Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2002)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Diagnostic Indicators And Field Verification Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Kevin L. Warner Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
New for the sake of new and old for the sake of familiarity may in either case promote the waste of resources. It has now been a number of years since deregulation and the move to open sales, transportation and hubs has resulted in fierce competition. Operational cost savings, where practical, are a necessary part of success and indeed, survival. Technician is an overly generalized and many times unappreciated title. Technicians are the field professionals that really make systems for control, compression, dehydration, odorization, and measurement a success or bad venture and highly influence a gas companys prosperity This document focuses on a highly proven before release new technology that offers great savings to gas companies and provides some new challenges to the field professional. Ultrasonic meters are easy to learn and they add some new dimension and value to the users measurement experience. Gas ultrasonic meters, (USMs), are here to stay.
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Document ID: 4EF0C977

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavra
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-214-952-9435
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Document ID: 630CDB4A

Theory And Application Of The Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Howard E. Brumbaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a well-established method to obtain composition measurements in a gas or vaporized liquid/solid mixture. It physically separates, identifies, and quantifies mixture components in an injected sample. The laboratory gas chromatograph (GC), in use for many years, requires an operator to take a proper sample, fill a syringe, and inject the sample into the GC analyzer. It can perform many different types of analysis on a wide range of products. A lab technician can change out detectors, columns, and other parts to make the lab GC fit the specific application. Lab applications usually change more frequently than process applications
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Document ID: BDC19CA6

The Elusive Cubic Foot II
Author(s): Clem W. Lecure Gregory Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an axiom in measurement that says with one meter you have measurement accuracy, with two meters you have an argument. This is probably never more true than when measuring a cubic foot of gas, since one does not physically see the cubic foot of gas which is being measured. For this reason many of the causes of measurement variations go unnoticed, and therefore, uncorrected. Every year, millions of residential and industrial meters are tested and calibrated for accuracy using operating procedures which are suspect in obtaining a true measurement. While the conditions which define a standard cubic foot have been established, the problem is knowing the true volume delivered by the prover to the inlet of the meter
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Document ID: DAF5014D

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh Charles Guzowski
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers
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Document ID: EEB9E1E7

Ultrasonic Meters For Residential And Commercial Applications
Author(s): Jim Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter is a type of inferential meter. This means that the meter does not directly measure the volume of gas passing through it, rather it infers the volume based upon some measured characteristic. Orifice meters use pressure drop to infer volume, turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use the speed of sound waves to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years however, their use for the measurement of natural gas is fairly new.
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Document ID: EC7AD0FE

Vortex Technology In Gas Pressure Control
Author(s): Dr. Lev Tunkel
Abstract/Introduction:
The new concept of heating developed by Universal Vortex was utilized in the design of the Vortex Pilot Gas Heater and the Vortex Farm Tap Station. The proprietary Vortex Heater (VH) releases the internal High Pressure i Gas In Tangential Inlet Nozzle High Pressure Gas-In VHs Inlet Cross Section Low Pressure Gas VHHigh Pressure Heated Pilot Gas In Gas Out l i t . - - , V.o rtexM H ea*te r Non-Heated Pilot Gas In Hot Gas To Warm the VHs Inlet Nozzles (Non-Freeze Provision) A high-pressure gas as it expands in the VHs inlet nozzle undergoes pressure reduction and flow velocity increase. As a rotating (vortex), high-speed flow travels down the tube, the gas kinetic energy moves from the vortex inner layers to the outer layers. As a result, two currents with different h different temperature) originate in the tube: rature and outer-high temperature
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Document ID: 8605F3F1

Basic Electronic Communications For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Kenneth J. Pollock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces the common communications mediums used to convey intelligence for the gas industry. The gas industry requires fast and reliable communications for the conveyance of data for control and measurement applications. The data may be analog, digital, or even voice types of signals and may require transmission over a short distance of less than a couple of feet to over several hundred miles. As the gas is passed from the well head to the final user, many types of electronic devices are employed for fast and accurate measurement of the process. The link that is used to pass this information to the billing, control, or safety system is the communications system. Several communications circuits are required in order to convey the data and there is not any one perfect system that will meet the requirements in all situations.
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Document ID: 0C7C5AC9

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements
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Document ID: AED32F89

The Effects Of Proper Inspection And Maintenance Of Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joe Leo
Abstract/Introduction:
Before even considering the installation of a rotary in the field, a certain amount of preparation and investigation should take place. The preparation required in order to properly install rotary meters is most important. The following concerns should be addressed when considering the installation of rotary meters: 1. Are we dealing with dirty gas? 2. Do we use fogging oil in the system? 3. Are filters and regulators going to be installed? 4. Is the meter being installed vertically or horizontally? 5. Is there enough clearance around the meter to perform maintenance and inspections? 6. Can the customer to be shut off to perform the required maintenance?
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Document ID: EAE56EE1

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection For The Gas And Pipe Line Industry
Author(s): Donald R. Long
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas and Pipe Line Industry face a rather unique combination of problems. First, many of the areas in and around pumping, transfer, and storage areas are classified, or considered hazardous areas, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety, explosion proof, purging or non-incendive. The second problem facing the industry is the physical exposure of much of the electronic control and measuring systems, communications,and power subsystems. Each of these have their own sensitive, high-performance, solid state microcircuitry subject to potentially devastating lightning and electrical surges
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Document ID: 9BC58461

Fundamental Principles Of Self And Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: Self-Operated Pilot-Operated This categorizing of all regulators (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-simplification, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely
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Document ID: C70F7058

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters Matthew Pawloski
Abstract/Introduction:
It seems that the next logical step for our increasingly intelligent correctors, data loggers and flow computers would be to give them the ability to communicate. This would seem natural, with the growing number of personal computers in the gas industry and the tendency toward automatic data collection for large industrial and commercial customers. New challenges arise almost every day in the timely collection of billing data from interruptible service monitoring to the daily balancing of transportation gas. Already, many electronic correctors are being used to store load profile and other timerelated data in onboard memory. This can be downloaded into a handheld terminal, a portable computer or into a remote computer via telephone modem link
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Document ID: B9D60065

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss:
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Document ID: 279EB0E7

Freeze Protection For Instrumentation Controls, Controllers, Control Valves, And Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker David Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality and its accurate determination will assist in the prevention of the problems associated with freezing and hydrates in gas service. Measurement is only accurate under ideal conditions. In order for this condition to occur, contaminants must be removed from the meter run and pipeline. One of the contaminants that must be addressed is liquid in the meter run. According to data from Southwest Research Institute, one inch of liquid in a meter run can cause measurement errors in excess of 5%. These liquids may be water or liquid hydrocarbons. These same liquids, coupled with flowing temperature, ambient temperature, or pressure, will cause ice or hydrates to form.
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Document ID: C4092504

Sonic Nozzle Proving
Author(s): Jim Albert
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meter proving is a fundamentally simple process, involving only five things: 1. Control 2. Index reading 3. Volume measurement 4. Computation 5. Reporting pass some air meter through a how much air does the meter say it was? how much air was it really? find the ratio between the two volumes save the results
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Document ID: 0023622C

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 54808D77

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon liquids, entrained in natural gas, have been the source of many sampling problems. The primary problem is lack of agreement in the natural gas industry on the fundamental issue of should entrained liquid be included or excluded from sample gas. Standard practices issued by industry organizations are generally more applicable to natural gas that is free of liquid. The current standard practices provide minimum guidance in dealing with entrained liquids. Most of the current research in this field relates to techniques for sampling rich gas sources that contain no liquid
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Document ID: 5B4D809D

Diaphragm Meter Design And Operation
Author(s): Jim Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm meter is a positive displacement instrument which is used to measure the volume of gas that passes through it. This is accomplished through the known volume that is displaced for each stroke of the diaphragm. The diaphragm also provides the seal between the measuring chambers of the device. As such the diaphragm meter has proven to be an accurate and reliable means of measurement of gas for many years. This is especially true at low flow rates because of its positive displacement characteristics. This paper includes a basic review of the function and design of the positive displacement meter as well as an explanation of the operation of the diaphragm meter
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Document ID: 329AEB5A

Rotary & Turbine Meter Installation Uncertainty
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas is more than a number recorded in a route book by a meter reader. Underlying the volume recorded within a customers bill are the reputations of the meter manufacturers who want to sell a quality product, the operation engineers who want to specify the right meter for the right job, and the field personnel who install, operate and maintain the equipment from the cradle to the grave. When these reputations are coupled with the customeris desire to pay for the correct volume of natural gas consumed, the quality of all links within the measurement system chain is the key to a low cost and low uncertainty meter
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Document ID: 4C3D8864

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): John T. Kabay
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the time people become engaged in controlling or preventing corrosion by appointment rather than as a final step in a process of formal education. The following basic information is designed to be helpful to that segment of such a group entering the Corrosion Control Field without the benefit of any extensive training in the basic sciences related to corrosion, but who may be called upon from time to time to take at least the first steps in anticipating or determining areas of active corrosion, either on their own or with fellow employees
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Document ID: F241ADB0

Control Valve Noise
Author(s): Allen C. Fagerland
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid transmission systems are major sources of industrial noise. Elements within the systems that contribute to the noise are control valves, abrupt expansions of highvelocity flow streams, compressors, and pumps. Controlvalve noise is a result of the turbulence introduced into the flow stream in producing the permanent head loss required to fulfill the basic function of the valve
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Document ID: 7F398E1A

A Beginners Overview Of Advancements In Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
The communications revolution has accelerated in recent years, so it is no wonder why advancements in measurement technology and SCADA systems have become standard conversation in the gas industry. Accurate, readily available gas flow data and control capabilities are critical to many gas production, transportation and storage sites. Data in the gas industry relates to profit and accountability to customers. The complexity of a remote flow computer, transmitter or process controller linked to the usability and data handling of a SCADA environment makes instantaneous information and historical retrieval a reality
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Document ID: C7A0D791

Fundamentals Of Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Kevin L. Warner & E. Loy Upp Charles Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The advantages of ultrasonic flow meters are well known no line obstructions, large turndown ratio, bi-directionality, high accuracy and ultrasonic meters are now widely used within the gas industry in a wide variety of applications. Ultrasonic meters are available in several different configurations ranging from high accuracy multipath spoolpiece meters to single path hot-tapped meters. While all of these meters operate on the same basic transit-time principle, there are significant differences in their operational aspects. This article is intended to review the basic concepts of ultrasonic flow meters and to clarify the differences listed
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Document ID: E9E3062E

Gas Turbine Meters In Natural Gas Service
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
GAS TURBINE METERS IN NATURAL GAS SERVICE Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US in 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar
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Document ID: 8D3AA4C8

Minimizing The Effects Of Pulsation Induced Gage Line Error
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991.
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Document ID: 1688C512

LNG Plant Inspection From A Regulators Point Of View
Author(s): Christopher Bourne
Abstract/Introduction:
Of the more than 100 LNG plants in the US, 21 are located in Massachusetts. The oldest plant opened in 1968 the newest one went into operation last year. They range in size from 30,000 gals. of storage to 870,000 bbls. of storage. Three of the plants have liquefaction capability. Over the past 34 years, these plants have proven to be an important part of the winter gas supply in the state. The safety record of LNG plants in Massachusetts and across the country has been very impressive. The designers, builders, and operators deserve much of the credit for that safety record. However, some of the credit also belongs to the people who develop and enforce the safety regulations under which these plants operate
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Document ID: 0938DB10

Troubleshooting Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Field
Author(s): Dave Shepler
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of you who have, or will have, experience in troubleshooting diaphragm meters, know it can be very frustrating at times trying to figure out the problems that can be encountered in the field. This presentation will hopefully address most of those problems and provide some solutions.
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Document ID: 147CE1AA

Utilization Of The Below Grade Ball Valve Regulator For Large Volume Regulator Stations Requiring Reduced Noise Levels
Author(s): Michael P. Hogan Mike Racine
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, there has been growing concern within the natural gas industry regarding the effect natural gas regulating stations have on their surrounding environments. In an effort to cut down on excessive noise and pollution, many gas distribution and transmission companies have begun utilizing equipment which reduces the impact on the surrounding environment. The below grade ball valve regulator is a prime example of this environment- friendly equipment. Because of its high capacity, control capabilities, rangeability, and dependability, the below grade ball valve regulator has become the preferred method for controlling gas flow through natural gas regulating stations. It remains the primary choice for high volume regulations throughout the gas industry. Its long term reliability warrants further consideration for the direct burial of the ball valve regulator as a method of, not only maintaining superior flow characteristics, but also of greatly reducing any noise created in the station facilities
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Document ID: 8D8B1783

Cheap Check Measurement
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Check measurement of volumetric flow in natural gas pipelines is essential for system pipeline monitoring and control. Although the custody of natural gas is not transferred at a check meter, the calculated flow rate through the meter must be reliable and repeatable while remaining cost effective. Various check meter options are available when check measurement is required. Orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters are often specified at an approximate installed cost of 3,000 to 10,000 per inch. As an alternative to traditional check measurement, averaging pitot tube meters can be used in many applications
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Document ID: CE59D7B4

Installation Challenges Resolved With Gas Flow Conditioners
Author(s): James E. Gallagher Michael P. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
The full cost of ownership of any measurement facility consists of the initial capital, commissioning, training, spare parts, maintenance and calibration costs for the lifetime of the equipment. The full cost is several times the initial capital investment and should be the deciding factor in equipment selection. The technical selection - accuracy, repeatability, drift, ease of calibration as well as reliability indirectly affects the cost of ownership
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Document ID: 3873439B

Overpressure Protection
Author(s): David C. Hiatt & Donald E. Holtman
Abstract/Introduction:
In a gas distribution system, each piece of pipe must be protected against overpressure or exceeding the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus allowable build-up. This includes all feeder line, distribution mains and all service lines. In some cases the operating company will apply a maximum pressure to a pipeline that is less than the MAOP. Systems that have a history of corrosion problems or those that have operated for years at a lower pressure may be assigned a maximum operating pressure (MOP) that the company considers safe, and will install an overpressure device to protect from exceeding that pressure
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Document ID: D0271741

Differential Testing Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): R.A. Ron() Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Over a hundred years ago, the Brothers Root were searching for an innovative way to convert water into power. Their search led to two figure eight shaped lobes. Legend has it that the lobes did not pass water efficiently, but when the contraption blew one of the brothers hats into the air they knew they had an industrial strength blower. Nearly eighty years ago, the Roots Brothers Blower Company decided that their basic design, when a counter replaced the blower motor, could be used as a gas measurement device. The era of rotary gas measurement was born
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Document ID: EB1E1322

Are Electronic Correctors Cost Effective?
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of natural gas at custody transfer meters is critical for both revenue and customer satisfaction. Advances in computer technology have made it possible to replace compensated meter indexes and chart recorders with sophisticated electronics that are often reliable and repeatable. But is electronic measurement remaining cost effective?
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Document ID: 5F60FC1C

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles to measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large volume measurement and thus fewer applications.
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Document ID: AB97B605

Measuring Natural Gas With Coriolis
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of Coriolis technology fo grown steadily since it was fir decades ago. Whether for liq Coriolis metering offers unique tages including: Large turndown ratio of 100 No flow conditioning requir irregular flow profile Direct mass measurement ture corrections to derive m Values easily converted to desired High accuracy - 0.10% fo Non-intrusive - minimum p problems virtually eliminated No moving parts - minimu perform when needed No mechanical damage in c
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Document ID: FA1A1997

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: 763EB533

Chart Quality Counts
Author(s): Sherry French, Susan Johnson & David Wylie
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Measurement is an integral part of a pipelines business. It is used to, among many things, allocate volumes, invoice customers and calculate Unaccounted For levels. Many factors can affect the accuracy of this process. Following we will discuss these factors along with possible solutions. We will also briefly discuss the impact gas measurement has on an issue facing many pipeline companies today, Unaccounted For Gas.
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Document ID: E224FC53

Chart Processing: From The Field To The Web!
Author(s): Charles T. Tom() Hunter And Casey Neehouse
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement has evolved the past century and remains one of the most crucial functions in our industry. The values ascertained from charts influence the economics of this country and also impact our daily lives in many different ways. From our utility bills to the price of many of our consumables and staples, it determines how we pay for one of Americas most valuable natural resources. Surprisingly, many companies place little importance on gas measurement.
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Document ID: 900D30B7

Basic Electronics
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, the use of electronics in gas measurement and control has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, it is very important to measure, control and communicate gas related field parameters on time, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketing, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas industry moves gas from wellhead to burner tip, several types of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control.
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Document ID: 5F642B29

Operation And Maintenance Considerations For Multi-Path Gas Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic Meters have unique outputs that enable remote condition monitoring to insure continued gas measurement integrity. Integrating a monitoring protocol with these diagnostic outputs into a Routine Maintenance program is a developing art that still requires some subjective evaluation: Setting reasonable alarm limits remains ill defined by most manufacturers, including Instromet, because our understanding of Ultrasonic meters outputs in an operating environment is primi but growing as acceptance of ultrasonic custody me urement proliferates
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Document ID: 51535826

Decommissioning Of Odorant Facilities And Disposal Of Odorant Materials Via Two Phase Thermal Oxidation
Author(s): Jan Strmen, Phd And Damian Rodriguez
Abstract/Introduction:
Issues of safety, liability and environment associated with handling, storage and disposal of odorant waste are becoming very important for operations of natural gas industry. This paper is intended to provide information on technologies, equipment and procedures involved in decommissioning of odorant facilities and thermal treatment of odorant wastes which meets most stringent requirements of Gas Industry. Capable of treating wastes such as soils, drums, debris, rags and equipment contaminated with odorant, system used by Material Resource Recovery Inc. has the ability to treat odorant tanks up to a length of 26 feet.
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Document ID: F6C635A4

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): J. N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most commonly used device for the measurement of natural gas in the natural gas transmission industry. This paper will present various topics related to measurement bias errors common to orifice measurement. Most of this information which has been published and presented by others in various industry events, is consolidated here for presentation in a classroom setting. This paper will address only errors associated with operation of the primary measurement device which is the orifice meter tube and plate. Flow recorders, transmitters, and flow computers are considered secondary equipment and will not directly be discussed.
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Document ID: 57DD3AD7

Complete Gas Metering System Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Charles W. Derr And Charles F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas volume and energy metering stations using gas chromatography and ultrasonic metering are beconimg a mainstream field operation and a new challenge to metering personnel. They are easy to adapt to while adding a new dimension of value to the field professional. Technicians will invariably be the link to the success of any changing technology that would survive and thrive in the real pipeline environment. Meter stations must be maintainable and provable. The system and requirements will be examined from that perspective.
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Document ID: A6977664

LNG Tank Integrity And LNG Level Measurement
Author(s): Christian S. Hosford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the need for accurate level measurement in LNG Tanks in terms of tank integrity and inventory management, and the benefits of various types of level gauging devices in terms of: Ease of retrofitting on existing LNG tanks Accuracy of level measurement Ability to measure density Two common types of LNG tanks are addressed, the large flat bottom, double wall tank, and the small, horizontal double walled, vacuum insulated tanks.
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Document ID: 3C54FC19

Plunger Lift: Applications, Operations And Its Effect On Measurement Systems
Author(s): Stan Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
The growing popularity of plunger-lift as a a serious production technique is testimony to the effectiveness of this often-misunderstood process. Once rarely considered, plunger lift is now being used by prudent operators all over the world. The need for continued education and information for production operators continues to grow. Even though the basic applications remain the same, the parameters are changing. Thousands of wells that would never have been considered as candidates previously can now be operated effectively and efficiently
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Document ID: E2E40E07

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on system stability
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Document ID: 46B0BDA1

Indirect Heater Basic Technique And Practical Application
Author(s): Dwight Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas transmission, measurement and regulation industry, heaters are required for the safe and reliable distribution of natural gas. Indirect heating is the safest way to heat natural gas, ensuring that combustible ga are warmed by inert heat medium rather than direct c tact with a flame-heated element
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Document ID: BB39B637

A Statistical Approach To Facility Assessment
Author(s): Sean Terchek, Paul Amick, Mark Newman
Abstract/Introduction:
The post-Order 636 environment has resulted in an increased focus on and awareness of underground gas storage. Storage operators are seeing an increased customer emphasis on storage reliability and flexibility as new markets arise. Storage assets must be effectively maintained and managed to assure the integrity and performance of the facilities in order to meet present and future storage obligations
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Document ID: D433172F

Implementing A Low Cost Commercial And Industrial Amr System
Author(s): Glenn Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic Meter Reading is the process of getting energy consumption data from the meter to the office without manual effort. However, AMR does not mean the same thing to everyone. There are many manufacturers, serving many AMR needs, using a variety of communication technologies. AMR can be a very confusing topic
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Document ID: 645D6EDD

Proper Sizing, Installation And Operation Of Submerged Motor LNG Pumps
Author(s): Henry A. Smith III
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to give LNG plant owners some important guidelines to follow when writing a specification for new LNG pumps. In addition there are suggestions for proper installation and the operation of the pumps.
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Document ID: 3E5D70EF

Meter Sampling And Meter Management
Author(s): Patrick J. Donnelly
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, installation and repair of meters are a significant part of a gas companys operating costs. The overall accuracy of a companys meter population has a direct affect on revenues. Managing the meter population more efficiently through meter sampling and efficient meter repair is essential for company to be a top performer. Many states now permit some form of meter sampling program in place of the traditional periodic meter removal programs of the past. This paper will cover different methods of meter sampling and meter management that can be used within the constraints of state regulations.
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Document ID: 51D3020E

Understanding Shiftwork Operations: Optimizing Employee Health, Safety, And Performance In The 24/7 Workplace
Author(s): Andrew Lehrer And David Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
Three Mile Island. Just saying the words can trigger images of the accident that occurred and the catastrophe that was narrowly averted. It started out innocently enough - just another routine night for the control room operators working at this nuclear power plant. Or so they thought. But on this night, the familiar calm turned into chaos as one reactor danced dangerously close to a nuclear meltdown.
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Document ID: D810BAEB

Statistical Meter Testing Program Development And Application
Author(s): Frank C. Garcia
Abstract/Introduction:
This session will review current statistical meter testing programs including why they were implemented and the concepts on which they are based. Utilities have begun to re-evaluate the prevailing approach to gas and electric meter testing programs. The motivation has been to reduce the number of tests and to improve the usefulness of the data collected while improving the performance of the meter population. We will look at whether or not the existing test programs give a true picture of how well the meter population is actually performing in the field and present alternative statistical programs that require less testing and give a more realistic picture of how the meter population is actually performing
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Document ID: 5A7C7EA6

Pid Control - Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID.
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Document ID: 29393DFF

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ron L. Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 6F0FD24E

What, Why And How - The Basics Of Underground Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage.
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Document ID: 7A5CB550

Protection Of Natural Gas Equipment Against Moisture And Corrosion
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided.
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Document ID: F0688F27

Electrical Installations And Intrinsic Safety In Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Winfried Winni() Faulring
Abstract/Introduction:
When installing electrical circuits in hazardous locations, some form of explosion protection must be used. In the United States and Canada the traditional method has been to install these systems in explosionproof enclosures and sealed conduit. Since this type of protection can be expensive to install and maintain, many users have turned toward intrinsic safety as the preferred explosion protection method
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Document ID: A984A5F0

Innovations In Monitoring & Reporting Odorant Detection Levels
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays business environment requires the natural gas industry to perform many critical functions such as measurement, gas control, and odorization. Accurate measurement is a complex process involving a variety of equipment, procedures and people. The result is an accurate accounting of gas bought and sold. Gas Control is also a complex process that requires a sophisticated communications network and experienced personnel, resulting in a reliable supply of natural gas for transportation or distribution. However, the odorization program is the most difficult and most important of any function performed by the natural gas industry. The result is a safe public
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Document ID: 0DB91646

Ground Free Surge Protection
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Ground is so often used in the context of surge protection that it is difficult to imagine a surge protection device that does not require earth ground. Well, there are some applications where secondary-type surge protection devices do not require earth grounding. Eagle Research Corp. has developed a secondary surge protection system that has saved Mountaineer Gas and a number of other remote-mounted instrument users thousands of dollars in the last couple of years.
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Document ID: E431F694


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