas. That mismatch makes the transfer of ultrasonic energy into a gas difficult, much more difficult than transferring ultrasonic energy into a liquid. Panametrics developed a successful way of acoustically coupling ultrasonic transducers to gases. That invention was the cornerstone of ultrasonic flow measurement for gases.
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Document ID: F4C33EEF

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bill Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose to this paper is to discuss the fundamental components used in orifice measurement.
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Document ID: F018EC8F

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice recorder? The answer usually depends upon who is providing the response. The term orifice meter is used to mean everything from the orifice meter chart recorder to the entire meter station. The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The primary element consists of an orifice meter tube constructed to meet the minimum recommended specifications of the measurement authority contractually agreed upon by two or more parties. The secondary element consists of equipment that will receive values produced at the primary element. The values may be measured and recorded onto circular charts or received by electronic flow computers that calculate a volume onsite, to be retrieved as desired. This paper addresses the Orifice Meter Chart Recorder and endeavors to explain its fundamental workings.
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Document ID: E057519B

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it was conveyed to the gasometers. Other companies throughout the East Coast, including the Baltimore company, quickly copied the pattern of operation used by this New York company. Seeing the success, New York businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc. and the new U.S. gas distribution industry began to flourish.
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Document ID: 4DF4F5DA

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Lawrence H. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished using two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance, and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets.
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Document ID: 13FDE693

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well-defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters. Turbine and orifice meters have no measurement compartments to trap and then release the gas. These meters are categorized as inferential meters in that the volume passed through them is inferred by something else observed or measured. In the orifice meter the volumes are determined only by knowing the inlet pressure, differential pressure, plate size, and piping characteristics, all of which infer the flow rates that in turn can be integrated over time to provide the volume.
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Document ID: 7A0D2D11

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include:
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Document ID: 118DD89A

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As the gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas. Many researchers have studied the effect of entrained liquids on orifice measurement. The existing literature can provide much information about orifice flowmeter errors. This information can be used to determine the course of future orifice plate research efforts. This paper will discuss four test programs that were conducted to examine the effects of entrained liquids on orifice meter performance. The results of these programs will be discussed as well as some simple flow models. The flow models will be used to explain why research into this area has been so difficult. The flow models are not intended as a guide for flow measurement correction.
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Document ID: 6288DDF3

Flow Conditioning - Why, What, When And Where
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is the basis of commerce between producers, royalty owners, transporters, process plants, marketers, state and federal governmental authorities, and the general public. In fact, accurate measurement of hydrocarbon fluids has a significant impact on the Gross National Product of exporting and importing countries, the financial performance and asset base of global companies, and the perceived efficiency of operating facilities. The need for accurate fiscal measurement is obvious. Given the present or future levels of the cost of these critical resource materials one can quickly quantify the material and economic value unaccounted for that is associated with each 001 per cent systematic uncertainty that might unknowingly exist in the measurement systems for these materials. For reasons such as these, it is essential that fluid quantity and flowrate measurements are precise and accurate with minimal bias errors. Furthermore, it is incumbent upon those involved in fluid custody transfer to establish and maintain the traceability chains that link their measurements to appropriate domestic and international standards. In this manner, fiscal transfer of fluids can be done equitably with the confidence of both seller and buyer alike. Accurate flow measurement is defined as measurement with a low uncertainty. Stated another way, accurate flow measurement requires maximum absolute accuracy and high precision. An important objective is to minimize the bias error associated with the measurements. These errors are best minimized through the use of primary or secondary calibration systems.
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Document ID: C56003DA

Various Methods Can Be Used To Verify Gas Chromatograph At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most On-line gas chromatographs operate for long periods of time without developing biased or even outright unacceptable measurement. Therefore, most users undertake system- wide performance testing infrequently. But as rising gas prices demand increased scrutiny on measurement data - flow volume, energy content, and often hydrocarbon dewpoint analysis -- many measurement staffs may search for better performance testing of GCs, often for the first time. Others may already have adequate performance testing in place but want to review it for completeness. The following points out various factors to be considered.
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Document ID: 19789643

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy. The largest source of analytical error in natural gas is distortion of the composition during sampling. Sampling clean, dry natural gas, which is well above its Hydrocarbon Dew Point (HCDP) temperature is a relatively simple task. However, sampling natural gas that is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature is challenging. For these reasons, much attention is being focused on proper methods for sampling natural gas which have a high HCDP temperature. This presentation will address problems associated with sampling natural gas which is at, near, or below its HCDP temperature. Various approaches for solving these problems will also be discussed.
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Document ID: 3E188737

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): Ray N. Adcock
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is a gas composed of one Sulfur Atom and two Hydrogen Atoms. H2S is formed by the decomposition of organic matter and is therefore, found naturally in crude oil and natural gas deposits. H2S is a highly toxic, transparent, colorless and corrosive gas. Due to the toxic and caustic properties of this gas and its natural presence within natural gas, it is imperative to measure and control the concentration levels of H2S within natural gas pipelines. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement and Measurement Technologies for H2S and discuss how these technologies can be adapted for measurement of Total Sulfur.
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Document ID: EC0026B4

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry.
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Document ID: A73D88A0

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. Sampling can be accomplished by primarily three techniques spot, continuous composite or continuous on-line sampling systems. The various spot sampling methods that are available and the implementation of these methods are briefly investigated in this paper, as well as the most appropriate equipment to use.
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Document ID: 34011F55

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Joe Soos
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy companies focused on natural gas production, gathering, transmission, or distribution are ultimately valued on their ability to produce or deliver natural gas to its customers. Pressure and temperature measurement provides data that is required to quantify natural gas flow rates while natural gas sampling provides the heat content, or energy value, associated with this natural gas. Accurate measurement and data collection is the foundation for natural gas purchase and sales contracts and royalty payments. The underlying data that support these contracts are the ultimate economic value drivers for these energy companies. This paper will focus on proper natural gas sampling techniques and methods, including proper installation and location of spot, composite, and continuous samplers connected to a gas chromatograph. Economic, regulatory, compositional, and contractual consideration must always be evaluated and taken into consideration when selecting sampling technique. Generally, samples should be collected on a flow-proportional or flow-weighted basis whenever practical. Spot samples, by their nature, cannot fully represent a gas stream of varying composition. Likewise, time proportional sampling, particularly when utilized during intermittent or slug flow,is not capable of accurately characterizing natural gas streams with variable flow rates or compositions.
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Document ID: B96FB23E

Operations Of On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume. Gas chromatography is normally employed for the calculation of the heating value. However, when the gas chromatograph runs an analysis we not only get the heating value, but other valuable information such as gas composition and relative density. This additional information is used in the gas volume calculations. Gas Chromatographs (G.C.s) have been widely used in hydrocarbon processing facilities when high quality product specifications are required, or when rigid custody transfer standards are needed for natural gas trading. Gas chromatography is a scientific method in which a gas sample is separated into its component parts for measurement. The gas chromatograph consists of subsystems that inject the sample, separate the sample, detect the components, integrate the peaks, and report the results. The injection, separation, and detection all occur in the heart of the GC known as the GC oven. The integration and calculation of results are done in the controller which can be considered the brains of the system.
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Document ID: 43A24D1F

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Susan J. Brandon
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standards are used in a variety of applications in industry and the sciences. From the determination of NOx emissions at a cogeneration stack to the levels of volatile organics at a superfund site, calibration standards are vital to the accuracy of any determination. However, not all standards are easy to prepare or use. Specifically, the preparation of gas phase calibration standards is very challenging due to the inherent dangers that compressed gases pose. Many of the materials used in the manufacture of these standards are poisons, flammable, carcinogens, cryogenic or even pyrophoric in nature. In addition to these dangers, these materials are often pressurized to greater than 2000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). The amount of potential energy in one cylinder of nitrogen at 2000 psi is enough to easily punch a hole in a cinder block wall. Despite the hazards associated with them, compressed gas calibration standards are in very high demand. Fortunately, the specialty gas manufactures have developed the technology required to fill this demand.
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Document ID: 208B8FD0

Methods For The Determination Of Specific Gravity
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean.
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Document ID: 51E9705F

Devices For Field Determination Of H20 In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to review the different sensor technologies that are in use today for the measurement of water vapor content in natural gas. It will also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sample delivery system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device. Natural gas is one of the most widely used fuels today for everything from home heating to power generation, and maintaining the gas quality is of great concern. The determination of the water vapor content in natural gas is one of several key factors used to determine the ultimate quality of the gas. With economic conditions as they exist today, many companies have been forced to cut personnel in order to maintain a reasonable balance sheet. The loss of experienced measurement technicians places a heavy burden on instrument manufacturers to provide an accurate and reliable means of making this measurement.
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Document ID: F655D97D

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: E8530059

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
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Document ID: 9E5AFDFE

Unaccounted-For Gas Study
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS.
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Document ID: CBFCB3BC

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Dew Point Determination
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery. The industry continues to experience problems in obtaining accurate water vapor dewpoint measurements, primarily due to interference problems associated with contaminants and poor sampling techniques. Various types of analytical equipment are being used to determine Water Vapor Dewpoint Measurements. All are susceptible to contaminate interference or poor sampling techniques being utilized. Proper design and utilization of the correct type of sample conditioning devices or improved sampling techniques will provide much more reliable results, regardless of the equipment being utilized. This paper is
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Document ID: D1A7CDA2

How To Perform A Lost And Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is written for the natural gas pipeline industry, from the vantage point of wellhead to burner tip. Its for: ?? Production Companies wanting to ensure proper measurement of the Btus delivered to, and normally measured at their wellheads by, gathering companies, ?? Gathering and Processing Companies wanting to control losses across their gathering lines and across treatment and processing plants, ?? Transportation Companies wanting to control gas losses across high pressure pipe that extends for thousands of miles, and ?? Distribution Companies that are concerned with gas losses across both high and low pressure distribution systems within city plants. The value proposition to most companies is that a physical loss of gas directly affects their bottom lines as either a loss of revenue or as an expense.
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Document ID: E2B62746

Coriolis For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base of more than 400,000 units. Newer designs have increased low-flow sensitivity, lowered pressure drop, and increased noise immunity enabling performance characteristics that are similar or better than traditional metering technologies. Coriolis also has attributes that no other fluid measurement technology can achieve. Some of these attributes are the meters immunity to flow disturbances, fluid compositional change, and it contains no wearing parts. With more than 25,000 meters measuring gas phase fluids around the world, many national and international measurement organizations are investigating and writing industry reports and measurement standards for the technology. In December of 2003 the American Gas Association and the American Petroleum Institute co-published AGA Report Number 11 and API Manual Petroleum Measurement Standards Chapter 14.9, Measurement of Natural Gas by Coriolis Meter.
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Document ID: D8112B33

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Paul Minier
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about, and with on daily basis. So why is it that no one likes to work with odorant? Could it be the distinctive smell that gets on our clothing, causing problems with family, friends, neighbors, and the public in general? Why do we odorize? We odorize primarily because it is a legal requirement. We also odorize for the public safety. We must inject odorant into natural gas in order to alert or warn of possible dangers (i.e. leaks). It was first proposed in Germany in the 1880s by Von Quaglios use of ethyl mercaptan as a means of lead detecting the escape of blue water gas. However, most people have heard about the New London tragedy. In 1937, there was an explosion that leveled an elementary school in New London, Texas, killing 293 people of which the majority were children. For this reason, it is important that we understand the tremendous responsibility of knowing and implementing the Odorization process.
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Document ID: 46FD7A59

Onsite Proving Of Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the unaccounted for natural gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of lawsuits later for huge amounts of money. The Btu in one barrel of oil for example is equivalent to approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 6.50 per thousand cubic feet, the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil is 36.40 equal to, or more than the cost of a average barrel of oil. In the petroleum liquid industry no custody transfer liquid measurement system would be complete without a method to prove the meter, either as part of the equipment or there would be connections provided for a portable prover.
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Document ID: F6BDB2F2

Field Testing By Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: B6E89E95

Periodic Inspection Of District Regulator And Relief Valves
Author(s): John Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators and Over Pressure Protection Devices (OPPD) must be inspected in accordance to Federal and State Law and Company policy. Over pressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream piping in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include a relief valve, a monitor regulator, or a positive pressure shut off. In Texas, inspection interval must be at least once per calendar year, at intervals of no more than 15 months.
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Document ID: 8B4D6450

Automatic Meter Reading
Author(s): Paul Lucco
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation of the natural gas industry over the last several years has created a need for unprecedented change to gas measurement processes. With the unbundling of services, commercial gas customers of varying size are opting to choose their own gas suppliers. To make good decisions, these customers need and demand timely information to make these choices. Gas distribution companies are seeing a widespread need for gas volume information on a more frequent basis. These utilities must deal with increased complexity of communicating timely information to multiple parties in an effort to provide superior service to their customers. Its not just the pipeline companies that need to know the meter readings, but also the customers, brokers and suppliers. Customers demand for timely information has accelerated gas distribution companies shift to electronic technologies especially those involving communications. Little antennas are popping up all around gas facilities. Meters are being read remotely and their data is being communicated to a measurement data processing group via many varied communication paths.
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Document ID: 3698A3B8

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy markets and the environment of FERC Order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: 452301B4

An Overview And Update On AGA Report No. 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. Anticipated changes that should be published in the next revision, expected to be published early in 2006, are also presented.
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Document ID: ED121583

Lessons Learned From The API 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project An Overview Of Common Causes Of Gas Sample Distortion And Information Needed For Proper Gas Sampling
Author(s): Eric Kelner And Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past ten years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The last revision was published in 2001, and work is beginning in 2005 on a new edition that will incorporate the latest research findings. The API Chapter 14.1 Working Group, a research steering committee consisting of natural gas sampling experts from major oil and gas companies, provided input that helped focus the project on improving current field practices. The research identified several causes of natural gas sample distortion, as well as techniques for avoiding gas sample distortion. The research data illustrated how errors in calculated gas properties, such as heating value and density, can occur as a result of poor sampling technique.
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Document ID: CBF4C2A9

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibration
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. Although AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1, technically does not recommend flow calibration for ultrasonic flowmeters, the next revision will likely do so for all ultrasonic custody transfer applications. What considerations then, should be taken when choosing to flow calibrate an ultrasonic flowmeter? What are the benefits to the user? What should a user expect from a flow calibration? What kind of performance should the customer expect or accept from an ultrasonic meter? What are the diagnostic capabilities inherent in an ultrasonic meter? These areas, as well as others will be explored and considered.
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Document ID: 71B06C5F

Understanding The Different Standards That Govern Measurement
Author(s): John Rice
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas and those associated with the measurement of natural gas are in a unique situation. Many companies are practicing gas measurement using AGA 1985, AGA 1992 (Revision) or a latest standard. The AGA 1992 (Revision) was slow to be accepted as the latest standard. Many companies could not make the separation between equipment in the field and the calculation as presented by the AGA 1992 (Revision). Consequently many companies did nothing for a considerable amount of time to make the changes from 1985 to 1992. The use of more flow computers and transmitters has encouraged the use of AGA 1992, in recent years.
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Document ID: F9A91E5B

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems) and their application to the measurement industry. An important focus of the paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of the technology and with guidelines to be used to evaluate this equipment as part of an automation project.
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Document ID: 2AC5CF5A

Use Of Equations Of State Eos() Software
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
It also includes the removal of contaminates which may alter the sample composition and/or damage the analyzer. It is imperative that the gas sample composition is not altered or distorted during the conditioning process. Equations of State (EOS) software programs are useful tools for modeling the behavior of natural gas as it flows through a sample system. With the use of an EOS program one can determine if conditions in a particular sample conditioning system are conducive to the proper sampling of a specific natural gas composition. EOS software can be useful to the engineer or technician during the design, operation, and maintenance of a natural gas sampling system. This paper will discuss the types of information an EOS program can provide and how this can be utilized to solve common sample conditioning problems.
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Document ID: EE7EB15B

AGA Calculations - 1985 Standard Vs 1992 Standard
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 4FC4BE4A

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3 / AGA 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Tom Cathey
Abstract/Introduction:
The revisions or changes in the following categories are significant when compared to the 1991 Third Edition publication of AGA Report No. 3 and will be discussed in greater detail throughout this paper: Flow Conditioners Required Meter Tube Lengths Meter Tube Surface Roughness Orifice Plates Thermometer Well Location Pulsation Environment
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Document ID: 566DA299

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: D600D0FD

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies goals for a greener image raises the standards of operations even higher, the demands placed on accurate hydrocarbon measurement with minimal maintenance, space and weight requirements becomes increasingly greater. These financial, governmental and technical challenges coupled with normally high flow rates and therefore wide flow range requirements have enhanced the development and application of new technology such as ultrasonic gas and liquid meters, multiphase flow meters, microwave and near infared (NIR) water cut analyzers, coriolis flow meters for oil and gas and compact orifice meter tubes utilizing isolating flow conditioners and liquid meter provers. This paper will attempt to provide guidelines in selecting, installing and operating this equipment to insure cost effective designs and reliable operation with a high degree of accuracy. Since the authors background is primarily in project design, emphasis will be placed on the decision process of selecting, installing and commissioning metering equipment.
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Document ID: C4E1894D

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
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Document ID: A9585267

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results. Proper use normally requires the steady flows for which orifices were intended and for which the orifice coefficients were developed. In actual field installations, flow is often not steady but subject to the periodic changes in pressure and velocity that are referred to as pulsation. Pulsation can be caused by compressors, pressure regulators, control valves, fluctuating loads, or by flow-induced phenomena within the piping. It is known and well recognized that pulsation causes errors in orifice meter results. In fact, A.G.A. Report No. 3 on Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, which is also API 14.3 and ANSI/API 2530, clearly states that: Reliable measurements of gas flow with an orifice cannot be obtained when appreciable pulsation . . . are present at the measurement point.
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Document ID: B1E33CF0

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design. There are many small compressors such as well-head gathering compressors that cannot justify the cost of a thorough acoustic analysis in order to protect the nearby orifice meter from excessive pulsations and accompanying square root error. This paper will make an effort to demonstrate design procedures related to a specific type of acoustic filter to be used to reduce pulsations in most simple metering applications. The specific filter is a symmetrical in-line low pass filter.
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Document ID: 806BDBAD

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The failure to supply natural gas upon demand can cause irreparable damage to a companys corporate image in the 21st Century. Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier. The natural phenomenon of freezing is a common occurrence in the operation of a natural gas pipeline system. Whether the gas is produced gas from a crude oil well, or natural gas from a gas well, the possibility for hydrates and the resultant problems, is real. Freezing is a potential and serious problem starting at the production wellhead through the last point in the customer delivery system. The occurrence of freezing is continuously reduced each step of the way, but care must be taken at each and every step to assure smooth operational conditions and satisfied consumers at the end of the line.
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Document ID: 1AAA414B

Protection Of Natural Gas Measurement Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
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Document ID: 712A57A2

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic calibrators are fast becoming the benchmark for measurement and are replacing mechanical types of instruments for testing and calibration checks. Techniques, usage, traceability requirements, and problems are changing quickly as technology advances in the development of these instruments. Information concerning these issues is often outdated by the time the technician receives it. Electronic calibrators use a microprocessor with digital measurement. What is the difference between analog and digital? Analog is a continuous signal whereas digital is an analog signal converted into numerical data or bits that computers can understand change and store. The numerical values are converted from the analog signal at intervals of time. As the amount of time becomes shorter and shorter between the intervals of conversion, it becomes close to impossible to distinguish it from the original analog signal. Stephan Schuster chairman of the Rainier Corp., summed it up as follows: Analog is the real world and digital is a numerical representation of the real world. Computers are the driving force behind the digital revolution because information must be digital to be used on a computer. Just like any other computer, technology is often obsolete by the time an instrument is designed, manufactured, marketed, sold, and shipped to the end user.
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Document ID: EFF936F3

Whats In Your Pipeline?
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
With the current demand for improved technologies in the area of natural gas measurement, the rush to the market place is raising as many questions as it is answering. In the last 25 years, the natural gas pipeline industry has transitioned from the supplier of clean, dry gas to the mover of billable gas energy clean and dry or dirty and wet. Designing and creating improved products for the measurement of volume and quality has provided new challenges as the marketing and transportation of natural gas has changed. Perhaps the single major issue that has created an interest in ascertaining the total picture of the natural gas pipeline system is wet gas. The definition of wet gas as gas with more than 7 lbs. water per million cubic feet is almost history. Wet gas metering is redefining how we talk about wet gas. There is a white paper written by Dr. Parviz Mehdizadeh that describes wet gas. Wet gas in that multiphase white paper is defined as gas, which contains some liquid. The amount of liquid can vary from a small amount of water or hydrocarbon to a substantial amount of water or hydrocarbon. Todays measurement issues are different from the past, but they are here to stay. We must either return to the insistence and requirement of a clean, dry gas pipeline system (separators, processing plants, dehydration systems, etc) or acknowledge the realities of the present. One of the biggest challenges is the multiphase system. Liquids cause corrosion, pulsation, freezing problems and basic maintenance issues that create concerns for a natural gas pipeline system. Their presence must be addressed.
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Document ID: B4051C2E

Considerations For Selecting A Host System For Upstream And Midstream Gas Operations
Author(s): Edward H. Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Operators of gas assets face a bewildering number of options when considering the installation of a central host system to monitor and control field operations. These options generally fall into two categories as described below.
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Document ID: 58D6EE8F

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentation Levels
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays business environment requires the natural gas industry to perform many critical functions such as, measurement, gas control, and odorization. Accurate measurement is a complex process involving a variety of equipment, procedures and people. The result is an accurate accounting of gas bought and sold. Gas Control is also a complex process that requires a sophisticated communications network and experienced personnel, resulting in a reliable supply of natural gas for transportation or distribution. However, the odorization program is the most difficult and most important of any function performed by the natural gas industry. The result is a safe public. A comprehensive odorization program includes a safe method of delivery, a consistent technique of introducing it into the pipeline, an accurate monitoring program, and a reliable reporting system. Many times a company is required to deliver large quantities of odorant in populated areas or deliver smaller amounts to multiple rural locations. In either case it is important to establish policies and procedures to safely handle and deliver the chemical. Next, a company must select the equipment that will consistently introduce the desired amount of odorant into the pipeline. In addition, the company must determine strategic locations for the equipment to ensure even distribution of the chemical that is injected. Finally, the most important aspect of the odorization program is establishing an accurate testing method and a reliable reporting structure.
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Document ID: 191E7BE1

Understanding DOT/PSM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Britt Mcneely
Abstract/Introduction:
The Operator Qualification (OQ) rule has greatly impacted pipeline operations for all major pipeline system operators. For Panhandle Energy, the efforts to satisfy all segments of the rule have required a significant investment in money and manpower, with many changes to most aspects of field operations. Several key efforts are worthy of further explanation concerning the companys approach to the rule. The first effort by the company dealt with writing a general OQ compliance procedure that outlined how the company would comply with all aspects of the OQ rule. Next was the task of establishing Panhandles interpretation of a Covered Task List, which is guided in the rule by the four part criteria listed in Subpart N 192.801 (b) (1), (2), (3) and (4). Since the rule also applies to contractors performing OQ tasks on the system, we determined that it would be best to use an Industry Standard task list numbering system (developed by Veriforce, an OQ contractor qualification firm, and multiple pipeline operating groups) to reduce confusion in the task identification for the field.
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Document ID: ABA1D2CB

Advance Communication Designs
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
We say Advanced Wireless Data Radio Communication Systems Design Process not because this is a more in-depth and more technical process, but because the systems involved are complex in nature and must be carefully designed and programmed. If anything, what I want to do is teach you a more simplified approach and technique to design a SCADA or Telemetry project, but one which you do the same whether the system is large or small. By design, I mean we take this specified approach, or Process, which is consistent every time to show us geographically where the sites are and what the terrain challenges are for each site. We think more about one site at a time than the whole forest of sites. We need to visit the area and know the foliage conditions, man made structures and any other issue that may inhibit a good communication path. What is a path? I am sure you most likely know this, but a path is the line of site from the end device back to a collection point, whether a master receiver or a repeater or repeaters between each end point and the master collection point. There must be as clear of a straight line path as possible between key points of collection or repeating or no data is consistently transmitted in those com systems which are line of sites technologies.
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Document ID: 66BF4220

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Chris J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern business and security imperatives coupled with rapid technological change require key new architectural elements for SCADA systems. These elements are discussed along with more traditional block diagram fundamentals, so that the reader might better understand migration and adaptation strategies for their transmission pipeline operations in the new millennium.
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Document ID: 30F0BC9D

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Tom Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the United States needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas, and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation. The department of Transportation (D.O.T.) Title 49 covers the rules and regulations for the manufacture, handling, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Whether you use specially-built sample containers, old homemade sample containers, old World War II oxygen bottles, gigantic sample containers, or very small cylinders, if you are transporting those sample containers in your vehicles or you are shipping them by common carrier and they have hazardous materials in them, you must be aware of the rules that govern the handling of those cylinders.
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Document ID: 5C970FEE

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Ronald Sisk
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of wellhead deliveries, pipeline interconnects to town plants, city gates, and ultimately the end-user must be efficient and verifiable. To achieve this goal, various methodologies for gathering EGM data have evolved and improved over the past few years.
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Document ID: 5AEB6EF2

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman, Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Our industry has seen tremendous progress in the accuracy of natural gas measurement since the implementation of electronic gas measurement (EGM) in the 1980s. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented impact on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts should include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, they should represent both buyer and seller in the most equitable manner possible. This writing discusses some of those challenges while recommending more up-to-date measurement provisions for gas contracts.
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Document ID: 69921B47

Training Of Office Measurment Personnel
Author(s): Linda Mccourt
Abstract/Introduction:
Effective office training is a crucial part of a companys accuracy and accountability. Volumes are relative to every purchase and sale of gas, directly or indirectly. The money and time spent for accuracy of the primary elements is just the beginning and can all be forgotten if the information in the measurement office is reported inaccurately. As companies continue to downsize and computer software becomes more efficient, the measurement analysts duties are becoming incorporated into these software applications. Measurement software systems provide tools to validate and process much of the measurement information for them. These systems help decrease the companies overall labor requirements, increase work loads, more consistently detect discrepancies, and decrease human error. However, there is still the need for a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of gas measurement. Entry level personnel usually have little or no understanding of how to calculate, allocate or nominate gas volumes. Experienced personnel will need to learn the nomenclatures of the company. The trainer will need to evaluate each individual and begin training based on their knowledge and individual personality.
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Document ID: B071790C

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement. Natural gas has served as an important fuel through the centuries. It is believed that the first commercial use of natural gas was by the Chinese in 900 BC. The Chinese used a system of hollow bamboo to transport the natural gas from shallow wells. The gas was used as a fuel to extract salt from sea water. In 1816 manufactured gas from coal was first used in the United States to fuel gas lights. In 1821 near Fredonia, New York the first natural gas well was drilled in the United States. William Hart, a gunsmith, drilled the twenty-seven foot deep well near a creek outside Fredonia where gas bubbles had been noticed. As a result of this well, Hart is considered the father of the natural gas industry in the United Sates. In 1843 cast iron pipe started replacing wooden pipelines and the use of iron pipe provided the first reliable and safe method of transporting gas to market.
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Document ID: EEFA0601

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Perry Dee Hummel
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement or EFM auditing is a very important process of the natural gas industry. Only a few short years ago, the dry flow chart recorder was the state of the art recording device for custody gas measurement. All that has changed with the advent of the flow computer volumes are recorded and generated at the field level, and imported to the measurement system. Careful review of meter data should be part of the monthly close process.
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Document ID: 45C3E5D3

Internet Based Measurement Monitoring & Control
Author(s): Brad Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the Internet, PCs, client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed. No longer do only the most productive wells or gathering systems receive consideration for automation. In todays technologically advanced environment even marginal producing wells can now benefit from the data monitoring and management services previously economical on only the more productive locations.
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Document ID: 504EB9F9

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well training in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical process involved as well. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 4BD6C240

Basic Scada Communication Design
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of many aspects of SCADA systems. It begins with defining the systems while also covering communications technologies, system design and radio equipment.
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Document ID: 4AAF2221

Communication Between Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next, corporate downsizing has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing requirements with a daily closing schedule is knocking on the door and has already arrived at some locations. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication. By the time that a gas day has started at a meter site on a chart recorder or an RTU (Remote Transmitting Unit) until the volume has been calculated or verified in the corporate office, anywhere from 1 to 35 days can pass with as many as 8 to 10 people handling each individual volume record. With this many people involved covering that span of time, communication becomes a vital part of the measurement process.
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Document ID: 7373E210

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
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Document ID: DAA6ED4F

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained, has created the need for an electronic data management system. Properly designed and implemented, a measurement data management system adds functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges. An effective EGM data editing software package will provide a suite of tools to facilitate accurate, timely data processing. It will do this in a structured, feature rich, well-designed environment utilizing a graphical user interface (GUI). The program must include following functions: import the data recognize, review, and correct anomalies report export and provide advanced ad hoc query capabilities. Other considerations should include the developers commitment, resources, and long term strategy vis--vis electronic gas measurement, as well as industrys overall acceptance of the package.
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Document ID: 70BC928E

Understanding The Advantages Of Ip Networks
Author(s): Burke Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Convergence in the Oil and Gas Sector Todays oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to maximize the capability of its wireless infrastructure while minimizing operational and developmental costs. Unprecedented uncertainty and business volatility are transforming the landscape, as the oil and gas industry becomes more competitive, profit-oriented, and responsive to a fickle and savvy clientele. The key to developing a successful enterprise-wide networking strategy is to recognize that it is only part of a larger strategy-one in which modern oil and gas facilities must literally reinvent themselves.
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Document ID: 622A3F8C

Grounding Practices For Automation Controls
Author(s): Alan Rebeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether lightning damage or lightning voltages induced between equipment cabinets as a result of multi-grounding causing mis-operation of computerized electronics, improper grounding can account for up to 40 percent of power-related problems including costly damage and downtime. In addition, transient overvoltages-a high voltage spike or impulse of very short duration-can account for another 40 percent if not adequately suppressed. Transient overvoltages can be produced by lightning, power companies switching feeders or capacitor banks, or load switching at customer facilities. These large voltages, lasting only a short period of time, are injected into power and data circuits causing equipment destruction and safety hazards. Problems like these can be avoided by implementing a single-point grounding system, while following the National Electrical Code (NEC) when installing the safety ground and grounding electrode systems, and the use of a properly designed and selected surge suppressor.
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Document ID: 3808C901

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group will read the chart, apply information supplied by the field, calculate the amount of gas delivered, and generate and deliver volume statements to the customer. It must be recognized that the office group can not calculate volumes until it receives the charts and other required data from the field, and that the volumes are only as accurate as the data received. With this in mind, lets look at the two separate groups and see the team effort involved in producing accurate and reliable measurement from Pen tip to Volume Statement.
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Document ID: D47727AE


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