Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2003)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: 82ABA97B

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Try this at home. We are professionals. If you are able to install your own TV dish satellite system and a wireless home network for PCs, you have a head start on installing and maintaining electronic field measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 21D35CAB

Principles Of Operation For Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental issues relative to ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical operation of todays Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter (USM). The USMs diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be discussed with test results. Finally, recommendations for installation will be provided, including an example of a good piping design.
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Document ID: B7B523ED

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.
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Document ID: 4C694143

Techniques For Natural Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a gas sampling system can be referred to as a cash register it is very important that the correct sampling method be selected and the appropriate industry standard be followed. Methods reviewed by this paper will include spot sampling, composite sampling, and on-line chromatography. In addition, Gas Processors Association (GPA) 2166-86 and American Petroleum Institute (API) 14.1 will be described.
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Document ID: 183498FF

Techniques Of Composite Gas Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The level of interest in effective and accurate gas sampling techniques is currently at a very high priority within the natural gas industry. With the fluctuating ranges in natural gas prices, exploration interests, profitability, deregulation and consolidation of the work force, recoverable revenue must be accounted for. At large volume delivery points, a 3-5 BTU error in energy determination can cost companies tens of thousands of dollars within a very short time period. Accurate sampling techniques must be implemented with equal interest as is given to accurate volume measurement. MMBTU is the total of volume and energy. Sampling is the energy determination delivery system for this equation.
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Document ID: 779F3EB3

Operations Of On-Line Chromatography
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume.
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Document ID: 560821FA

Calibration Of Standard Gases
Author(s): Ronald C. Geib
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standard gases are essential to quantitative analytical measurements in petrochemical processes, natural gas, environmental compliance, and health and safety programs. The calibration gas standard establishes a known analyzer response to a certified chemical component concentration which enables the conversion of sample responses to a concentration with a determinable accuracy. In consideration of the criticality of calibration standard gases to valid measurements in chemical processes and monitoring programs, the objective of this paper will be to provide an in-depth review of how calibration standard gases are manufactured, certified, and properly maintained.
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Document ID: 9F2A483D

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity / Relative Density Of Gas
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean. Specific Gravity is formally defined as the ratio of gas density to air density when both are at standard conditions of 0 Degree C and 760 mm. Over the years the definition evolved to become the ratio of gas density to air density at the same temperature and pressure, Relative to each other. Hence, the term Relative Density. This is the most commonly used definition today. The fixed or Specific requirement of temperature and pressure, (0 degree C and 760 mm), had been removed over the years.
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Document ID: B8556C7F

Devices For Field Determintion Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is rapidly becoming the fuel of choice for everything from home heating to power generation. The determination of the water vapor content in natural gas is one of several key factors in determining the ultimate quality of the gas. With economic conditions as they exist today, many companies have been forced to cut personnel in order to maintain a reasonable balance sheet. The loss of experienced measurement technicians places a heavy burden on instrument manufacturers to provide an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas. This paper will review the different sensor technologies in use today and also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sampling system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: C6CCC5E6

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology.
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Document ID: 3DDD2300

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice recorder? The answer usually depends upon whom you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean every thing from the orifice meter chart recorder to the entire meter station. American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements.
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Document ID: 113D31DB

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As the gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas.
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Document ID: 15669916

Gas Flow Conditioning - Devices Used To Pre-Condition The Gas Flow Profile Prior To Measurement
Author(s): B.D. Sawchuk P. Eng., D.P. Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
A flow Measurement Engineers presentation of Flow Conditioning for Orifice, Turbine and Ultrasonic Meters. The latest references are sited to provide an overview of the state of flow technology today and how these technologies affect various popular meters used in Natural Gas measurement.
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Document ID: 08CEDA43

Verifying Gas Chromatograph At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Mark F. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
On-line Chromatographs are commonly used to determine the individual components of a natural gas stream. The individual components are then used to calculate Btu and Specific Gravity. The chromatographic data is combined with flow rate data to calculate a total energy value. The energy value is then used for custody transfer. Accurate chromatograph data is a critical part of the gas measurement process. Understanding the operation and principles of the chromatograph allows system optimization for individual field conditions. Planning is an essential element of a successful chromatograph installation and continued operational accuracy.
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Document ID: FBFDB4B6

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Paula Lanoux
Abstract/Introduction:
The analysis of natural gas plays an important role in determining its monetary value. Natural gas is bought and sold based on its energy content and volume. The energy content or heating value is computed directly from the analysis. Physical constants of the gas, which are necessary to accurately determine its volume, are also computed from the analysis. Therefore the correct assessment of the monetary value of natural gas is dependant to a large extent on overall analytical accuracy.
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Document ID: 9F038C5C

Hydrogen Sulfide Measurement And Detection
Author(s): Patrick J. Moore, Rodney W. Spitler
Abstract/Introduction:
The impetus for measuring and detecting hydrogen sulfide, H2S, as it relates to the production and distribution of natural gas, is rooted in two primary concerns. The first concern deals with protecting personnel from the lethal effects of H2S. Typically, the maximum pipeline H2S concentration is around 0.25 grains per 100 SCF, nominally 4 ppm/volume. At these concentrations H2S is not lethal and its presence can be detected by the sense of smell with its characteristic rotten egg odor. At the higher lethal H2S concentrations, typically found at production and acid gas removal installations, the nose becomes desensitized. Unable to smell the H2S, a worker breathing such an atmosphere is oblivious to the life threatening danger
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Document ID: E090D8E2

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes.
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Document ID: 9DB21AF2

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the unaccounted for natural gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 MMSCF/D Natural Gas selling at 5.50/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 200,750.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system.
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Document ID: 80A9BC83

Local And Wide Area Networking Of Gas Flow Computers
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Communication has been around ever since man developed language and hand signs to exchange and share ideas. Smoke signals were used in the ancient world to send information from one place to another. In fact, a smoke signal is one form of wireless digital communication. The advance in modern communication, network and computer technology has led to the growth of electronic forms of communication. Electronic data can be transferred between workstations in the same office and sometimes even between offices in different cities.
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Document ID: 2301C106

Transfer Proving
Author(s): Larry K. Wunderlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where bell prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: 18D31342

Inspection Of Regulators & Relief Valves
Author(s): John Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators and Over Pressure Protection Devices (OPPD) must be inspected in accordance to Federal and State Law and Company policy. Over pressure protection devices are devices that protect the downstream piping in the event of a regulator failure. These devices include a relief valve, a monitor regulator, or a positive pressure shut off. In Texas, inspection interval must be at least once per calendar year, at intervals of no more than 15 months
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Document ID: C913325B

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority.
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Document ID: 519CE542

History Of The American School Of Gas Measurement Technology
Author(s): Henry Dedek
Abstract/Introduction:
The First Annual Gulf Coast Measurement Short Course (GCMSC) was held in Houston, Texas in October, 1966, under the sponsorship of the Gulf Coast Measurement Society and the University of Houston. Following the 1973 Short Course, the relationship with the University of Houston was terminated and the Short Course became affiliated with Texas A&I University. In 1974, the Executive Committee voted to accept participation by other affiliated organizations to enhance the growth of the Short Course. The Corpus Christi Area Measurement Society became affiliated in 1975, the Southern Gas Association (SGA) and the Victoria Area Measurement Society followed in 1976, the Texas Gas Association in 1978, and the Northeast Texas Measurement Society in 1981. In 1989, several changes were made. The Victoria Area Measurement Society was discontinued as an affiliate and the Permian Basin Measurement Society was added as a new affiliate to the Short Course. One affiliate had a name change. The Northeast Texas Measurement Society is now known as the North Texas Measurement Association. The Southern Gas Association has since discontinued their affiliation with the School
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Document ID: B6DAF854

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Thomas E. Tucker
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern industry conducts itself much differently than it did at the turn of the century. Public safety and care for the environment has gone from the bottom of the list of goals, right to the very top.
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Document ID: 1FAF7EFB

How To Perform A Lost And Unaccounted-For Gas Program
Author(s): Rick Feldmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas pipeline companies struggle with lost-andunaccounted- for-gas (L&U) and it can be a significant cost to their bottom as shown below.
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Document ID: E6092891

Automation Systems For Gas Transmission And Distribution Pipelines
Author(s): Doug Osburn
Abstract/Introduction:
The automation systems that control and measure natural gas flow in transmission and distribution pipelines often involve two systems. The system that controls the gas flow in a pipeline is called a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system and an AMR (Automated Meter Reading) system measures the amount of gas flowing into, and out of, the pipeline. These automation systems which can be completely separate or combined are widely distributed throughout the service area of a pipeline and must rely heavily on long-distance communication technologies to telemeter the data necessary to coordinate and monitor pipeline activities. This is the most challenging aspect of the automation problem as the communication system is the most exposed component to service interruptions and degradation. Strategies should be implemented in the system design that will maintain continued safe operations of the pipeline during periods of communication failure.
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Document ID: FC366EAE

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy markets and the environment of FERC order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments, to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: 4345C6C9

Design And Implementation Of Market Based: Safe, Reliable & Cost Effective Metering And Regulating Facilities
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
The first wave of natural gas fired and market based power generation assets have been installed. The results have been mixed from a fuel supply, electric market and project finance basis.
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Document ID: E86ABADB

Gti Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr., Marybeth G. Nored
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Technology Institute (formerly the Gas Research Institute) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization (RD&C) program aimed at improving natural gas metering performance in the field. This paper summarizes some of the recent accomplishments of the research program at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Metering Research Facility (MRF), a high-accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs. The MRF, located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, supports a variety of GTI-sponsored research and third-party test and calibration activities. Major research initiatives currently being funded by GTI (formerly known as the Gas Research Institute or GRI) include ultrasonic and turbine flow meter research and gas sampling methods research. Over the past year, GTI has also funded Coriolis flow meter research and the development of a new energy flow rate meter concept. Through its portfolio of projects addressing priority research needs, the GTI natural gas measurement program provides significant benefits to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 75B20AB4

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA- 3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 6F07311C

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3/AGA 3-PART 2
Author(s): Tom Cathey
Abstract/Introduction:
In April of 2003, revisions to the specification and installation requirements for orifice meters was published by the American Gas Association in the form of the AGA Report No. 3-Part 2, Fourth Edition. The revisions or changes in the following categories are significant when compared to the 1991 Third Edition publication of AGA Report No. 3 and will be discussed in greater detail throughout this paper:
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Document ID: E1C70C7A

A New Perspective On Measurement The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: 03327917

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 4CE3CEE7

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies goals for a greener image raises the standards of operations even higher, the demands placed on accurate hydrocarbon measurement with minimal maintenance, space and weight requirements becomes increasingly greater. These financial, governmental and technical challenges coupled with normally high flow rates and therefore wide flow range requirements have enhanced the development and application of new technology such as ultrasonic gas and liquid meters, multiphase flow meters, microwave and near infared (NIR) water cut analyzers, coriolis flow meters for oil and gas and compact orifice meter tubes utilizing isolating flow conditioners and liquid meter provers. This paper will attempt to provide guidelines in selecting, installing and operating this equipment to insure cost effective designs and reliable operation with a high degree of accuracy. Since the authors background is primarily in project design, emphasis will be placed on the decision process of selecting, installing and commissioning metering equipment.
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Document ID: 7D10C794

Overall Measurement Accuracy - Determination And Influence
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
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Document ID: B7E86F86

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results.
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Document ID: ACB32A1C

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design
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Document ID: 3C2B7B59

Lessons Learned From The API Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Project: An Overview Of Common Causes Of Gas Sample Distortion And Information Needed For Proper Gas Sampling
Author(s): Eric Kelner, Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past seven years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and was published in 2001.
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Document ID: 33EF7A34

Ultrasonic Meter Flow Calibrations Considerations And Benefits
Author(s): Joel Clancy
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary method for custody transfer measurement has traditionally been orifice metering. While this method has been a good form of measurement, technology has driven the demand for a new, more effective form of fiscal measurement. Ultrasonic flowmeters have gained popularity in recent years and have become the standard for large volume custody transfer applications for a variety of reasons. Most users require flow calibrations to improve meter performance and overall measurement uncertainty. Although AGA Report No. 9, Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters Ref 1, currently only recommends flow calibration for ultrasonic flowmeters, the next revision will likely require flow calibration for all ultrasonic custody transfer application
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Document ID: 5FE6D6AD

Understanding The Different Standards That Govern Measuremen
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of questions should be answered regarding the origin of Measurement Standards used in the United States. Why do we need measurement standards? Who decides when a standard will be written? What group undertakes the preparation of a document? How much time is spent writing a document? Who decides the document is adequate and approves it use? Are there any checks and balan
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Document ID: A6D4B8DE

Report On API 21.1 Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
A QUICK WORD ABOUT NOMENCLATURE Since this report references both itself and the 21.1 standard, the following nomenclature has been adopted to make it clear which document is being referenced. report - references this document, the one you are now reading. standard references the 21.1 standard, unless otherwise noted. section and subsection both refer to portions of the API 21.1 standard. document is a generic term that could be referencing either document. Hopefully the context will make it clear which document is being referenced.
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Document ID: 588ABF08

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: 3B49476E

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association has published (June, 1998) a recommended practice Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters., This paper reviews some of the key contents of A.G.A.-9 including recommended meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. An update for the committee work In progress for year 2001 and beyond is integrally included. The paper addresses some of the most commonly asked questions by new users of the document.
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Document ID: EA87032A

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar.
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Document ID: C2F670DB

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
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Document ID: B8B0F2DB

Pipeline Safety Improvement Act And Operator Qualification
Author(s): Jesus Ramos
Abstract/Introduction:
The Qualification of Pipeline Personnel (OQ) rule requires pipeline Operators to develop and maintain a written qualification program for individuals performing covered tasks on pipeline facilities. The qualification rule intents to ensure a qualified pipeline work force and to reduce the probability and consequence of incidents caused by human error. The final rule created new subparts in the gas and hazardous liquid pipeline safety regulations. OQ established qualification requirements for individuals performing covered tasks, and amended certain training requirements in the hazardous liquid regulations. The OQ final rule was developed through a negotiation process and was effective on August 26, 1999. The rule required all individuals performing covered tasks to be qualified by October 28, 2002. The Operators made a great effort and investment to comply with the OQ rule. Operators created their OQ program, implemented its processes, generated evaluation records for employees and contractors, and began to breathe a relieved sigh. However, President Bush signed into law the Pipeline Improvement Act on December 17, 2002.
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Document ID: D94E029E

Advanced Communication Design
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
A part of the decision making process when selecting the specific wireless communication devices for a project should be a complete understanding of all the challenges and needs of the project. If you have completed the Telemetry Questionnaire outlined in the Basic paper, you have answered most of the questions necessary to understand the requirements needed from the communication devices available to select from.
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Document ID: CFE91913

D.O.T. Title 49 Regulations For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Tom Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the United States needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping, and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas, and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: 271BA3F9

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Chris J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern business and security imperatives coupled with rapid technological change require key new architectural elements for SCADA systems These elements are discussed along with more traditional block diagram fundamentals, so that the reader might better understand migration and adaptation strategies for their transmission pipeline operations in the new millennium.
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Document ID: 3D8CFCC4

Terminology Used In Instrument Accuracy
Author(s): Rick Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief explanation and discussion of many key terms used in describing instrument accuracy. The terms included within this discussion are most commonly used for defining performance standards with primary sensing elements typically used in the measurement of flow, level pressure and temperature instruments. Many of the terms used may apply to controllers, recorders and final control elements. However, the focus provided herein is the primary element device. The specific devices include transmitters (differential pressure and temperature) and flow meters (e.g. magnetic, vortex, turbine, variable area and positive displacement).
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Document ID: DD6DAB96

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom R. Cheney
Abstract/Introduction:
There isnt any one who isnt impacted by the continuous growth and changes in the world of technology. In todays world, we accept computers and the functions they perform without question. In fact, we place our hardearned dollars and in some cases our very lives in their care without a second thought. Computers and electronic technologies have greatly impacted the way work is done in the oil and gas industry. A good example of how these changes have impacted this business is the use of electronic gas measurement devices often called (EFMs).
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Document ID: DBAE9DD7

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic calibrators are fast becoming the benchmark for measurement and are replacing mechanical types of instruments for testing and calibration checks.
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Document ID: 9CDD0447

Low Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Greg Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, themselves, are undergoing an evolution. One challenge for most vendors will be to offer a low power flow computer whose pricing approaches that of a three variable chart recorder. Many companies in the gas transmission, gas distribution and production industry expect such a flow computer to be an evolution from todays smart transmitter technology, because of improved accuracy and innovation of multi-variable transmitters. That is to say, differential pressure, static pressure and temperature all in one transmitter.
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Document ID: 9A5E7DFC

Low Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Greg Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, themselves, are undergoing an evolution. One challenge for most vendors will be to offer a low power flow computer whose pricing approaches that of a three variable chart recorder. Many companies in the gas transmission, gas distribution and production industry expect such a flow computer to be an evolution from todays smart transmitter technology, because of improved accuracy and innovation of multi-variable transmitters. That is to say, differential pressure, static pressure and temperature all in one transmitter.
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Document ID: D0966FA0

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety
Author(s): Linton T. Lipscomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material. To safely produce natural gas and natural gas products, a basic understanding of the hazards of the material itself and the processes required to bring it to market is essential. Lets start out with the hazards of natural gas as it is in its raw field gas state:
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Document ID: 9D1484E7

New Trends In Measuring Natural Gas Flow Rates
Author(s): Charlie Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, the flow of natural gas has been measured by a combination of pressure transducers, smart transmitters, and flow computers. In the earliest types of natural gas flow measurement, transducers and transmitters were connected to flow computers to calculate natural gas flow rates. In terms of the real measurements, these transducers and transmitters served as the heart of flow computers. They still do in newer, smarter forms.
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Document ID: 38AE3E7B

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process.
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Document ID: 099E94F3

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well training in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical process involved as well. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 47C36DB9

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems Class #3050
Author(s): Stephen R. Cree
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering, or transporting information, has been with man from the first days of recorded history, at first in primitive forms such as grunts and smoke signals more recently in the past hundred years in progressively sophisticated forms including radio and satellite systems. Harnessing electricity led to the magic of telephony. Telegraphs, and later telephones employ a technology so fundamental as to be the cornerstone of the telemetry process.
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Document ID: F278BAFF

Communication Between Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing requirements with a daily a closing schedule is knocking on the door and has already arrived at some locations. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: ABC4CEB1

Overall Measurement Accuracy - Determination And Influence
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 910C7A7B

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group will read the chart, apply information supplied by the field, calculate the amount of gas delivered, and generate and deliver volume statements to the customer.
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Document ID: 9B455632

Chart Auditing
Author(s): Tom Tauer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chart auditing can be one of the more interesting and rewarding segments of chart processing. While performing a valuable service for the customer or person requesting the audit, it can give the auditor a chance to use his or her chart expertise that could become stagnate with only routine chart processing. The chart auditor becomes part accountant, part detective, and part mathematician. The purpose of the chart audit is normally to insure that the volumes have been reported as accurately and objectively as possible. Production companies and operators have a responsibility to lease owners, state agencies, and themselves to report volumes that are truly representative of the amount of gas that passed a particular point.
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Document ID: C5924B43

North American Energy Standars Board As A Case Study
Author(s): Cynthia Corcoran
Abstract/Introduction:
WHY STANDARDS? Commercial interest: to facilitate commerce by lowering transaction (production/distribution, etc.) costs Governmental interest: to facilitate a competitive commercial environment and serve the governmental interests of public health, safety and preservation of competition
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Document ID: 4E6EEDD8

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has adopted EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: 26203157

Fundamental Principles Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Kevin Shaw
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will concentrate on the fundamentals and principles of natural gas pressure regulators. In the gas regulators conception it was mainly a device used to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, more is expected from the performance of the pressure regulator. Pressure reduction is no longer the only function needed. The regulator is considered an integral measurement instrument that must adhere to the stringent codes put forth by the U.S. Federal Department of Transportation and many state Public Utility Commissions.
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Document ID: 6379E519

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Mark B. Fillman, Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Our industry has seen tremendous progress in the accuracy of natural gas measurement since the implementation of electronic gas measurement (EGM) in the 1980s. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented impact on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts should include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, they should represent both buyer and seller in the most equitable manner possible. This writing discusses some of the challenges in our industry, both then and now, while recommending measurement provisions for gas contracts.
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Document ID: 44BDCE98

Training Of Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
It has long been held that the measurement function is the cash register for the energy industry. Other facts that relate to measurement are that it involves the application of scientific laws, knowledge of physical properties, application of mathematics, and facilitated in an environment based on industry standards and company policies and procedures. Also, ask someone who is not employed in the energy industry what that person knows about energy measurement. Chances are that he or she will know very little. So, the energy measurement function, while a cash register for the industry and based on science, is also a unique activity that requires specific knowledge, skills and experience. What types of unique qualifications are needed will be identified and some methods for providing training for measurement personnel will be discussed.
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Document ID: 5F9A0486

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: CB3E523D

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Kenneth W. Blackburn
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been stated that measurement is the cash register in the exchange of natural gas. The natural gas business is based on the buying and selling of this commodity. Measurement is responsible for balancing the input (buying) and output (selling). Errors, on either side of this equation, affect the balance the entire business is based upon. Add the fact that natural gas measurement can be extremely complicated, auditing not only becomes desirable, but necessary. As it implies, auditing an electronic gas meter (EGM) requires careful examination of large amounts of data in order to verify volumes and to verify the cash register. An experienced auditor is the most valuable tool in this process. In order to maintain the scope of this paper, a general knowledge of natural gas measurement and EGM fundamentals will be assumed.
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Document ID: 049D186F

Internet Based Measurement Monitoring & Control
Author(s): Jeffery Perrin
Abstract/Introduction:
Bringing measurement and control to the Internet gives companies more cost effective systems for measuring, monitoring and controlling of oil and gas processes. These types of systems help companies with their current optimized resources by providing their employees data anywhere and anytime.
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Document ID: FA45FFD6

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Dennis Kline
Abstract/Introduction:
As competition, deregulation and economic health among utilities becomes more intense, capital expenditures and cost reductions become high priorities - yet operational control and system reliability are more important today than ever before. Coupled with rapidly changing technology, this paradox presents a unique challenge for the efficient design and operation of a remote Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system.
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Document ID: C5C1396D

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, fluctuating gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every energy delivery company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data
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Document ID: EBC4C752

An Overview Of The Mccrometer V-Cone Meter American School Of Gas Measurement Technology 2003
Author(s): Dr. Rjw Peters, Dr. R. Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
The V-Cone meter is a differential pressure (DP) type meter patented by McCrometer Inc. a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation. The V-Cone meter is in many respects a classical DP meter using the physical laws of the conservation of mass and energy as its principle of operation. However, there are important differences between the V-Cone meter design and other DP meter types. These differences give the V-Cone meter important performance advantages. These advantages nclude the ability of the V-Cone meter to operate with very short upstream and downstream straight pipe lengths, to create a low total pressure (or head loss), to create a very stable DP, to give a large turn down, to create relatively low signal noise and to cope well with liquid and particulates in the gas stream. The aim of this paper is to discuss the design of the V-Cone meter and explain why this design gives these advantages over traditional DP meters.
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Document ID: AFC90033


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