Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2003)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

A Statistical Approach To Facility Assessment
Author(s): Sean Terchek, Paul Amick, Mark Newman
Abstract/Introduction:
The post-Order 636 environment has resulted in an increased focus on and awareness of underground gas storage. Storage operators are seeing an increased customer emphasis on storage reliability and flexibility as new markets arise. Storage assets must be effectively maintained and managed to assure the integrity and performance of the facilities in order to meet present and future storage obligations.
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Document ID: 6A0CDC2C

Are Electronic Correctors Cost Effective?
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of natural gas at custody transfer meters is critical for both revenue and customer satisfaction. Advances in computer technology have made it possible to replace compensated meter indexes and chart recorders with sophisticated electronics that are often reliable and repeatable. But is electronic measurement remaining cost effective?
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Document ID: F6CC52BE

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process.
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Document ID: 8E1198A3

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth J. Pollock, Dominion Transmission
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the common communications mediums used to convey intelligence for the gas industry. The gas industry requires fast and reliable communications for the conveyance of data for control and measurement applications. The data may be analog, digital, or even voice types of signals and may require transmission over a short distance of less than a couple of feet to over several hundred miles. As the gas is passed from the well head to the final user, many types of electronic devices are employed for fast and accurate measurement of the process. The link that is used to pass this information to the billing, control, or safety system is the communications system. Several communications circuits are required in order to convey the data and there is not any one perfect system that will meet the requirements in all situations.
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Document ID: 73EAA03C

Basic Electronics
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, the use of electronics in gas measurement and control has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, it is very important to measure, control and communicate gas related field parameters on time, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketing, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas industry moves gas from wellhead to burner tip, several types of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control. Most of these devices utilize electronics to do their function. It is important for gas industry field service personnel to understand the basics of electronics to specify, purchase, operate and maintain these devices effectively. However, the material covered in this paper is not limited to personnel in the gas industry. It may also be useful for anyone wanting to refresh his or her knowledge, or begin learning basic electronics.
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Document ID: E26411D1

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 8568C56C

Basic Properties - Natural Gas
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right?
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Document ID: 06E2EB1D

Basics Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority.
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Document ID: 09E9795A

Orifice Meter Basics
Author(s): Kevin Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This class is going to be faithful to the title and focus on basics of orifice meters. It is intended as an introduction to any gas company employees who are interested in gaining a working knowledge of orifice meters, including where they are used and why. We will also briefly discuss the orifice meter from an operation and maintenance point-of-view.
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Document ID: AF108DA6

Basics Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: Self-Operated Pilot-Operated This categorizing of all regulators (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-simplification, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: B2F445C0

Rotary Displacement Meters Basics
Author(s): Todd Willis
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 974C81B5

Self-Operated Regulator Basics
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: F846A543

Basics Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles to measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large volume measurement and thus fewer applications.
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Document ID: 294639C9

Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter Basics
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed, as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: B1544670

Case Study: Upgrade Of A Local Companys Odorization Program
Author(s): Thomas W. Jastran
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes an odorization investigation, evaluation and resulting system upgrades necessary to ensure code compliance for a rural New York State Local Distribution Company (LDC).
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Document ID: 31BD5948

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on system stability.
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Document ID: 042649FE

Chilled Mirror Device For Water & Hydrocarbon Dew Point Determination
Author(s): Eric D. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The water vapor dew point temperature (moisture content) and hydrocarbon dew point temperature are two of many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also many different instrument types available to measure the moisture content. In this paper, we will discuss the measurement methods and we present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: ED100AD5

Control Valve Noise
Author(s): Allen C. Fagerland
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid transmission systems are major sources of industrial noise. Elements within the systems that contribute to the noise are control valves, abrupt expansions of highvelocity flow streams, compressors, and pumps. Controlvalve noise is a result of the turbulence introduced into the flow stream in producing the permanent head loss required to fulfill the basic function of the valve.
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Document ID: E4132130

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): John T. Kabay
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the time people become engaged in controlling or preventing corrosion by appointment rather than as a final step in a process of formal education. The following basic information is designed to be helpful to that segment of such a group entering the Corrosion Control Field without the benefit of any extensive training in the basic sciences related to corrosion, but who may be called upon from time to time to take at least the first steps in anticipating or determining areas of active corrosion, either on their own or with fellow employees.
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Document ID: 7426D04A

Diagnostic Indicators
Author(s): Kevin L. Warner, Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
New for the sake of new and old for the sake of familiarity may in either case promote the waste of resources. It has now been a number of years since deregulation and the move to open sales, transportation and hubs has resulted in fierce competition. Operational cost savings, where practical, are a necessary part of success and indeed, survival. Technician is an overly generalized and many times unappreciated title. Technicians are the field professionals that really make systems for control, compression, dehydration, odorization, and measurement a success or bad venture and highly influence a gas companys prosperity This document focuses on a highly proven before release new technology that offers great savings to gas companies and provides some new challenges to the field professional. Ultrasonic meters are easy to learn and they add some new dimension and value to the users measurement experience. Gas ultrasonic meters, (USMs), are here to stay.
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Document ID: 04028BEC

Diaphragm Meters Applications, Installations And Maintenance
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
The fundamental design concept and operating principle of current diaphragm meters has been around for over 160 years. Through the years there have been significant improvements in materials, assembly and calibration, but the basic operating principle has weathered time. Its difficult to displace a technology that fits the intended use extremely well, lasts 25+ years, and is very economically affordable. This presentation will review and highlight some of the reasons why this technology has survived the test of time for so long.
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Document ID: BB0EAF8B

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.A. Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over a hundred years ago, the Brothers Root were searching for an innovative way to convert water into power. Their search led to two figure eight shaped lobes. Legend has it that the lobes did not pass water efficiently, but when the contraption blew one of the brothers hats into the air they knew they had an industrial strength blower.
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Document ID: 2551630F

Efc Calibration: How Much Effort Is Required To Stay Accurate?
Author(s): David J. Firth
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration is the process of aligning the performance of an instruments measurement with the performance of a known, traceable, measurement standard. Checking and maintaining calibration for an Electronic Flow Corrector (EFC) must be done periodically in order to document the accuracy of the device in custody transfer applications.
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Document ID: 202601D2

Electrical Installations And Intrinsic Safety In Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Winfried Winni Faulring
Abstract/Introduction:
When installing electrical circuits in hazardous locations, some form of explosion protection must be used. In the United States and Canada the traditional method has been to install these systems in explosionproof enclosures and sealed conduit. Since this type of protection can be expensive to install and maintain, many users have turned toward intrinsic safety as the preferred explosion protection method.
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Document ID: 4DADC47F

Factors Affecting Orifice Accuracy
Author(s): Reji George
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Measurement is a proven method of gas measurement. As an industry, we have been talking about this metering method and problems associated with it for more than seven decades.
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Document ID: 337DE0AE

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters, Matthew Pawloski
Abstract/Introduction:
Communications technology - Its still hard to beat a landline . . . It seems that the next logical step for our increasingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and flow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural, with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas. Already, many electronic correctors are being used to store load profile and other timerelated data in onboard memory. This can be downloaded into a handheld terminal, a portable computer or into a remote computer via telephone modem link.
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Document ID: 570BEDE7

Field Experiences With V-Cone Technology
Author(s): Philip A. Lawrence
Abstract/Introduction:
The V-Cone differential pressure meter was introduced in the early 80s. Initial customer review of the technology at that time was skeptical due to the radical change in emphasis of the flow regime from a central portion of a closed conduit (orifice plate) to fluid velocity profile around a centrally mounted cone at that time unheard of.
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Document ID: 62A2A72C

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators that utilize a single rubber element that performs the same function as both valve and actuator are known as flexible element regulators. The first type of flexible element regulator was developed and manufactured by the Grove Regulator Company in the 1950s. The Grove Flexflo was referred to as an expansibletube type because a tube or rubber sleeve was stretched over a slotted metal core separating the inlet and outlet of the regulator. The tube expanded when flow passed through the regulator.
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Document ID: 641C25D8

Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley, Bristol Babcock
Abstract/Introduction:
The communications revolution has accelerated in recent years, so it is no wonder advancements in measurement technology and SCADA systems have become standard conversation in the gas industry.
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Document ID: 1AF5C584

Flowmeter Calibration
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses issues associated with flowmeter calibration. It is divided into the following sections: Basic concepts Uncertainty issues Pressure transducer example Turbine meter example Cost issues Time issues
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Document ID: 80D63D21

Flowmeter Installation Effects
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Flowmeter installation effects are the result of differences between the conditions in the field and those in a calibration facility. This paper provides an introduction to two of the most common field conditions: velocity profile distortion and swirl. The paper is divided into the following section: A simple description of the velocity profile. The profile and swirl produced by single and double elbows. Some effects on orifice, turbine and ultrasonic meters. The use of flow conditioners.
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Document ID: 75B6883F

Freeze Protection For Natural Gas Pipeline Systems And Measurement Instrumentation
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: F37597A4

Fundamentals & Development Of LNG Facilities
Author(s): John Jay Gamble, Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
AGENDA History and Projected Role of LNG in USA Properties of LNG Design of LNG Facilities Development & Implementation of LNG Projects Project Exampl
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Document ID: CABAB901

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: 21ADC59E

Fundamentals Of Measurement
Author(s): Pat Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Samuel Clegg made the first practical gas meter in England in 1815. It was a water-sealed rotating drum meter that was improved in 1825 however, it was still very costly and very large. Thomas Glover developed the original diaphragm meter in England in 1843. It consisted of two diaphragms, sliding valves and linkage. T. S. Lacey patented the pre-payment meter in 1870. The most significant change to diaphragm meters over the years has been in the materials of construction. Brass parts have been replaced by plastic, and leather diaphragms have been replaced with synthetic rubber.
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Document ID: 9644EA38

Pressure Control Basics
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
PRESSURE CONTROL IS THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATION OF ALL NATURAL GAS DELIVERY SYSTEMS. IT PROVIDES A SAFE AND RELIABLE ENERGY SOURCE FOR MANUFACTURING AND HEATING SYSTEMS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. PRESSURE CONTROL IS UTILIZED TO BALANCE THE SYSTEM SUPPLY DEMANDS WITH SAFE DELIVERY PRESSURES.
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Document ID: FC5C1F61

Gas Meter Proving: The Equipment And Methodology Used Today In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
TO DETERMINE THE ACCURACY OF A NATURAL GAS METER, A KNOWN VOLUME OF AIR IS PASSED THROUGH THE METER, AND THE METER REGISTRATION IS COMPARED AGAINST THIS KNOWN VOLUME. THE KNOWN VOLUME OF AIR ORIGINATES FROM THE METER PROVER. IN EARLIER TIMES, THE GAS METER PROVER WAS A STAND-ALONE DEVICE (USUALLY A BELL-TYPE PROVER), MANUALLY OPERATED WITHOUT ANY ELECTRONICS OR AUTOMATION.
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Document ID: D75BA8D0

Gate Station Design
Author(s): William Teliska
Abstract/Introduction:
I will be discussing the design of pressure regulating/flow control stations installed between a transmission and distribution facilities. The capacity of these stations would generally be over 100 SMCFH with inlet pressures from 500 psi to 1440 psi.
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Document ID: 8D54E20D

Ground Free Surge Protection
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Ground is so often used in the context of surge protection that it is difficult to imagine a surge protection device that does not require earth ground. Well, there are some applications where secondary-type surge protection devices do not require earth grounding. Eagle Research Corp. has developed a secondary surge protection system that has saved Mountaineer Gas and a number of other remote-mounted instrument users thousands of dollars in the last couple of years.
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Document ID: 3CA75A08

How To Select The Proper Control Valve For Your Application
Author(s): Mike Racine
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance in selecting the proper type of control valve for natural gas pipeline control applications. To enable the reader to make an educated selection the different types of control valves will be discussed to demonstrate their primary features, differences, and capabilities. Additionally, standard practices will be reviewed covering acceptable design practices concerning maximum pipe velocities, control valve exit velocities, noise levels, and station equipment layout.
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Document ID: FF44248B

Indirect Heater Basic Technique And Practical Application
Author(s): Dwight Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas transmission, measurement and regulation industry, heaters are required for the safe and reliable distribution of natural gas. Indirect heating is the safest way to heat natural gas, ensuring that combustible gases are warmed by inert heat medium rather than direct contact with a flame-heated element.
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Document ID: C9F18DE0

Installation Challenges Resolved With Gas Flow Conditioners
Author(s): James E. Gallagher, Michael P. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
The full cost of ownership of any measurement facility consists of the initial capital, commissioning, training, spare parts, maintenance and calibration costs for the lifetime of the equipment. The full cost is several times the initial capital investment and should be the deciding factor in equipment selection.
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Document ID: F5734E04

Gas Quality And Gas Interchangeability
Author(s): Henry W. Poellnitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently, the term gas quality usually referred to a gass effect on the internal corrosion of the pipeline. Most of these corrosion-related gas quality issues are well documented and understood. In recent years, gas quality has taken on new meaning for the gas industry for three reasons. 1) LNG imports from around the world appear to be part of the long range plan for meeting the North American natural gas supply needs again, and pipelines are working to determine LNGs effects on its existing customers. 2) The margins in gas processing have recently been strained by high gas prices, and many processing plant have shut down or reduced their level of processing, causing operational and safety problems for pipeline operators and their customers. 3) Power plants designed and budgeted a few years ago are beginning operation, and gas quality affects how power generators comply with EPA regulations and equipment specifications.
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Document ID: EBC65442

Intrinsic Safety And LIGHTNING/SURGE Protection For The Gas Pipe Line Industry
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas and Pipe Line Industry face a rather unique combination of problems. First, many of the areas in and around pumping, transfer, and storage areas are classified, or considered hazardous areas, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety, explosion proof, purging or non-incendive. The second problem facing the industry is the physical exposure of much of the electronic control and measuring systems, communications,and power subsystems. Each of these have their own sensitive, high-performance, solid state microcircuitry subject to potentially devastating lightning and electrical surges.
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Document ID: 0892F7C4

Latest Trend In Coal Bed Methane Production
Author(s): Hugh Hefner
Abstract/Introduction:
While exploitation of coalfield methane gas is a relatively new development, production of natural gas from coal beds is at least a century old. This session will explore mechanics of the extraction process, gas quality and safety considerations of Coal Bed Methane Production. OVERVIEW While exploitation of coal fields for the methane gas they contain is a relatively new development, our production of natural gas from coal beds is at least a century old. In that century of coalfield-gas production, we have seen changes both in the mechanics of what we are doing to affect that production, and what we are calling what we are doing.
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Document ID: 926139D5

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was flared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the field pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir. Its first use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfields and even then many times it was flared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment.
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Document ID: AFF4B20D

LNG Plant Inspection From A Regulators Point Of View
Author(s): Christopher Bourne
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the more than 100 LNG plants in the US, 21 are located in Massachusetts. The oldest plant opened in 1968 the newest one went into operation last year. They range in size from 30,000 gals. of storage to 870,000 bbls. of storage. Three of the plants have liquefaction capability. Over the past 34 years, these plants have proven to be an important part of the winter gas supply in the state.
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Document ID: 82A41368

Meter Inventory Management
Author(s): Gregory S. Vera
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter value is not just the cost of the meter. Meter ownership starts at the selection of a meter vendor and ends when the meter is retired from service and scrapped. It is important to manage the meter inventory and meters in service to maximize their value to the utility and to protect a valuable asset. By metering the gas delivered to customers, the accuracy of the meter and its in-service performance are critical to the revenue of the utility. In order to maximize the value of the meter to the utility it is necessary to evaluate the whole life cost of ownership of the meter.
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Document ID: D0CEA378

Minimizing The Effects Of Pulsation
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas.
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Document ID: 4C1843A7

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1996 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting held in Columbus, Ohio, 23-25 October 1996. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s).
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Document ID: 442F6025

From The Wellhead To The Burner Tip: A System Overview
Author(s): John Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is presented at the Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course - Fundamentals Section. The paper is designed for the first year student to understand the basic flow of natural gas and the terminology utilized from Production and Storage areas to end use by consumers. Specific focus is given to history of natural gas, gas transmission, city gate stations, and distribution systems.
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Document ID: 2BB1F3A6

Fluidic Oscillation Measurement An Introduction To The Technology
Author(s): Rich Dewar
Abstract/Introduction:
The scientific community has known about Fluidic Oscillation as a measurement technology for many years. Recent advances in this technology now make this a highly robust, cost-effective solution to metering needs. This paper will discuss the advances and benefits.
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Document ID: B411AF29

New Developments In Distribution Metering: Continuous Mechanical Temperature Compensation
Author(s): Doug Bethune
Abstract/Introduction:
Today natural gas meters are installed outside where they are exposed to the daily temperature variations that reflect the regions climate. These temperature variations can affect the density of the flowing natural gas which inturn affects the accuracy of the meter. Natural gas is bought and sold at what is referred to as standard conditions which relate to 4 ounces pressure and a 60 degree F base temperature. All commercially used, nontemperature compensated natural gas meters are designed to meter gas at 60 degree F.
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Document ID: EAF542B0

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Multi-Path Gas Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic Meters have unique outputs that enable remote condition monitoring to insure continued gas measurement integrity. Integrating a monitoring protocol with these diagnostic outputs into a Routine Maintenance program is a developing art that still requires some subjective evaluation: Setting reasonable alarm limits remains ill defined by most manufacturers, including Instromet, because our understanding of Ultrasonic meters outputs in an operating environment is primitive, but growing as acceptance of ultrasonic custody measurement proliferates.
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Document ID: 8D0C9DF3

Odor Detection Roundtable: Introduction Of The Bacharach Inc. Odorometer
Author(s): Paul Gottlier
Abstract/Introduction:
For over 5 decades the Bacharach Odorometer has been used with confidence and reliability to validate gas utility odorization programs across the world. The Odorometer in deed has withstood the test of time since it was manufactured for Oronite Chemical Company in 1952. Thousands of Odorometers are still in use today. They may be listed under a variety of company names for instance Oronite, J-W (Johnson-Williams), AMBAC, United Technologies and finally Bacharach Inc. but be assured the name is the only difference.
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Document ID: 9AB8A37B

Odorization 101
Author(s): Paul Goettler
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process and facet of the Natural Gas Industry that is very much misunderstood and is in far too many instances, taken for granted. In essence, odorization of natural gas is a relatively young science having its beginnings in the United States around the early 1900s. It has been regulated by the Federal Government (Department of Transportation) since 1968.
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Document ID: C44A95F3

Odorization: A Discussion Of Code Compliance And Liability Issues
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
A question often posed concerning odorization is Why odorize? This paper discusses two answers to that question: Regulations and Liability. The first answer, Regulations, is an easy one. Pipeline safety regulations promulgated by the Department of Transportation Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) contain specific requirements in 49 CFR 192.625 that gas contain an odor. So, by law, operators are required to deliver odorized gas.
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Document ID: A062C29D

Odorization Roundtable: 300 Series Njex Odorization
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
THEORY OF OPERATION Operation of the 7300G centers around three primary components: the Model 7000 pump, the Model VM-1100 Verometer and the Model N-300G controller. During normal operation, the Model 7000 pump injects an exact quantity of odorant at a rate determined by the N-300G controller. The quantity of odorant injected per stroke is set using a spacer in the pump actuation assembly. The N-300G controller determines the rate at which the pump is actuated.
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Document ID: E2B8996A

Olod Odorizing Equipment - Get Rid Of It
Author(s): Jan Strmen
Abstract/Introduction:
The easily recognizable smell of odorants in natural gas signal leaks in transport or distribution pipelines, breakdowns of natural gas appliances or failures in odorization equipment itself. Odorizing of natural gas thus provides a safety net for the public and the natural gas industry. United States and Canada legislated odorant use in 1937 after a tragic accident in London, Texas claimed 293 lives, mostly school children.
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Document ID: 7DB3C186

Overpressure Protection
Author(s): David C. Hiatt, Donald E. Holtman
Abstract/Introduction:
IN A GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM, EACH PIECE OF PIPE MUST BE PROTECTED AGAINST OVERPRESSURE OR EXCEEDING THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE (MAOP) PLUS ALLOWABLE BUILD-UP. THIS INCLUDES ALL FEEDER LINE, DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND ALL SERVICE LINES.
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Document ID: 5F612B70

Performance Evaluation Of Gas Storage Wells Through Field Testing
Author(s): Alan Brannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Storage wells are continually evaluated by comparing well tests over time to determine if there has been any deterioration in performance. This is typically accomplished by performing certain types of tests on a pre-determined schedule.
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Document ID: 40FC398D

Pid Control - Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID.
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Document ID: 4B2F2390

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements.
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Document ID: 0920E16E

Protecion Of Natural Gas Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PRESENTATION ADDRESSES PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH MOISTURE AND CORROSION CAUSED BY HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS. BY CONTROLLING MOISTURE AND CORROSION LONG-TERM, MANY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SENSITIVE FIELD ELECTRONICS CAN BE AVOIDED.
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Document ID: 6BCBED13

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquid
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of natural gas plays an important role in determining its monetary value. Natural gas is bought and sold based on its energy content and volume. The energy content or heating value is computed directly from the analysis. Physical constants of the gas, which are necessary to accurately determine its volume, are also computed from the analysis. Therefore the correct assessment of the monetary value of natural gas is dependant to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.
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Document ID: 38DD38AA

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Trent Decker
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve sizing and selection in todays industrial world is essential to operating at a cost-effective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valve will not pass the required flow, while a valve that is oversized will be more costly and can cause instability throughout the entire control loop.
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Document ID: D183EB26

Statistical Meter Testing Program Development And Application
Author(s): Frank C. Garcia
Abstract/Introduction:
BACKGROUND This session will review current statistical meter testing programs including why they were implemented and the concepts on which they are based. Utilities have begun to re-evaluate the prevailing approach to gas and electric meter testing programs. The motivation has been to reduce the number of tests and to improve the usefulness of the data collected while improving the performance of the meter population. We will look at whether or not the existing test programs give a true picture of how well the meter population is actually performing in the field and present alternative statistical programs that require less testing and give a more realistic picture of how the meter population is actually performing.
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Document ID: 5E102291

Storage Well Corrosion
Author(s): Mary S. Friend
Abstract/Introduction:
Storage wells tend to be long lived, and are subject to a maximum pressure every year. Gas passes through the pipelines both into and out of the wells during the course of a year. Storage wells are a vertical extension of the pipeline. Many storage wells are old production wells that have been converted to storage. Due to the long life of storage wells as well as the gas passage, corrosion is an ever-present concern. Well completions, fluids, and gas chemistry can cause
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Document ID: F32CE616

The Impact Of API 14.1 And Other Standards To Practical Considerations For Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
PURPOSE The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. The various sampling methods that are available and the options and limitations of these methods are investigated the most appropriate equipment to use the reasons for its use and correct installation of the equipment are also addressed.
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Document ID: 9EA82E6A

Theory And Application Of The Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Howard E. Brumbaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a well-established method to obtain composition measurements in a gas or vaporized liquid/solid mixture. It physically separates, identifies, and quantifies mixture components in an injected sample. The laboratory gas chromatograph (GC), in use for many years, requires an operator to take a proper sample, fill a syringe, and inject the sample into the GC analyzer. It can perform many different types of analysis on a wide range of products. A lab technician can change out detectors, columns, and other parts to make the lab GC fit the specific application. Lab applications usually change more frequently than process applications.
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Document ID: EDFC2CD5

Troubleshooting Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Field
Author(s): Dave Shepler
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of you who have, or will have, experience in troubleshooting diaphragm meters, know it can be very frustrating at times trying to figure out the problems that can be encountered in the field. This presentation will hopefully address most of those problems and provide some solutions
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Document ID: 43101924

Ultrasonic Flow Measurement
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical operation of todays Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter (USM). The USMs diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining
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Document ID: 9F6B0837

Underground Storage Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage.
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Document ID: 1081BD2C

Vortex Technology In Gas Pressure Control
Author(s): Lev Tunkel
Abstract/Introduction:
The new concept of heating developed by Universal Vortex was utilized in the design of the Vortex Pilot Gas Heater and the Vortex Farm Tap Station. The proprietary Vortex Heater (VH) releases the internal energy of a decompressed gas flow and converts it into a highly intensive thermal flux. The generated heat is then applied to heat up a separate gas flow (pilot gas, instrumentation gas, etc.) and for self-heating (non-freeze provision) to overcome Joule-Thomson temperature drop in the gas flow as it expands in the VHs inlet nozzles.
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Document ID: 61C0C033


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