Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2004)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Multiphase Flow Measurement
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet gas and wet gas metering has always been done. But only recently has any attempt been made to define wet gas and a method to measure it. Dr. Parviz Mehdizadeh in a white paper, API project 2002-100094 presents the following definition of wet gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5EFD08EA

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Ace A. Astala
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review the fundamentals of pressure regulators as used the natural gas industry. The word regulator as defined by Webster is 1: a person or thing that regulators, 2: a mechanism for controlling the movement of machinery, fluids gasses, etc. In this paper we will look at the second definition of the word and talk about a mechanical devices that are used for pressure regulators. There are two main types of regulators used with natural gas pressure reducing regulators and backpressure regulators (also referred to as relief regulators).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BFD70370

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, fluctuating gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every energy delivery company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7168F6D2

Asgmt / Averaging Pitot Tube Flow Measurement
Author(s): Michael Montgomery
Abstract/Introduction:
Reliable, accurate flow measurement continues to be a high priority for todays instrument engineer. The technology options available for flow measurement are greater now than ever before. Many new and developing technologies are now becoming more accepted in gas flow and other fluid flow applications. Despite all of the new technology, the majority of flow measurement devices installed today are traditional differential pressure (DP) sensors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FDB95B8F

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): James R. Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronics in the measurement and control of natural gas systems is now firmly established. Some subsystems are still controlled by mechanical or pneumatic means however, the majority of control, and measurement, is by electronics. The rise of computercontrolled systems, enabling real time measurement and control, has revolutionized the natural gas industry. Central offices now have information on the entire system updated in real time. This information is invaluable in making decisions concerning system health, capacity, and safety. The responsibility of keeping this critical data flowing falls on the field personnel. An understanding of some basic principles of electronics will make troubleshooting these electronic data and control systems easier for the field technician.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2C4E83C7

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters For Custody Transfer Measurement
Author(s): Jim Micklo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EEA86343

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 082CD31D

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Ken Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, the need for reliable measurement has been satisfied over many decades through the use of orifice meters. The orifice meter is the most common meter in use today and can satisfy most application requirements. This paper will address the basic theory of measurement and overview primary orifice fittings and meter tubes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A571F592

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Matthew Dewitt
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 08FAD027

Fundamentals And Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm meter is a positive displacement instrument which is used to measure the volume of gas that passes through it. This is accomplished through the known volume that is displaced for each stroke of the diaphragm. The diaphragm also provides the seal between the measuring chambers of the device. As such the diaphragm meter has proven to be an accurate and reliable means of measurement of gas for many years. This is especially true at low flow rates because of its positive displacement characteristics. This paper includes a brief history of diaphragm meters, an explanation of the operation of the diaphragm meter, a basic review of the function and design of the positive displacement meter, discusses meter ratings and capacity, and introduces temperature compensation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 22C5F80C

Construction, Operation, Installation And Maintenance Of Mechanical And Electronic Rotary Gas Meters
Author(s): John Michalak
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary gas meters have been in use for over sixty years in the natural gas distribution industry. Over the years, the construction has switched from heavy cast iron bodies to lighter, high strength aluminum. Advances in manufacturing techniques such as CNC machining centers have enhanced the measurement performance of the rotary meter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5C4CA6A2

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F7F6690E

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DC2C07B0

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As the gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8F28AE0E

Gas Flow Conditioning Devices Used To Pre-Condition The Gas Flow Profile Prior To Measurement.
Author(s): Klaus J Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe fittings such as: bends, Tees, reducers, headers, valves, filters, strainers, heat exchangers, etc, affect the velocity profile in the downstream pipe. These profile distortions are known to affect the performance of flow meters. The magnitude of the effect depends upon both the severity of the distortion and the sensitivity of the meter (Ref. 1).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 84D75ACD

Various Methods Can Be Used To Verify Gc Data At A Custody Meter Station
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Most On-line gas chromatographs operate for long periods of time without developing biased or even outright unacceptable measurement. Therefore, most users undertake system- wide performance testing infrequently. But as rising gas prices demand increased scrutiny on measurement data - flow volume, energy content, and often hydrocarbon dewpoint analysis -- many measurement staffs may search for better performance testing of GCs, often for the first time. Others may already have adequate performance testing in place but want to review it for completeness. The following points out various factors to be considered.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AF6A6234

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Paula B. Lanoux
Abstract/Introduction:
The monetary value of natural gas is based on its energy content and volume. The energy content and physical constants utilized in determining its volume are computed from analysis. Therefore correct assessment of the value of natural gas is dependent to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1D39EF2F

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the world. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C16AE5ED

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Bonds The attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds are called chemical bonds. There are two major classes of bonds--ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Most of the bonds involved in natural gas components are single covalent bonds. A single covalent bond consists of a pair of electrons shared by two atoms. A double bond is two pair of electrons shared between two atoms. Some minor components of natural gas may contain both single and double bonds. Aromatic molecules, such as benzene, contain covalent bonds where multiple electrons are shared among more than two atoms.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 785160BB

Techniques Of Natural Gas Composit Sampling
Author(s): George L. Bell, Sr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A natural gas sample may collected as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph. The most important things in taking a sample are where and how the sample is taken.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3FDB8EC1

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B47EE781

Operations Of On-Line Chromatography
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 59EB9F82

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Claudio Cecarelli
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standards are an often neglected but very necessary piece of the puzzle for the gas industry. This paper gives insight into the issues of preparing and verifying the calibration standards used in labs every day. So that everyone is on the same page, it is important to answer a few simple questions about calibration standards. First, what is a calibration standard? A simple answer to this question is, a calibration standard is a mixture or blend of known concentrations of specified components used to confirm or determine the concentrations of these same components in a sample.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 48730896

Methods For The Determination Of Specific Gravity
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean. Specific Gravity is formally defined as the ratio of gas density to air density when both are at standard conditions of 0 Degree C and 760 mm Hg. Over the years the definition evolved to become the ratio of gas density to air density at the same temperature and pressure, Relative to each other. Hence, the term Relative Density. This is the most commonly used definition today. The fixed or Specific requirement of temperature and pressure, (0 degree C and 760 mm Hg), had been removed over the years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 58FB45E2

Devices For Water Vapor Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to review the different sensor technologies that are in use today for the measurement of water vapor content in natural gas. It will also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sample delivery system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device. Natural gas is one of the most widely used fuels today for everything from home heating to power generation, and maintaining the gas quality is of great concern. The determination of the water vapor content in natural gas is one of several key factors used to determine the ultimate quality of the gas. With economic conditions as they exist today, many companies have been forced to cut personnel in order to maintain a reasonable balance sheet. The loss of experienced measurement technicians places a heavy burden on instrument manufacturers to provide an accurate and reliable means of making this measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A8B4E07C

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): Mark Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. The historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy is discussed, including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CE752397

Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BBCEAB19

Automation Systems For Gas Transmission And Distribution Pipelines
Author(s): Doug Osburn
Abstract/Introduction:
The automation systems that control and measure natural gas flow in transmission and distribution pipelines often involve two systems. The system that controls the gas flow in a pipeline is called a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system and an AMR (Automated Meter Reading) system measures the amount of gas flowing into, and out of, the pipeline. These automation systems which can be completely separate or combined are widely distributed throughout the service area of a pipeline and must rely heavily on long-distance communication technologies to telemeter the data necessary to coordinate and monitor pipeline activities. This is the most challenging aspect of the automation problem as the communication system is the most exposed component to service interruptions and degradation. Strategies should be implemented in the system design that will maintain continued safe operations of the pipeline during periods of communication failure.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2668BD9F

How To Perform A Lost & Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-andunaccounted- for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom as shown below. As shown in this inset, by reducing L&U from 6/10 percent to 1/4 percent, a typical company with a 2 Bcf daily throughput could achieve 10 million annually in bottom line benefits based on 4.00 gas prices.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5EA50324

Coriolis Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base or more than 350,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 20,000 units on gas around the world, measurement organizations around the world are involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7BD6B2F3

Principles Of Natural Gas Odorization
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source in the United States, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered essential and a fuel of the future.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 706A4035

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9C24B5B3

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters Field Testing Of High Pressure Gas Turbine Meters Using Portable Prover Techniques.
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the unaccounted for natural gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. If the company undercharges it has lost money and if it over charges it has the risk of law suits later for huge amounts of money.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 901C7B14

Local And Wide Area Networking Of Gas Flow Computer
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Communication has been around ever since man developed language and hand signs to exchange and share ideas. Smoke signals were used in the ancient world to send information from one place to another. In fact, a smoke signal is one form of wireless communication. The advance in semiconductors, communication, network and computer technology has led to the growth of electronic forms of communication. Electronic data can be transferred between computers in the same office and sometimes even between offices in different cities.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8336DB7C

Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5D0584A3

Inspection Of Regulators & Relief Valves
Author(s): John Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators and Over Pressure Protection Devices (OPPD) must be inspected in accordance to Federal and State Law and Company policy. Over pressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream piping in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include a relief valve, a monitor regulator, or a positive pressure shut off. In Texas, inspection interval must be at least once per calendar year, at intervals of no more than 15 months.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 58811C78

Remote Meter Reading Methods Of Retrieving Data By Use Of Remote Devices
Author(s): Arun Sehgal
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote meter reading is a fast growing trend in Natural Gas industry. As per industry estimates, close to 14 million gas meters in the United States are read remotely. This paper presents the advantages of remote meter reading and explains the various technologies in use.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6294F434

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy markets and the environment of FERC Order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0D1AB19B

An Overview And Update Of AGA Report No. 9
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association published Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1 in June 1998. It is a recommended practice for using ultrasonic meters (USMs) in fiscal (custody) measurement applications. This paper reviews some of history behind the development of AGA Report No. 9 (often referred to as AGA 9), key contents and includes information on meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. Anticipated changes that should be published in the next revision, expected to be published early in 2005, are also presented.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39A120D3

Lessons Learned From The API Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Project: An Overview Of Common Causes Of Gas Sample Distortion And Information Needd For Proper Gas Sampling
Author(s): Eric Kelner, Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past seven years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and was published in 2001.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B08F2AA0

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benifits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. Although AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1, currently only recommends flow calibration for ultrasonic flowmeters, the next revision will likely require flow calibration for all ultrasonic custody transfer applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CB95819B

Understanding The Different Standards That Govern Measurement An Overview Of The Different Standards That Govern Measurement
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
No national standards for measurement were accepted until the early 1930s. The use of installation and volumetric calculation procedures required an individual contract agreement for each custody transfer delivery. The founders of the American Gas Association (AGA) commissioned research by the United States National Bureau Standards (NBS) to develop data that would lead to their first orifice meter standard, AGA Report No. 1. The AGA issued the first revision of the orifice meter standard Report No. 2 later in the 1930s. In 1963, the initial version of AGA Report No. 3 governing orifice measurement was published. AGA voted to retain the title, AGA Report No. 3 for all subsequent revision.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E56EA0E9

Report On API 21.1 Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
In September of 1993 API published a new section of the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards titled Chapter 21 Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems, Section 1 Electronic Gas Measurement. This report provides an overview of the API 21.1 document with the intent of serving as a primer and something of an introduction to the publication.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C579E6F4

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A808DB73

Swri Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr., Dr. Darin L. George, Eric Kelner Dr. Thomas B. Morrow, Marybeth G. Nored
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Technology Institute (GTI and formerly known as the Gas Research Institute or GRI) and the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) jointly sponsor a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization program aimed, in large part, at improving natural gas metering performance in the field. Recent research has focused on developing new, more cost-effective technologies, as well as improving conventional measurement technologies. This article summarizes recent research efforts in support of the GTI/PRCI program conducted at the Metering Research Facility (MRF) located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. The MRF is a highaccuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 80D815C0

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA- 3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A7CE7A13

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3 / AGA 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Tom Cathey
Abstract/Introduction:
In April of 2003, revisions to the specification and installation requirements for orifice meters was published by the American Gas Association in the form of the AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2, Fourth Edition. The revisions or changes in the following categories are significant when compared to the 1991 Third Edition publication of AGA Report No. 3 and will be discussed in greater detail throughout this paper:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AD381BEA

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 360B890C

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies goals for a greener image raises the standards of operations even higher, the demands placed on accurate hydrocarbon measurement with minimal maintenance, space and weight requirements becomes increasingly greater. These financial, governmental and technical challenges coupled with normally high flow rates and therefore wide flow range requirements have enhanced the development and application of new technology such as ultrasonic gas and liquid meters, multiphase flow meters, microwave and near infared (NIR) water cut analyzers, coriolis flow meters for oil and gas and compact orifice meter tubes utilizing isolating flow conditioners and liquid meter provers. This paper will attempt to provide guidelines in selecting, installing and operating this equipment to insure cost effective designs and reliable operation with a high degree of accuracy. Since the authors background is primarily in project design, emphasis will be placed on the decision process of selecting, installing and commissioning metering equipment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F62D8B70

Overall Measurement Accuracy - Determination And Influence
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B8F25A07

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 75482440

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BE12036D

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1D12AC62

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement 2004
Author(s): Tom R. Cheney
Abstract/Introduction:
The fast pace changes in technology continue to keep us is a state of flux. There isnt any one who isnt impacted by the continuous growth and changes in the world of technology. In todays world, we accept computers and the functions they perform without question. In fact, we place our hard-earned dollars and in many cases our very lives in their care and control without a second thought. Computers and electronic technologies have greatly impacted the way work is done in the oil and gas industry. A good example of how these changes have impacted this business is the use of electronic gas measurement devices often called (EFMs).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F17FD23C

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic calibrators are fast becoming the benchmark for measurement and are replacing mechanical types of instruments for testing and calibration checks. Techniques, usage, traceability requirements, and problems are changing quickly as technology advances in the development of these instruments. Information concerning these issues is often outdated by the time the technician receives it.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 187D7B62

Low Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Matthew Diese
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement has evolved over the last few decades from simple paper chart recorders to sophisticated electronic flow computers. That evolution came about because of technology advances that allow systems to do much more with less power. That power requirement is dictated by the nature of gas exploration and production. Inevitably, natural gas will be found in extremely remote locations. The remoteness of these locations causes many problems that must be overcome by technology. The most elemental of those hurdles is the lack of on site power
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 81A3394C

Grounding Practices For Automation Controls
Author(s): Alan Rebeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether lightning damage or lightning voltages induced between equipment cabinets as a result of multi-grounding causing mis-operation of computerized electronics, improper grounding can account for up to 40 percent of power-related problems including costly damage and downtime. In addition, transient overvoltages-a high voltage spike or impulse of very short duration-can account for another 40 percent if not adequately suppressed. Transient overvoltages can be produced by lightning, power companies switching feeders or capacitor banks, or load switching at customer facilities. These large voltages, lasting only a short period of time, are injected into power and data circuits causing equipment destruction and safety hazards.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C5248D3C

The Methods To Determine The Proper Odorization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Paul Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 314592EC

Operator Qualification Understanding Operator Qualification Program Compliance
Author(s): Michael D. Reagan
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) held the opinion that actions of personnel operating and maintaining pipelines and pipeline facilities was a significant contributing factor to pipeline accidents. While accident reporting criteria established by OPS did not clearly indicate that personnel error was a major cause of accidents, there was a common belief that personnel actions were likely a factor in almost all accidents. The regulatory community held that personnel actions contributing to an accident could fall into two basic categories: 1) accidents caused immediately by incorrectly performing a task. Closing a valve which leads to overpressure and a rupture is an example of this category, and 2) accidents caused by personnels failure to recognize a condition and/or perform a task correctly. An example of this action might be that cathodic readings were taken improperly and active corrosion was allowed to persist which led to eventual failure of the pipeline.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CF9DD751

Advanced Communication Design
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
A part of the decision making process when selecting the specific wireless communication devices for a project should be a complete understanding of all the challenges and needs of the project. If you have completed the Telemetry Questionnaire outlined in the Basic paper, you have answered most of the questions necessary to understand the requirements needed from the communication devices available to select from.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6FEB2149

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems An Overview Of Scada Telemetry, Information, Security And Use In The Transmission System
Author(s): Chris J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern business and security imperatives coupled with rapid technological change require key new architectural elements for SCADA systems These elements are discussed along with more traditional block diagram fundamentals, so that the reader might better understand migration and adaptation strategies for their transmission pipeline operations in the new millennium.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F16280EB

D.O.T. Title 49 Regulations For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Tom Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the United States needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas, and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation. The department of Transportation (D.O.T.) Title 49 covers the rules and regulations for the manufacture, handling, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Whether you use specially-built sample containers, old homemade sample containers, old World War II oxygen bottles, gigantic sample containers, or very small cylinders, if you are transporting those sample containers in your vehicles or you are shipping them by common carrier and they have hazardous materials in them, you must be aware of the rules that govern the handling of those cylinders.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5649F0E3

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): David L. Gaines
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern methods for collecting Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) data are driven by existing and emerging demands throughout the industry for more accurate and timely collection, reconciliation, accounting and sharing of gas measurement data as well as regulatory demands for increased operational safety and control of oil and natural gas production, collection and distribution. Increased bandwidth requirements are forcing companies to explore new communications technologies and field equipment to provide solutions to these demands. At the same time companies are trying to improve the management efficiency of their presently installed equipment and communications infrastructure.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 91102790

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Our industry has seen tremendous progress in the accuracy of natural gas measurement since the implementation of electronic gas measurement (EGM) in the 1980s. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented effect on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts should include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, they should represent both buyer and seller in the most equitable manner possible. This writing discusses some of the challenges in our industry, both Then and Now, while recommending measurement provisions for gas contracts.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BECAD2D4

Training Of Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Shon Meadows
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been held that the measurement function is the cash register for the energy industry. Other facts that relate to measurement are that it involves the application of scientific laws, knowledge of physical properties, application of mathematics, and facilitated in an environment based on industry standards and company policies and procedures. Also, ask someone who is not employed in the energy industry what that person knows about energy measurement. Chances are that he or she will know very little. So, the energy measurement function, while a cash register for the industry and based on science, is also a unique activity that requires specific knowledge, skills and experience. What types of unique qualifications are needed will be identified and some methods for providing training for measurement personnel will be discussed.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B0A8C78C

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 221F930D

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): John Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
Why audit? Our gas flow is being recorded by state of the art electronic flow computers that have gone through rigorous testing before they even went out into the field. I will attempt to answer the question -Why Audit - because you not only need to have a thorough understanding of the audit process you need to understand why the audit process is extremely important to your company.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0153E40D

Internet Based Measurement Monitoring & Control
Author(s): Brad Austin
Abstract/Introduction:
I. Introduction Pipeline and production companies are continually faced with challenge of obtaining operational data and making it available to their employees. In recent years the convergence in the advances in the technologies of the Internet, PCs, client/server technology, and IP ready communications have brought forth a new lower cost alternative to traditional SCADA systems. With the growing numbers of experienced and reputable suppliers of web based data monitoring and control systems in the market today, the feasibility of automating locations has changed. No longer do only the most productive wells or gathering systems receive consideration for automation. In todays technologically advanced environment even marginal producing wells can now benefit from the data monitoring and management services previously economical on only the more productive locations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A83C9E91

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well training in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical process involved as well. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FF041BCF

Basic Scada Communication Design
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of many aspects of SCADA systems. It begins with defining the systems while also covering communications technologies, system design and radio equipment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 54858011

Communication Between Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next, corporate downsizing has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing requirements with a daily closing schedule is knocking on the door and has already arrived at some locations. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AA91F7E5

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and linear metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1903DEC7

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group will read the chart, apply information supplied by the field, calculate the amount of gas delivered, and generate and deliver volume statements to the customer.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BDB120E1

Chart Auditing: A New Perspective
Author(s): John Hoffman, Mark Fillman
Abstract/Introduction:
The founder of Coastal Flow Measurement, Jerry Fillman, authored a paper entitled Chart Auditing: Another Perspective in 1984. Then, as now, the relationship between buyers and sellers of natural gas, the various sources of measurement error, and the establishment of more stringent standards for orifice chart measurement are subjects for concern. While the measurement industry has seen considerable progress in the past 20 years, chart auditing has changed little. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of chart auditing from a more contemporary perspective.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 466CABAF

North American Energy Standards Board What It Is And Its Role In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Donna Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
The North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) was incorporated in 1994 as the Gas Industry Standards Board. The organization is an industry-led effort to develop business practice standards, communications and e-commerce protocols for the natural gas industry. The Gas Industry Standards Board was expanded in January 2002 to include the wholesale gas and electric and retail gas and electric sectors of the energy industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BC1A4B7C

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained, has created the need for an electronic data management system. Properly designed and implemented, a measurement data management system adds functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 493A9D43


Copyright © 2017