Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2003)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Introduction To The Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Bob Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Science interprets nature in terms of matter and energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are many types of energy such as heat energy, electrical energy, kinetic energy (energy of motion), and potential energy (intrinsic energy of an object due to the position of the object).
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Document ID: 32772E53

Field Proving
Author(s): Phil Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a basic overview of the different test methods most commonly used in the natural gas industry for testing commercial and industrial capacity gas meters, with a more comprehensive review on the theory of transfer proving and recommended operational procedures
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Document ID: AC95BEFE

Trends In Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): Danny Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The North American natural gas market of today reflects the numerous changes caused by deregulation, trading fluctuations, and market demands, and technology. Deregulation has driven the energy market to become a commodities business. Natural gas companies are forced to differentiate themselves in services and products in order to be successful and thrive in this changing marketplace. The capabilities of gas measurement information systems have changed, and are still changing, to reflect the new challenges faced by these companies. This paper will reflect the recent and upcoming trends in measurement information systems.
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Document ID: 5B6F5372

Fundamental Principles Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Keith Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will concentrate on the fundamentals and principles of natural gas pressure regulators. In the gas regulators conception it was mainly a device used to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, more is expected from the performance of the pressure regulator. Pressure reduction is no longer the only function needed. The regulator is considered an integral measurement instrument that must adhere to the stringent codes put forth by the U.S. Federal Department of Transportation and many state Public Utility Commissions
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Document ID: 76398420

Introduction To Regulator And Relief Sizing
Author(s): Lance Loehding
Abstract/Introduction:
Sizing regulators and relief valves properly in a gas system is a fundamental yet critical step to providing safe, reliable service to customers, and achieving a long service life from the regulation equipment installed. This paper will discuss fundamental sizing and cover some of the different considerations when choosing different types of regulators
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Document ID: B4B5E21C

Introduction To Overpressure Protection
Author(s): Steve Pastrano
Abstract/Introduction:
As far as we know, the first over pressure protection equipment used for natural gas, was a pressure relief device. It consisted of a pressurized pipe faced down into a pool (pot) of liquid (water, oil or mercury). On an over pressure, the gas would displace the liquid seal over the end of the pipe and bubble to the atmosphere. The gas industry has progressed since the use of liquid seal devices. We will discuss the various methods of overpressure protection that is currently utilized in the gas industry
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Document ID: A8502D91

Essentials Of Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Thomas R. Caddy
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of a regulator station involves many factors ranging from conveniences to government requirements. Early consideration given to these items may prevent problems or costly changes once the station is on-line
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Document ID: 2453207C

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators that utilize a single rubber element that performs the same function as both valve and actuator are known as flexible element regulators. The first type of flexible element regulator was developed and manufactured by the Grove Regulator Company in the 1950s. The Grove Flexflo was referred to as an expansible-tube type because a tube or rubber sleeve was stretched over a slotted metal core separating the inlet and outlet of the regulator. The tube expanded when flow passed through the regulator
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Document ID: EA897A2A

Regulator Freeze Protection
Author(s): Michael W. Gillis
Abstract/Introduction:
In the transportation of natural gas from wellhead to consumer, service conditions will be encountered which may cause the gas and equipment used to regulate and control pressure to experience freezing conditions. Ignoring these design considerations will result in reduced facility reliability and increased operating and maintenance costs
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Document ID: 211FE352

Regulating Large Industrial Loads
Author(s): Ed Toews
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditional gas custody transfer points between pipeline companies or between pipelines and conventional large industrial users generally follow common designs and are well understood. Large industrial gas loads such as power plants, on the other hand, present measurement and regulation issues different from the typical custody transfer sites. These issues arise from three constraints not found in common custody transfer meter sets.
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Document ID: 97222520

Troubleshooting Regulators And Control Valves
Author(s): Paul R. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure-reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: E509057D

Introduction To Gas Metering
Author(s): Kent H Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters are the back bone of any natural gas company. Without meters, it is impossible to track the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. One would never know how much gas is flowing through their system at any given time or if any or how much is being lost. It would be impossible to know how much gas any one customer was using. Payment would have to be on an as connected basis and would be difficult to judge how much to charge each custome
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Document ID: 6C615594

Applications Of Smart Technology For Pressure Control In Natural Gas
Author(s): Dennis F. Landrum
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas distribution companies are responsible for operating their system within a safe pressure range. Regulator set points are normally fixed for anywhere between 3 and 12 months at a time. In areas where there are extreme seasonal temperature variations, regulator set points are adjusted to correspond to the changes in demand. These set points are determined by evaluating the system demand during peak load.
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Document ID: B350A75F

Introduction To Gas Quality
Author(s): Robert Hornberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality is a vital part of determining the value of the natural gas that is being produced, gathered, transported or consumed. Gas quality measurement is also important for the safety and environmental impact of the pipeline system.
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Document ID: FF8FA9EF

Gas Odorants: Health, Environment And Safe Handling
Author(s): Vicente Santa Cruz David C. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
substances for odorizing natural and liquid propane gas. Their extremely low odor threshold and powerful olfactory impact make them ideal warning agents. Mercaptans unique physical properties, including flammability, present unique challenges to personnel, communities, and emergency response services. In addition, mercaptans health and environmental concerns have prompted further studies and assessments to better understand how to protect the public and ensure that these materials are handled safely. This paper is an overview of current hazard information and recommended safe handling procedures as applicable to natural and liquid propane gas odorants
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Document ID: 731A14B6

Overview Of Odorization Systems And Discussion Of Dot Compliance
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process we are mandated to know about, and with on daily basis. So why is it that no one likes to work with odorant? Could it be the distinctive smell that gets on our clothing, causing problems with family, friends, neighbors, and the public in general?
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Document ID: A148ED70

Gas Sampling Methods And Standards
Author(s): Kris A. Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described
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Document ID: 2A4D99BE

Filtration / Separation Systems For Natural Gas
Author(s): John A. Krogue
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate (or repeatable) operation of natural gas measurement devices requires natural gas to be free of contaminants. The efficient, cost effective, and maintenance free operation of equipment found in natural gas pipelines and in equipment and processes using natural gas feed also require natural gas to be free from contamination. The level of cleanliness depends upon the equipment and its function in the process. The increasing requirements of environmental friendliness and regulation require a higher level of cleanliness than has been required in the past.
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Document ID: 1C37FE13

Pulsation Mitigation In Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation is any periodic variation in pressure and flow velocity at one location in a pipe and from point to point along the pipe. Many common features in pipelines, including compressors, pressure regulators, control valves, and pipe branches cause or contribute to pulsation. In turn, pulsation causes errors in nearly all types of flow meters used for gas flow measurement. This paper not only discusses the sources of pulsation and shows how pulsation adversely affects flow meters, but also explains in detail applicable methods for mitigation of pulsation effects. Properly designed acoustic filters are the most effective means for eliminating pulsation, and a design method for a simple acoustic filter is presented. Other methods to control the sources, reduce the effects, or attenuate the amplitude of pulsation are also discussed.
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Document ID: 05AB355C

Fugitive Emissions In The Kyoto Context
Author(s): Roger Ord
Abstract/Introduction:
Having ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 17th 2002, the federal government of Canada now indicates that reporting of verifiable GHG emissions will start for 2004 emissions. At least 11 American States have implemented Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission controls of one form or another, and this number is growing. Mexico ratified the Kyoto Protocol several years ago. Canada and the United States are both in the process of implementing domestic GHG emissions trading systems
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Document ID: B96337D1

Coalbed Natural Gas In The Powder River Basin
Author(s): Joseph C. Icenogle
Abstract/Introduction:
Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States has been the subject of significant debate lately. The consistent characteristic of the major coal bed natural gas plays in the United States is that they are all different. They differ in the process in which the natural gas is generated (thermogenic v. biogenic), water quality, depths of the coals and reserve base. The purpose of this paper is to inform you on the specifics of the CBNG development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana
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Document ID: 0A3FBE7D

Security At Gas Metering Facilities
Author(s): John O. Kirk
Abstract/Introduction:
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, at New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania changed the way America and in our case how Corporate America does and will do business in the foreseeable future. 9/11 was the most horrific terrorist act ever perpetrated in the U.S. The whole world watched in horror as the Twin Towers eventually collapsed taking with them the lives of thousands. A few hundred miles away another plane crashed into the Pentagon and another crashed into a field in Pennsylvania
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Document ID: 171D8FC3

Introduction To Turbine Meters
Author(s): John A. Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic types of meters, positive displacement and inferential. Positive displacement meters, consisting mainly of diaphragm and rotary style devices, generally account for lower volume measurement. Orifice, ultrasonic and turbine meters are the three main inferential class meters used for large volume measurement today. Turbines are typically considered to be a repeatable device used for accurate measurement over large and varying pressures and flow rates.
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Document ID: 38D93B4A

Cathodic Protection Overview
Author(s): Joe L. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Buried pipelines carrying various products require protection from outside elements. Elements affecting coated and bare pipelines include corrosion, High Voltage Alternate Current (HVAC) rights of way and damage from other utilities. Protection from these forces is accomplished utilizing many methods. Material selection is one method
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Document ID: CD766B0C

Shop Testing Of Rotary Meters And Associated Devices In Canada
Author(s): Greg Penner
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide an outline for the presentation and discussion of the requirements for the shop verification testing of rotary meters and associated devices in Canada. It is geared towards those with limited exposure to gas measurement
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Document ID: DAEC7A3E

Fundamentals Of Multipath Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): William Bill() Stephens
Abstract/Introduction:
concerning large capacity ultrasonic meters as they relate to AGA Report Number 9 (AGA 9), Measurement of Gas by Ultrasonic Meters. The paper focuses on custody transfer, multipath wetted ultrasonic flow meter applications 4 inches and larger. Meters discussed include Instromet Q.Sonic, Daniel SeniorSonic and FMC MPU 1200. In this paper, multipath is defined as a single spool piece meter with three or more independent pairs of transducers. This paper will cover basic ultrasonic metering fundamentals. Because this technology is rapidly changing with new processes and techniques, always consult the manufacturer and refer to the most current edition of AGA 9.
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Document ID: 1EB3BE23

Ultrasonic Meter Station Design Considerations
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of ultrasonic meters for custody (fiscal) applications has grown substantially over the past several years. This is due in part to the release of AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters 1, Measurement Canadas PS-G-E-06 Provisional Ultrasonic Specification 2, and the confidence users have gained in the performance and reliability of ultrasonic meters as primary measurement devices. Just like any metering technology, there are design and operational considerations that need to be addressed in order to achieve optimum performance. The best technology will not provide the expected results if it is not installed correctly, or maintained properly. This paper addresses several issues that the engineer should consider when designing ultrasonic meter installations.
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Document ID: 4D7AFDB6

Electronic Volume Corrector Basics & Installation Examples
Author(s): Gary Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic volume correctors are generally battery powered, microprocessor based instruments used in the natural gas industry to convert the volume of natural gas as measured from gas meters, to corrected volume. During the conversion process, the electronic corrector obtains measurements of the meters gas pressure and temperature so that pressure and temperature factors can be computed and applied to the uncorrected volume. Another factor, called the Supercompressibility Factor is also computed and applied. Other functions such as, scaling various parameters to the desired units of measure, alarm detection alarm notification, pulse output, digital readouts, user interface, and others are also necessary functions of todays electronic correctors
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Document ID: 7766A912

Field And Laboratory Performance Of The 1010GC Widebeam Clamp- On Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Measurement Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Joe Baumoel
Abstract/Introduction:
In June of 2002, a Paper entitled Wide Beam Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Natural Gas Custody Transfer Applications was presented at the Canadian Gas Association School in Kelona, British Columbia. In it the basic design and initial performance of the Controlotron System 1010GC Wide Beam Clamp-On Ultrasonic Flowmeters was presented, and its attributes relative to the conventional Insert Gas and Shear Mode Clamp-On gas meters were described. The reader is referred to that paper for these details. This paper presents a brief review of the design principles that enable achievement of Custody Transfer and Checkmetering performance, and also to present currently available test data and Application Guidelines
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Document ID: 01D144C4

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base or more than 350,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 20,000 units on gas around the world, groups including the AGA, API, Measurement Canada, German PTB, and Dutch NMi are all involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology.
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Document ID: 01ACB932


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