Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2004)

Correlating Aldyl A And Century Pe Pipe Rate Process Method Projections With Actual Field Performance
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent Department of Transportation Advisory Bulletin, Notification of the Susceptibility to Premature Brittle-Like Cracking of Older Plastic Pipe cited lower ductile inner wall Aldyl A and Century polyethylene (PE) pipe as two materials that were known to be susceptible to brittle-like cracking or slit failures. Many miles of these materials are still in service in the United States. The key question is - what is the projected life of these PE pipes still in the ground? The Rate Process Method (RPM) is used to project performance (lifetime) of PE materials at their in-ground temperatures and pressures based on both internal pressure as the primary load and secondary loads such as rock impingement and squeeze-off. This paper will provide a discussion on the Rate Process Method. RPM involves exhuming samples of pipe from service and subjecting them to laboratory elevated temperature sustained pressure testing that results in slit failures.
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Document ID: E1CCE0A9

Managing External Corrosion Direct Assessment Data
Author(s): Ralph Barbakoff
Abstract/Introduction:
Peoples Energy Corporation subsidiaries Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas operate 174 miles of transmission line as part of its gas transmission system. Peoples Gas system includes 79 miles of 24, 36 and 42 inch transmission line within the city of Chicago. North Shore Gas operates 16 to 30 inch gas transmission line in part of Lake County, Northeastern Illinois. The pipe installed predominantly since the late 1950s up to the early 1980s is coated with coal tar enamel coating. Pipe installed after mid 1980 is coated with fusion bonded epoxy coating. The girth weld coating is coal tar based hot wrap. Peoples Gas Transmission Line in the city of Chicago is designed to Class 4 specifications. North Shore Gas Transmission Lines are designed to Class 3 specifications. Both service territories are considered a High Consequence Area (HCA) per the Pipeline Integrity Final Rule issued in December 2003.
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Document ID: B5B34BC4

Accutest - The Worlds First Transfer Proving Turbine Meter With The Accuracy Adjusting Mercury Accutest Corrector
Author(s): Douglas H. Bethune
Abstract/Introduction:
The patented ACCUTEST Turbine Meter, an apparatus for accurately measuring gas flow in a gas pipeline (and its comprised methods) was first introduced in 1999. The apparatus is built and calibrated as a complete double rotor meter, made up of two individual rotor measuring modules, in close proximity of each other and housed in the same meter body. The main rotor, with 30 or 45 degree pitched blades, rotates clockwise. The second reference metering rotor is placed behind (downstream) the main rotor and rotates in a counter-clockwise direction using an 18-degree pitched rotor. The rotors are isolated from each other by incorporating flow-conditioning vanes ahead of the second rotor, allowing both rotor modules to operate totally independent and rotating in opposite directions. In this arrangement, the reference rotor is more reliable than the main rotor since its bearings are more protected from gas contaminants.
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Document ID: C8C0D5CC

Introducing The Sample Cylinder With Integrated Valving
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The largest source of analytical error when spot sampling natural gas occurs when the sample cylinder is purged. The Gas Processors Association (GPA) recommends no less than eight methods for spot sampling. The primary consideration of each method is purging of the sample cylinder in a manner that will not distort the samples gas phase composition.
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Document ID: AA854DD3

Directional-Drilled Polyethylene Gas Pipe
Author(s): Larry J. Petroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Horizontal directional drilling or guided boring, as it is sometimes called, is a cost effective method for installation of polyethylene gas pipe in urban and congested suburban areas. Most urban/suburban communities prefer trenchless installation to open-cut trenching because of the reduced disturbance to business, traffic, and surface features such as landscaping. Many gas utilities have come to appreciate the advantages of directional drilling, finding it easier and more cost effective not only to install pipe in populated areas but also easier to get regulatory approval through environmentally sensitive regions. Since this installation method is becoming widely used, it is important for gas utilities to understand the engineering and construction aspects of directional drilling. This paper describes and discusses the major engineering considerations for directionally drilled pipe both during pull-in (pullback) installation and post-installation service. It discusses ways to determine the applied forces and how to compare these forces with the pipes performance limits for tensile strength, external collapse, bending, and ring deflection. This paper draws heavily on ASTM F1962, Standard Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings, thus acquainting the gas utility engineer with this useful standard.
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Document ID: DE14A60A

Controlling Lost & Unaccounted For Gas In City Plants Without Amr
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution companies can monitor and control physical L&U within their city plants using practices similar to those of the pipelines. It doesnt require investing millions of dollars for AMR for residential meters. With a few well placed meters to segment the city plant, a monthly balancing system, knowledge of base loads, and a determination of base line pack, it can be done.
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Document ID: A5D2E93D

Performance Based Material Specifications
Author(s): Anthony Romano, Jr., Monique Herzog
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene pipe and fittings are the primary building blocks of latter day natural gas distribution systems. When the Gas Materials & Systems Group, a quality focused group of engineers and operating people from utilities in the NY/NJ Metropolitan Area, decided to develop a common, performance based specification, they elected to include their procurement departments on the team. The combined team resulted in greater cooperation from manufacturers and a better overall outcome.
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Document ID: A4B9042D

Natural Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the unaccounted for natural gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will pay for a proving system.
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Document ID: 78540AED

The Effects Of Upstream Recesses On The Discharge Coefficient Of Flange Tapped Orifice Meters
Author(s): F. D. Goodson, Dr. Z. D. Husain, K. J. Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of upstream recesses on the discharge coefficient of flange tapped Senior orifice fittings were investigated experimentally. The study was conducted in a 100 mm (4 inch) line and a 200mm (8inch) line using water as the working fluid. Calibrations were performed against a bi-directional volumetric ball prover. In the 100mm (4inch) line, the recess location was 200 mm (8 inches) upstream of the upstream face of the orifice plate and the depth and width of the recess was 9.2 mm (0.362 inches) and 4.77 mm (0.188 inches), respectively, that correspond in size and location to the recess formed by the union of a Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanged Senior orifice fitting with the upstream meter tube. Three plates with ratios of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.67 were calibrated. In the 200 mm (8 inch) line the recess location was 232 mm (9.125 inches) upstream of the upstream face of the orifice plate, the depth of the recess was 18.5 mm (0.73 inches) and the recess widths were 4.37 mm (0.172 inches) and 6.17mm (0.243 inches) which correspond in size and location to the recess formed by the union of a RTJ flanged Senior orifice fitting and the upstream meter tube. Within the precision of the calibration system, the test result indicated that the effect of the recess on the flow rate measurement was negligible for both the meter sizes and all the different beta ratio plates used in this experimental investigation.
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Document ID: 18EAD8FE

Robotic Internal Pipe Repair System
Author(s): James Carter, Robert Torbin
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry spends over 150 million per year repairing gas mains. Gas leakage results in unsafe operating conditions for the working crew and the general public. An internal repair technique that could minimize and/or eliminate some of the problems and costs associated with external repairs of pipelines would be of significant benefit to the gas industry. A repair technology is needed that can be inserted into the pipe through a small keyhole excavation. The technology should also be adaptable to several possible delivery platforms including autonomous robots, snakes and crawlers. The internal pipe repair system is designed to address the many technical issues associated with pipeline problems including sealing leaks in pipe joints from the inside of the pipe and/or reinforcing the pipe wall from either mechanical dents or corrosion induced pitting. The concept consists of a self-expanding, narrow band of composite material that contains (and ultimately confines) a bead of sealant.
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Document ID: 2B6E76ED

Reducing Bias And Uncertainty In Process Gas Quality Measurements
Author(s): Paul Holland
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is traded on amount of energy which is derived from the measurement of volume and the amount of energy per unit volume (heating value or calorific value). The physical measurement of volume flow is not considered in this paper. The heating value is a property, which can be measured directly by combustion calorimetry, but the application of such technology in an on-line process scenario is expensive and fraught with difficulty. Hence, the property is now routinely calculated from gas composition data obtained from gas analysis according to ISO6974 1 and ASTM 1945 2. In addition, gas properties of Wobbe index, density and compression factor can also be derived from composition through application of the international standards ISO6976 3, GPA 2172 4, ISO12213 5 and AGA-8 6. With sufficiently detailed extended analyses the property of hydrocarbon dewpoint can now be realised through calculation using a suitable equation of state 7, 8, 9.
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Document ID: 24B42B51

Single-Path Ultrasonic Gas Meters For( End Users) AGA Distribution Measurement Committee Engineering Technical Note
Author(s): Michael B. Hoffer, Dennis R. Montag
Abstract/Introduction:
An initiative driven by British Gas to develop innovative techniques for the measurement of natural gas in distribution systems lead to the development of several designs of single-path ultrasonic gas meters. The design specifications set forth by British Gas required the meters to be more compact, to be cost competitive, and to be of equal or better measurement accuracy than conventional mechanical meters of equivalent size. Residential size ultrasonic meters meeting the criteria established by British Gas entered service in large numbers starting in 1993. To evaluate this emerging gas measurement technology for distribution systems, the Distribution Measurement Committee of the American Gas Association established an ultrasonic meter task group. The task group members have prepared the reference information for measuring natural gas using singlepath ultrasonic flow meters contained in this engineering technical note.
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Document ID: 84AB3D98

Common Ground Alliance Common Ground Alliance Dedicated To Shared Responsibility In Damage Prevention Damage Prevention
Author(s): Bob Kipp
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: FC228B61

Prefabricated Industrial & Commercial Meter Sets
Author(s): Paul Pirro
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 37DCDA1A

The Slotted Plate DP Meter
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
The challenge has always been to develop an accurate flow meter that has a high turn down, a short installation length, is easy to use, is not greatly affected by liquids, and is reasonably inexpensive. Through years of research, the Texas Engineering Experiment Station which is part of The Texas A&M University System, has developed a meter that uses a slotted plate to create the differential pressure. This meter fulfills the requirements of simplicity, high accuracy, high turndown, ease of use, and short installation length. Flowline Meters, Inc. licensed the slotted plate technology from The Texas A&M University System, then developed and patented the hardware to go along with the meter. This hardware includes a centering device for orifice flange unions and a low cost meter that like the high pressure meters is complete with the five diameters pre run, three diameters post run, and a standard installed thermowell. The formula for the single plate slotted DP meter can be easily put into existing flow computers making the slotted DP Meter easy to use with existing technology and equipment.
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Document ID: 6A302A45

Security Of Gas Storage Facilities
Author(s): Lyman Shaffer
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: DD599EF6

Uncertainty Analysis Of Turbine And Ultrasonic Meter Volume Measurements - Part 2, Advanced Topics
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper continues from the first paper1 in describing the process of estimating the uncertainty of volume measurements made with turbine and ultrasonic flowmeters. Components that contribute uncertainty include the pressure and temperature transducers, the gas chromatograph, state equation and flow computer as well as the meter itself. In the first paper each component was described and numerical uncertainty values were estimated based on a hypothetical set of measurements. The individual component values were combined to provide the uncertainty in the total volume. The present paper discusses uncertainty issues associated with calibration, it is organized based on two examples. The first example concerns pressure transducer calibration, the second example discusses flowmeter calibration. Topics include short and long term random effects, percent-of-reading effects, and full-scale effects Additional discussion covers proper interpretation of flowmeter calibration results and guidance to replace manufacturer specifications with calibration results.
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Document ID: 66381642

Analytical Requirements For Hydrocarbon Dewpoint Calculation.
Author(s): Chris Cowper
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon dewpoint is an important characteristic of natural gas in respect of pipeline operation and critical for fuelling of gas turbines. It is usually specified as a limiting temperature above which no liquids can separate from the gas. Sometimes this is replaced with a maximum quantity of condensed liquids specification. In Northern European countries a dewpoint temperature would typically be not greater than -20C (280F) at any pressure. A quantity specification could be not more than 5 mg of condensate per cubic metre (0.04 gallons/MMSCF) at -20C (280F) and any pressure. The at any pressure phrase recognises that the maximum dewpoint temperature (the cricondentherm) is found at a pressure intermediate between those used in transmission and those used in distribution. The de facto method for dewpoint temperature is the cooled mirror device, in which the temperature of a mirror surface in contact with the gas at a selected pressure is recorded as the first appearance of liquid condensate is observed. This may be manual (1) or automatic (2). Hydrocarbon content is measured by treating a flow of gas to the specified temperature at a selected pressure and measuring the rate of liquid condensate formation (3). Measurement of gas composition (4) and calculation of phase properties using an appropriate equation of state (5, 6) gives dewpoint temperature or amount of condensate at specified conditions or both. This paper reviews the physical and analytical approaches and gives guidelines for the latter.
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Document ID: 7EA588CA

Advancements In Residential And Commercial Meter Proving In The 21st Century
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been a number of significant changes made over the past several decades pertaining to gas measurement. The majority of residential gas metering is performed using aluminum-cased diaphragm meters - including newer, compact designs and automated meter reading devices. Light commercial and industrial metering applications primarily use rotary (impeller-type) gas meters, with a number of large aluminum-cased diaphragm meter installations still present. The ultrasonic meter has been accepted as an accurate measurement device for light commercial and industrial loads, and is gradually growing in popularity. Ultrasonic metering is also widely used in transmission metering, as well as gas turbine (inferential) meters. These light commercial, industrial, and transmission gas meters commonly employ advanced electronic correction for pressure and temperature. Gas meter proving equipment, however, has made modest changes over the past several decades. The most significant changes to the gas meter prover have occurred over the past fifteen years. Most of the changes made to gas meter proving equipment have paralleled advancements in computer and electronics technologies. The purpose of the gas meter prover is evolving from a stand-alone prover to a proving and data management tool - not only is it critical for the gas meter prover to accurately prove all size gas meters in the most efficient manner, the prover has become an integral part of a utilitys meter management system. The following discussion will focus on the gas meter prover and the on-going advancements made to gas meter proving into the 21st century. Current proving methods will be compared to those methods used in the past. Finally, future considerations will be made to help the gas meter prover meet the needs of gas utilities in the upcoming years.
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Document ID: 1665F366

Carbon Dioxide As A Test Fluid For Calibration Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Darin L. George, H. L. Larry Fraser, Marybeth Nored, Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Terasen Gas Inc., a natural gas transmission and distribution utility in British Columbia, Canada, has proposed building a test facility for turbine gas meters using carbon dioxide as the test medium. This paper describes the advantages of using carbon dioxide as a test fluid for calibrating turbine meters. It also describes the design and results of a research program conducted at Southwest Research Institute in the fall of 2003. The program investigated the suitability of carbon dioxide for use in this application, through comparison of calibrations in carbon dioxide and natural gas.
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Document ID: A0FFC73B

Integrating Metering, Billing, Security And Control Processes
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and process control equipment has been on a progressive trend over the past decade. Due to continuous improvements, products have developed from pneumatic to electronic processes, reduced in physical size and increased in overall functionality. While the core AGA flow/energy equations have not altered, the electronic equipment calculating these equations has undergone dynamic changes. These changes will dramatically affect the gas industry, bringing new ideas, concepts and realities. This paper has been written to provide the reader with information on recent advancements in measurement and control equipment and what they may offer in the future. Consider the following application: A measurement, billing and control solution that had the ability to integrate seamlessly into the overall company business model. An additional feature (virtual requirement) is the ability to include security/tamperproof methodologies to the measurement infrastructure in unique ways. In the past, combining ruggedness and reliability (engineering and measurement technicians) with integral database, nominations and real time billing information (Marketing, IT/Management (a.k.a. Bean counters) and the consumer had been accomplished with various pieces of hardware and software. The time has come that these functions meld together for a comprehensive one-piece solution.
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Document ID: 3F0BAF60

Improving Orifice Meter Performance: A Case-Study Of Orifice Metering Accuracy From Various Field Stations
Author(s): Frank Brown, Marybeth Nored
Abstract/Introduction:
New metering technologies offer many advantages over the traditional orifice flow meter. Despite the advantages, gas companies must consider the cost of upgrading an existing meter station before installing a new flow meter technology. Often times, the cost associated with an orifice meter replacement involves the cost of the new flow meter, as well as the associated cost of fabricating new meter runs, calibrating the meter and installing the meter and related instrumentation. Because these costs may not be justifiable at all meter stations, U.S. gas companies still rely on orifice flow meter measurement throughout the majority of their pipeline systems.
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Document ID: 9ACBDADA

Modern Meter Testing: Paperless Meter Test Inspection
Author(s): Kenneth Cessac, Sr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Changing World of Field Meter Testing Is your company still performing field meter test inspections at a designated frequency as required by contract or company procedures? Do your field technicians now carry laptop computers, electronic test equipment and the latest technology in communication devices but still record meter test data onto a paper report and mail the reports to the main office for manual processing? Does your company still rely on a desktop calculator to determine volume adjustments for meter calibration errors? If you answered, yes to any one of these questions then you may be able to improve your meter test process, reduce O&M expense, reduce data entry errors, and improve customer relations by implementing an electronic meter test application.
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Document ID: 41E03A58

Columbia Gas Of Kentucky - Portfolio Analysis
Author(s): H. Alan, m. Tina
Abstract/Introduction:
NiSource is a holding company with a number of subsidiaries involved with the generation, distribution and transmission of natural gas and electricity. The territory served by NiSource stretches from the Gulf of Mexico through the Midwest into the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic. NiSource has assets totaling 17 billion with 2003 revenue of 6.2 billion. NiSource owns ten LDCs that provide natural gas service to customers in Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, New Hampshire, Maine and Massachusetts. NiSource LDCs serve 3.3 million customers with 2003 deliveries of 879 Bcf and a peak Day of 5.8 Bcf. Figure 1 Shows NiSources operating area. The focus of this discussion is a study performed for the NiSource LDC Columbia Gas of Kentucky (CKY). This LDC has 143,000 customers with 2003 deliveries of 35 Bcf and peak day of 280 Mdth. CKY is served by two pipelines at the citygate: Columbia Gas Transmission (TCO)and Tennessee Gas Pipeline (TGP).
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Document ID: 737A00C3

Reinforced Polymer Tubing For Higher Pressure Distribution Of Natural Gas
Author(s): John R Wright Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 9237DF5D

Evaluation Of 12-INCH Polyethylene Pipe For Cinergy Gas Distribution
Author(s): Christopher W. Ampfer
Abstract/Introduction:
This report was prepared to provide Cinergy Gas Engineering with a rational for making a decision between 12 MDPE, 12 HDPE, and 12 steel pipe (X-42, 0.219 wall thickness) for use in replacing the remaining 12 main in the AMRP. Differences in the physical properties, engineering properties, material costs, installation costs, and maintenance costs of the pipe materials are compared. Information for this report was gathered from Cinergy Gas Engineering records, published papers, pipe vendors, and other natural gas companies. The unit costs estimated in this report, and the data used to estimate the unit costs are considered confidential to Cinergy Gas Engineering Department therefore, differences in costs are presented rather than presenting the actual cost data.
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Document ID: B6B39541

Curb Meter Development
Author(s): Murray Royce
Abstract/Introduction:
The new American Meter Curb Meter is the result of a joint development between the Sempra Utilities and American Meter Company. Individuals within the two companies sought to provide a solution to an increasing demand for a curb meter replacement. Several options were considered and this is an account of the chosen meter design and its evolution. Some AGA members, particularly those residing in the northern parts of the country, may not be all that familiar with curb meters. These are 200, 400 and 600 cfh series meters that are traditionally cast iron, diaphragm style units with side connections and most importantly, top reading indexes. They are set within a subterranean vault, usually close to the street or curb. Inside the vault is the inlet line, shut off valve, regulator, meter and associated piping. The vault will have a removable top with an access door for the reading of the index. A curb meter vault can be a cool, dry and protected place to locate a meter or it can be a flooded, dirt filled, wet and corrosive nightmare. The resulting deterioration of the meters found in the latter situation can be extremely severe.
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Document ID: D9DA37C5

New Methods In Differential Testing - Rotary Meters
Author(s): Phil Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
Most everyone has a basic understanding of what a Differential Rate Test is and how to perform it. What I will cover in this paper is an overview of this test method that is unique to rotary meters. A portion of the specifics will be covered in the first two pages, followed by the main title of this paper - New Methods In Differential Testing. I will then return to more details about performing a Differential Rate Test and how to use the data to make a decision on the maintenance requirement for the subject meter that has been tested. A Differential Rate Test is an accurate and convenient method of comparing a meters performance to previous or original performance records. It is widely recognized that many State Utility Commissions or other regulator agencies accept it as a means of periodically substantiating that the original accuracy of a meter has remained unchanged.
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Document ID: 88DB7CBA

Remote Diagnostics Of Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Householder, Skule E. Smrgrav
Abstract/Introduction:
The present-day telecommunication network provides the means for fast distribution of data and the monitoring of field mounted devices. It has given producers, operators, and maintenance personnel the ability to communicate by data transmission over a network from computer to computer and remote computers to databanks. The use of modems and landline connections has allowed users and manufacturers of ultrasonic meters, multiphase meters and other computer monitored devices a limited but effective outlet for their internal trending and diagnostic information. This has led to higher accuracy in predicting potential failures in the field and lower down times through faster response to these failures, as well as increased data retrieval and logging. However, the use of trending and diagnostic features were only available in areas where clean, secure phone lines were pre-existing, dedicated or installed specific for the project.
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Document ID: 040291BC

Expanding Engineering Training For Pipeline Integrity
Author(s): Glyn Hazelden
Abstract/Introduction:
As we become entrenched in the requirements of Pipeline Integrity rulemaking, the needs and demands of an Integrity Management Plan should become second nature within the Pipeline Company or LDC organization. Existing staff will need to develop the design basis and Operating and Maintenance responses to mandates that will become standard. In facing the many decisions on main design, assessment and replacement, engineering personnel should have the necessary tools to successfully address issues that come up. Training of staff will be a key factor in preparing for a successful program.
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Document ID: CFFD6495

Prediction Of Liquid Condensed From Natural Gas
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
A method is presented for prediction of liquid condensed from natural gases in operating gas pipelines. From a typical gas chromatographic analysis of the single phase gas, coupled with a single chilled mirror or other dew point temperature measurement of the gas at pipeline pressure, the gas analysis is extended mathematically so the Peng-Robinson equation of state will match the single measured dew point. The resultant extended analysis then can be used with confidence of reasonable accuracy for liquid condensed, especially near the dew point. The benefit to the industry of this method is the fact that (1) the extreme accuracy required for the use of an extended analysis chromatogram is avoided and (2) the accuracy requirements for the equation of state used are diminished.
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Document ID: FDD325C7

Preparing For A Rcra Inspection
Author(s): Lisa Devine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0E184077

Enhanced Electronics For Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel W. Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents some recent improvements in the high frequency pulse outputs for single and dual rotor turbine meters along with developments of compact, advanced functionality, low power consumption electronic accessory instruments providing high accuracy volume correction, registration tracking and meter health monitoring.
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Document ID: 5612833D

Elevated Pressure Applications Of Pe Materials
Author(s): Perry Sheth
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: E6031D34

Gas Inventory Gas Inventory Verification Methodology
Author(s): Walter L. Dowdle
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 8FADD5F3

Supply Balancing
Author(s): Andrea Mills, Mark Bolze
Abstract/Introduction:
As the natural gas industry began to deregulate and unbundle products and services, the need arose to be able to better predict supply requirements on a daily basis for third party suppliers. It became evident that there was also a need to be able to balance all supply being delivered at Local Distribution city-gates. Therefore, Advantica designed solutions for recommending and balancing nominations for marketers of retail meters and for marketers of daily read meters. This paper provides some insights into the background and application of these solutions through discussions of: a. How deregulation evolved and where it is today. b. How deregulation and unbundling was established at Washington Gas c. The utilization of Advanticas products at Washington Gas. d. Specific features and implementation considerations for the Retail Marketer Advisor (RMA) and Forecaster systems.
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Document ID: E97C02DC

Development Of A Wireless Cathodic Protection Monitor
Author(s): Christopher Ziolkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this project was to develop and commercialize a system to automate the collection of cathodic protection (CP) data. This objective was successfully met. KeySpan Energy and the GTI Sustaining Membership Program (SMP) jointly funded this project. The initial device specification was tailored to the needs of the Brooklyn Union (BU) distribution territory, an area predominantly protected by galvanic cells consisting of buried sacrificial anodes connected to the pipe. The BU procedure required for a CP data reading was to take a pipe-to-soil potential reading with respect to a reference cell placed in contact with the soil. This reading is taken with the sacrificial anode connected and then disconnected. The current from the anode while connected is also taken. The initial prototypes performed these functions and provided the additional function of deriving a power supply from the anode current. The initial prototypes, deployed in 1997, showed several shortcomings. The packaging needed modification to provide greater longevity in the buried environment. The anode-derived power supply required a certain minimum corrosion activity to operate the CP monitor. The permanent burial reference cells originally used were expensive and also had longevity issues.
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Document ID: D893F651

Propane-Air Plants Streamlining Operations Through The Use Of Technology
Author(s): John Hoch, Kevin Ritz
Abstract/Introduction:
Control schemes for propane-air systems have undergone a tremendous change over the past 15 years. Pushed primarily by the need to improve reliability, while simultaneously reducing or reordering manpower requirements, control systems have transformed the operation of these plants in fundamental ways. This paper explores propane-air systems and their use in a natural gas infrastructure, and provides an overview of control requirements and how modern control technologies are being applied to these systems. Natural-gas utilities have long used propane-air plants to supplement, or peak shave, gas deliveries during periods of high demand. End users also use these systems, having been given economic incentive to be interruptible gas consumers. Sometimes propane-air is used to allow development of a natural gas infrastructure when natural gas is not yet available. All these uses involve the same mixture of propane and air, differing only in the point at which injection into the natural gas system takes place. Figure 1 illustrates where these systems are installed at the distribution end of the network. The reason for this location has to do with properties of propane and air mixtures and the economics that drive installation of propane-air facilities.
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Document ID: A562BB09

The Application Of Mems Technology To On-Line Analyzers For Natural Gas
Author(s): Johan Bats
Abstract/Introduction:
Recently MEMS technology has enabled a new level of performance for on-line natural gas analysis. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology combines mechanical and electronical techniques on a micro-scale. Using micro-machining processing steps developed by the IC industry, chip-level devices are created which not only allow for a significant improvement of the interaction between these 2 disciplines, but also provides a much better control of the processes which occur on this micro-scale. Gas chromatography is one of the most suited scientific disciplines for MEMS technology. Besides the obvious size reduction (with the associated decrease in production and installation costs) and the reduction in consumables (both power and gas consumption), MEMS technology has a major impact on the analytical performance.
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Document ID: 4FFAFEB3

Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): Elizabeth Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6C8917FA

A Method To Evaluate Automatic Hydrocarbon Dewpoint Analyzers
Author(s): Olivier Dusart, Pierre Desenfant, Jean-Marie Henault, Sandrine Meunier, Carine Ryszfeld, Marc Le Bail
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids in natural gas have been an issue for many years, as they may induce damages in the transmission and distribution networks, or consumer facilities. Two different origins can be distinguished : compressor oil, and condensation of heavy hydrocarbons from natural gas itself. To prevent condensation of these heavy hydrocarbons, specifications on hydrocarbon dewpoint have been enforced in many countries in Europe. In the new context of a deregulated gas market in Europe, hydrocarbon dewpoint has become a key specification, but it is still very hard to determine as no standard method exists. This paper will describe a method to evaluate the performances of automatic hydrocarbon dewpoint analyzers, which are commonly used on field. Three instruments have been tested, and their results compared with calculations from composition and equation of state.
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Document ID: F0121501


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