Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2002)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2002 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

NEW,IDEAS In, Fluid Measurement C!,a, Ss Ncmber 2320
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Each year as we attend ISHM, we look forward to hearing about advances in methodology and the experiences of other in the industry portrayed in technical presentations. This effort, by so many people, helps each of us to expand our understanding of the methodologies being employed. Perhaps, through them we gain some insight into the success or failures of those using them.
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Document ID: FE7971C2

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
According to Webster dictionary, orifice is a mouth like aperture and meter is an instrument that measures. Therefore, orifice meter is a circular opening that measures. In early 1600s, Castelli and Tonicelli were first to state that the velocity through a hole in a tank varies as square root of water level above the hole. They also stated that the volume flow rate through the hole is proportional to the area of the opening. Almost another century later, in 1738, a Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli developed an equation defining relationship between the forces due to the line pressure, energy of the moving fluid, and the earths gravitational forces on the fluid. Bernoullis theorem has since been the basis for the flow equation of all head-type flow meters. In 1797, an Italian scientist, Giovanni Venturi, demonstrated that the differential pressure generated across an orifice plate due to flow, is a square root function of the flow rate through the pipe. This is the first known use of an orifice in measuring flow rate through a pipe. Prior accepted flow measurement method was by filling buckets of known volume. So, use of orifice plate as a continuous flow-measuring device has a history of over two hundred years.
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Document ID: 682A96AD

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration Class Lm 2340
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
The term pycnometer refers to both glass and flowthrough pycnometers. Pycnometers are defined by the following criteria: They are vessels with a flow-through design that traps a representative sample of the test fluid at operating conditions. They permit safe handling of high-pressure fluids during sampling and transport. (Caution is needed when transporting a liquid-full cylinder. The expansion of the fluid as the temperature of the pycnometer rises could cause an unsafe condition in a very short time period.) Their volume and evacuated weight are known to a precision of 0.02 percent over the operating pressure and temperature range.
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Document ID: 1D68384B

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design Class #1010
Author(s): E. D. Rusty Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There is more to the design of a measurement facility than the word suggests. Generally, the measurement arena may include any or all of the following broad categories: Metering o: Primary devices : Secondary devices o Tertiary devices Control Pressure regulation oo Flow control o: Overpressure protection Gas Quality o Chromatography : Spot or composite sampling o Analytical instrumentation Other : Odorization : Filtration / Separation :. Heating Pneumatic and electronic instrumentation is scattered throughout each of the categories listed above. The detailed design of a measurement facility can become quite involved and exceed the space allotted in this paper. However, the fundamentals will be addressed in regard to the considerations for designing natural gas transmission pipeline measurement facilities. For the purposes of this paper, only metering and regulation (M&R) will be addressed. At a very high level, a good design engineer will focus on three generalities. First, the station must be designed with safety utmost in mind, regarding both personnel and equipment. Secondly, the design must be cost effective. And thirdly, the station must be operationally functional.
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Document ID: CEE4DDCF

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences Class #2350
Author(s): Herbert H. Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a custody transfer? It is the volume of liquid moved multiplied by the tariff, which equates to ! It is the bottom line, which is the cash register. Is your companys cash register running over or short? What is the percentage it is off?
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Document ID: 21786C45

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach
Author(s): R. G. Dodson
Abstract/Introduction:
The role of a measurement specialist is more unique than any other job description in an organization. We dont make policy, but do follow precise guidelines and tolerances as established by law, industry standards, and company policy. While we work for, and are paid by, a specific organization, every job we do positions us in the middle between buyer and seller. Our companies hold either of these definitions at various times.
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Document ID: A5535723

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains Class Number 2380
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement can be assured by continuous monitoring to determine if systems, equipment and procedures are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts. This paper discusses control charts and other charts which may be used to monitor operating systems.
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Document ID: 0DFA1915

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience Class 1020
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide C02 has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience had been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: B9507E1D

Truck Loading Rack Blending Class Number 2390
Author(s): David P. Resch
Abstract/Introduction:
The loading of petroleum products at truck loading terminals has undergone a great deal of renovation since the early 70s. These changes have taken place thanks mostly to the introduction of electronic instrumentation and control devices, which replaced what was traditionally mechanical equipment at the load rack. Through the 80s and into the early 90s this equipment has been refined and its features expanded to meet the needs of modern truck loading facilities. The electronic preset is responsible for much of this improvement, and while product accountability, reduced operating cost, and improved inventory control continue to be one of the significant benefits of the electronic preset, government regulations will have a large impact on the upgrading effort. The Clean Air Act, which many major metropolitan areas comply with, legislates regulations requiring a certain percentage of oxygenates in the gasolines sold in their area. These regulations may prohibit the petroleum products from being directly delivered in their refined form, and may require that they be blended with products such as Ethanol or Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). Combining this with the requirements of mid-grade and higher performance type gasolines for todays fuel-efficient automobiles, the blending requirements start to multiply. The scope of this paper will focus on the requirements for blending and how todays electronic preset will meet the challenge by offering two types of blending solutions, the sequential (batch) blender, or the ratio (in line) blender.
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Document ID: 72D6181A

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate and equitable measurement of natural gas is paramount to the industry we all serve. This Measurement is the cash register for all Natural Gas buying and selling transactions 23. To serve our industry well, we should endeavor to learn all we can about the principles involved in the accurate measurement of the gas. All gas measurement is based on the application of the Ideal gas laws, derived from: PV nRT Gas compressibility is an important deviation from Ideal gas laws and is important to accurate gas measurement. However, it is often overlooked for the following reasons: It is difficult to understand. It is difficult to calculate. Requires some understanding of chemistry. Hydrocarbons have much more compressibility than so called lnerts. While negligible at base (that is atmospheric) conditions, can be an up to 20% correction on volume Calculations at line pressures. The compressibility factor varies widely due to the composition. The Dictionary for the Petroleum Industry 5 defines Compressibility Factor as: The ratio of the actual volume of gas at a given temperature and pressure to the volume of gas when calculated by the ideal gas law. In other words, PV does not always equal NRT! In fact, W.F. Sheehans Chemistry text 4 defines the Compressibility Factor, Z as:
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Document ID: 5DFEF27F

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Measurement Class Number 240,0
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters of various designs have long found use in industry. Their use dates back in excess of twenty years and one might reasonably ask why there is a renewed interest among potential users for such a dated technology. The answer resides in recent advances in the technology that werent even dreamt of a few short years ago. Advances that are in the process of altering the landscape of our traditional responses to demands for precision flow measurement.
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Document ID: 0C01AD7F

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
JaDeregulation, competition, and increased share earnings. Do these terms sound familiar? Seems as though in todays market of the Oil and Gas Industry those terms are the basis companies must contend with. Companies must be firm and meet aggressive market strategies, or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and ours is no exception. Our measuring stations that measure our products are our cash register. These stations were designed ten, twenty, thirty even fifty years ago and are now are performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made.mes M. Doyle
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Document ID: 720C9402

Ultrasonic Liquid Flow Measurement Class No. 2405
Author(s): H. Decker, Krohne
Abstract/Introduction:
Major improvements in accuracy led to the first ultrasonic liquid flowmeter able to meet the stringent requirements set by end-users and institutions like OIML and NPD for custody transfer of oil products with regard to uncertainty and repeatability. An increasing number of Boards of Weight and Measures have approved the use of the multibeam ultrasonic flowmeter for fiscal metering applications. Additionally, several laboratories and independent End User field tests have demonstrated that the uncertainty range for the ALTO-V lies within +0.15% of the measured value with a repeatability of + 0.02%.
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Document ID: B99EDE36

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement Class Number LM-2410
Author(s): Gary Rothrock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will explore the role of viscosity in the hydrocarbon industry, its effects, why and where it is measured, and the methods of achieving those measurements online. The fact that laboratory measurement of viscosity is so prevalent in process control tells us two things: 1. Viscosity is a vital measurement. . There are no other parameters that can be used as indicators for viscosity. Hydrocarbons have the simplest of viscosity behavior they can be treated as Newtonian, while many other fluids in common use often exhibit far more complex viscous behavior. They may be pseudoplastic or dilatant thixotropic or even show non-reversible changes after being sheared.
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Document ID: 762230D7

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations Class 1 O60
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 0E31D3F5

Operational Experience With Custody Transfer Liquid Ultrasonic Meters Class #2420
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the petroleum industry has search for the perfect volumetric measurement instrument. The industry has progressed from using barrels to high speed mechanical devices for measuring petroleum. In the 1990s, several new technologies made their way in to the measurement arena. One of these technologies was the Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM). In order to determine the UFMs capabilities, durability, and performance, several companies were asked to perform tests in conjunction with a national standards writing organization. The goals were to collect data to determine if the UFMs could be used for custody transfer applications and to draft a standard for the petroleum industry. In this paper we will review,
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Document ID: 23660FDF

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement Gm 1090
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now known as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991. Though originally produced for PCRC members only, these reports are now available to the industry for a nominal charge. The PCRC sponsored research programs concluded that pulsation induced measurement errors fall into two broad categories:
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Document ID: AEC2CCEB

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetry Systems Class Number 3010
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
The communications revolution has accelerated in recent years, so it is no wonder why advancements in measurement technology and SCADA systems have become standard conversation in the gas industry. Accurate, readily available gas flow data and control capabilities are critical to many gas production, transportation and storage sites. Data in the gas industry relates to profit and accountability to customers. The complexity of a remote flow computer, transmitter or process controller linked to the usability and data handling of a SCADA environment makes instantaneous information and historical retrieval a reality.
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Document ID: 9CB4F8D1

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement Class Number 1100
Author(s): Dr. Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971, E. J. Burgin of Florida Gas Transmission Company presented a paper at ISHM entitled Factors Affecting Accuracy of Orifice Measurement (Primary Element). Burgin noted that AGA (American Gas Association) Report No. 3 (as published at the time) claimed that a flange-tap orifice meter with a diameter ratio, p, between 0.15 and 0.7, fabricated and operated in accordance with the specifications of the standard, would have a discharge coefficient within +0.5% of the value calculated from the orifice equation. The purpose of Burgins paper was to examine some of the specifications in the orifice meter standard and to review the effect upon measurement accuracy when the specifications were ignored.Dr. Darin L. George
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Document ID: 31BBB5BC

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control Class Number 3020
Author(s): Shawn Kriger
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, like the computer industry, have been changing rapidly over the past few years. Faster, more powerful microprocessors, higher quality batteries and solar panels, improved electronics and new methods of remote communication now make it possible to automate field production and pipeline systems primarily using flow computers as the core har
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Document ID: 61AD8E01

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters 1110
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters (see fig. 1) were introduced in 1963, and since then have gained world wide acceptance in the industry as an accurate, extremely repeatable, reliable device. The gas turbine meter is easy to understand and maintain in the field, and is easy to interface with the new electronics available in the industry today. Turbine Meter Gear Train I l iiii,i, ili, i lii j Readout Nose Cone Body Fiqure Rotor
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Document ID: 0AD7ACE8

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software Class # 3030
Author(s): Howard m. Sheets
Abstract/Introduction:
Laptops, handhelds, palmtops and PDAs are becoming common in the Natural Gas Industry to perform a variety of portable computer functions. Applying these different technologies to fit a given task is sometimes not immediately apparent. Portable Computers do make the field users job easier to perform, if time is taken to assure that they are selected to fit the application. Emphasis in this paper will be on mobile computing as it relates to the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: D86FEEC2

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters Class 1120
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority.
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Document ID: 3DBB4F2A

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 042A291F

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems 3050
Author(s): Alfredo E. Sanut
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering is the process of transferring data measured, calculated, or monitored data, over a distance or from point A to point B. One of the first forms of telemetry developed was used to determine pressures and flows of natural gas pipelines. It was popular during the 70s and 80s. This type of telemetering used a process known as pulse duration. Pulse duration is a process of a pulse being transmitted over a set period of time to indicate a variable. For example the first times were based on a 3-15 second time interval. A 3-second pulse provided a measure of 0% of scale and a 12- second pulse provided a measure of 100% of scale. Why start at 3 seconds? This provided for a true 0, if the pulse was less than 3 seconds the processor could determine that the value was actually less than 0%. The 15- seconds provided for a true 100%. These pulses were usually passed through dedicated phone circuits to a central point where the data was presented in the form of charts on recorders for monitoring. This was a great improvement over previous operating schemes because it provided real time data. The data accuracy varied however due to temperature and distance of the wiring used for transmission.
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Document ID: 9B091F90

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I Class 1140
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 68AFA4FD

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Dale Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
The title says it all. This paper is written with the idea of presenting basic electronic principles and how to apply these to common applications. Basics The basic laws covered here with be Ohms law, Kirchhoffs voltage law, and Kirchhoffs current law. The main terms used are Voltage (units are volts), Current (units are amps or milliamps), and Resistance (units are ohms). These terms are meaningless unless a relationship can be established. The analogy that can be used is water flowing through a pipe. The pressure that pushes the water would correspond to voltage. The water flowing through the pipe would correspond to current. Any obstruction in the pipe restricting the flow would correspond to resistance.
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Document ID: 2C577461

Basic Scada Systems EM-3070
Author(s): Rick Kroeker
Abstract/Introduction:
A SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is typical made up of many distributed remote microprocessors that are communicated to (supervised) by a central computer system most commonly referred to as a host. Supervisory control implies that the remote unit performs the local control function with the host performing the supervisory control function such as writing the setpoint to the controller. Not only does the host system send supervisory commands to the remote units but also it usually collects data (data acquisition) from the units. This data can be used for many purposes including feedback to the system operator, trending, alarming and accounting.
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Document ID: 228E502D

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II Class # 1150
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: AAFF5218

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III Class 1160
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 47D1BD7B

Communications Systems For Gas Measurement Data Class 3080
Author(s): Darin Molone
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline companies have long since discovered the need for real-time pipeline system automation. Before the first SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems appeared, companies depended on employees to open and close valves and manually set controls for gas flow. These operational needs spawned the first SCADA systems. Companies often installed an RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) for operational control of the pipeline and, if needed a second RTU or chart recorder for custody measurement. This two-RTU philosophy forged two separate telemetry infrastructures. The first infrastructure communicated with the real-time operational RTUs, while the second collected the electronic flow measurement data
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Document ID: BE8BFE30

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters 1170
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and selfcorrecting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar.
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Document ID: B09050EC

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders Class # GM-1180
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? The answer usually depends upon whom you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean every thing from the orifice meter chart recorder to the entire meter station. American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements.
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Document ID: 9E051376

Communication To Measurement Equipment At Gas Distribution Locations Class 3090
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Business changes demand changes in doing business. One of the last great holdouts has been gas measurement in a natural gas distribution company. Ever since the days before this generation, meter indexes were read and charts were changed for a measurement process to begin. This process has been going on for so long that nearly everyone recognizes the utility meter reader. But now, a business change is taking place that is causing us to do business differently. Over the last five years the sight of a familiar meter reader around a meter setting is slowly diminishing. Little antennas are popping up all around gas facilities. Meters are being read remotely. A new gas company icon may soon become the communication technician.
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Document ID: 8465BBF3

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurment Class Number 1190
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, positive displacement meters, and multipath ultrasonic flowmeters
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Document ID: B88B569D

Computer Application In Liquid Measurement EM3100
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
The advance in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technology in the 1970s has enabled us to put most of the computing and control functions of a computer in a single small chip, which we call a microprocessor today. Together with the improvements in solid-state memory and low power CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technology allows us to design and build the whole computer on a printed circuit board (PCB)instead of a room full of electronic devices and mechanical switches.
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Document ID: 72F215B8

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement Class # 1200
Author(s): Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base or more than 350,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 20,000 units on gas around the world, groups including the AGA, API, Measurement Canada, German PTB, and Dutch NMi are all involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology. An overview of theory, selection, installation & maintenance of Coriolis meters will be presented. Application details will be presented to illustrate both the range of natural gas applications, including production, fuel flow control to gas power turbines, master metering, city/industrial gate custody transfer, and third-party test data. Laboratories include the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Pigsar (Germany).
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Document ID: DFCD65A0

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement Class EM3110
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The decision on whether to invest in electronic gas measurement (EGM) equipment is one facing a majority of energy-related organizations. This is especially true for those companies that have been in business for several years and still utilize older technology in the form of chart recorders to record and archive flow information on paper. These decisions can be made based on an analysis of the financial impact to the company. Some of the impact is based on tangible costs savings while the remainder is based on intangible value that will be realized by a number of different functional groups within the typical energy organization.
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Document ID: 57846EF7

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide Class #1210
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties applied to companies can be very high if the required work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as weather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: 160AF8C3

Effects Of Cathodic Protection & Induced Signals On Pipeline Measurement Class 3120
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe that is buried under ground or water has a tendency to have external corrosion. Corrosion is where the strength of metal pipe is effectively reduced due to the metal molecules combining with other molecules to form a third substance. An example of this is the iron in steel pipe combining with oxygen to form iron oxide or rust.
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Document ID: 0892FED8

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters Class Gm 1240
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas. measurement and reduce the unaccounted for natural gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 million standard cubic feet per day of Natural Gas selling at 3.00/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 109,500.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system.
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Document ID: 52771373

Ethernet For Scada Systems Class 3125
Author(s): m. Atwood, E. Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the utilization and installation of Ethernet based communications for the purpose of gathering and distilling plant measurement data. Also discussed are the various pros and cons along with the pitfalls one can expect when installing such a system.
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Document ID: 36BDAAFF

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes #1250
Author(s): Hugh Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most widely used method of fluid measurement currently in use. Orifice fittings, developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube, are also commonly used in current meter tube designs. Each of these components must meet specifications of industry standards such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3, and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14 section 3 on Petroleum Measurements Standards to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: DB3797F7

Orifice Meter Gage Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more accurate gas flow measurements, industry is placing more emphasis on defming and avoiding adverse unsteady flow conditions. Interactions of pulsation energy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gage line tubing with closecoupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper touches on gage line effects on gas flow measurement.
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Document ID: A3055FEC

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance Class Number 1270
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery. The orifice meter was developed in the early 1900s. They have become the industry standard for measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
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Document ID: 0740802E

Thermometry In Measurement 131
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is one of several critical variables that must be correctly measured to determine reliable natural gas quantities. This is especially true in custody transfer (fiscal) applications where even relatively small temperature measurement errors can have a large impact on the bottom line. The technical aspects of thermometry in flow measurement can best be applied to practical situations by first understanding the relationship between temperature and the fundamental gas laws. Then, these basic concepts are applied to the calculation of flow as well as the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of measurement equipment.
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Document ID: A129F31C

Implemenatation Of A Scada System EM3130
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is a system that controls and gathers data from remote devices. A SCADA system typically consists of a master station (or Host system), a communication system and remote stations. A central computer system is used as the master station to monitor and control the remote stations in real time through the communication system.
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Document ID: AFA88737

Wet Gas Measurement Class 1320
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When material flowing in a pipe is made up of a mixture of fluid phases the term multiphase is used to classify this type of flow. Multiphase flow comprises a broad range of applications in different industries. Some examples include gas bubbles in flowing liquid, solid particles carried by a gas, and the flow of two immiscible liquids. Often a flowing stream of natural gas contains some level of hydrocarbon liquid and/or water. This is a form of multiphase flow often called wet gas.
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Document ID: F36E068A

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement Class # 2010
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the many parameters that must be accurately measured for product quality control, custody transfer, process control, or liquid interface detection purposes is liquid density. Often, density measurement is combined with flow measurement to determine the mass flow rate of a liquid in a pipeline, in this article, we will discuss the principle of operation of vibrating tube densitometers, design suggestions for densitometer installation, and calibrating, or proving, the system.
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Document ID: 17235953

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer Class 3140
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow computers have become state of the art technology in todays challenges concerning gas custody transfers. They have been around since the mid-1960s though at that time were neither highly trusted nor significantly reliable. Choices were limited and electronic failures were commonplace. Since that time flow computers have become more reliable, and efficient. They have become the focus of the industry to establish the integrity required for accurate custody transfers of natural gas.
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Document ID: 3928BE92

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement Class 3150
Author(s): Kevin L. Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
Like many technical terms, real time has been thrown around in so many discussions that its meaning has been lost. The goal of this class is to truly define real time gas measurement and resolve all the varying interpretations that abound in the industry. You have probably noticed that I did not use the word, electronic even though it is in the class title. Since practically all new equipment on the market is electronic, lets just assume that aspect is understood. Hopefully, we can also sort through the broad range of perceptions applied to electronics as used in the natural gas measurement field
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Document ID: B4E1AB21

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement Class 2020
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters are found around the world measuring crude oil, intermediate and finished products, and light hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gas liquids (NGL) mixtures. Their performance and durability have enabled turbine meters to be used for custody transfer, check and operational measurement in the petroleum industry. In custody transfer applications, there are a number of industry standards to guide a user in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the turbine meter and its associated equipment.
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Document ID: EC3CC434

Spread Spectrum Radio Systems In Efm And Scada Class # 3155
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
As Oil & Gas companies work toward greater automation and e-business solutions, the challenges of getting real time, reliable data from remote locations continues to be one of the greatest hurdles. Today there are many fine choices in EFM and Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) equipment available to oil and gas producers. There are also many fine bug free software programs to archive, audit, and display the collected data. The single biggest problem remains communications. It is a commonly held belief (and one I concur with) that over 80% of all SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system problems are communication failures.
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Document ID: 9C092B11

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Dynamic Measurement Class 2050
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction.
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Document ID: 666BBD8C

Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers Class 3170
Author(s): Jeff Goetzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing demand for Natural Gas has caused this fuel to increase in price significantly over the recent years. It is becoming increasing important for companies competing in a more competitive market place to measure the gas they purchase and sell as accurately as possible. One of the most important aspects of the measurement process is the testing, maintenance and operation of Electronic Flow Computers.
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Document ID: 303CC5B5

Theory And Application Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters Class 3175
Author(s): Scott Corey, Herb Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly, ultrasonic flow meters (UFMs) are displacing traditional flow measurement instruments in hydrocarbon measurement applications. This transition is being driven by a number of UFM attributes including: High Accuracy Availability of large size meters Non-intrusiveness Low maintenance costs High turndown ratio Excellent on-line diagnostics
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Document ID: B872937F

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices Class 3180
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: D93A1B6E

Calibration Of Liquid Provers Class #4020
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: 62E1BB30

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving For Custody Transfer Class 4030
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
The first provers were measured miles of pipe, and mechanical counters were read on the fly. Because of the large volumes, this resolution was good enough, however everyone didnt have a mile of pipe to use for proving, and bringing the sphere back in a pickup truck was a little inconvenient. Forty years ago vacuum tube instruments with nixie tube readout were required for high-speed and high-resolution prover counters. Electromechanical counters were not suitable they were too slow for the least significant digits. Some of the original counters had nixies for the two least significant decades, and electromechanical for the remaining decades. Positive displacement meters had local mechanical readouts, and portable transmitters were connected only for proving. Turbine meters were just starting to be used for custody transfer, and part of the design requirements was to have enough resolution for proving, this led to the rimmed rotor design.
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Document ID: 27BFB2B3

Design, Calibration And Operation Of Field Standard Test Measures Class # 4040
Author(s): Richard C. Jordan
Abstract/Introduction:
A field standard test measure is a graduated neck volumetric container, fabricated to stringent design criteria to deliver a specific volume of liquid when drained. To identify its true volume value, it is calibrated by an official agency such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The primary purpose of a field standard test measure is to provide a standardized volume, used for the calibration of displacement and tank provers, when calibrated by the water draw method.
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Document ID: 5D897D00

Calibration Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters Class 4055
Author(s): Bill Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
The calibration of ultrasonic flowmeters must begin with a consideration of the piping immediately upstream and downstream of the meter being calibrated. If the piping contains elbows, valves, flow conditioners, or other piping components then the effect of those components on the performance of the ultrasonic flowmeter must be considered. Little research data is available to guide flow measurement personnel when making piping configuration and meter calibration decisions. Some data is presented in this paper showing the effects of upstream elbows and flow conditioners on the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters. This data indicates that upstream components do effect ultrasonic flowmeter performance.
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Document ID: E9E07BF1

Calibration Of Storage Tanks Class Number: 2070
Author(s): Michael J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
SCOPE This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks. INTRODUCTION Tank calibration is often referred to as tank strapping due to the old method of placing metal straps around wooden containers used for the storage of oils.
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Document ID: DB245FAF

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers Class # 4060
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Buying or selling doesnt necessarily have to involve meters, but realistically, its highly probable that every barrel of liquid our companies process, whether raw crude or refined product, will pass through a meter or a series of meters somewhere between the well and the marketplace. Metering continues to provide the most consistent and accurate method of measurement. With meters comes the necessity of proving, and that by way of a certified meter prover. With either of these measurement devices, problems arise that require a sensible, systematic approach to a solution, driven by sound measurement principles.
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Document ID: C9779BA8

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck- Metering Versus Manual Gauging Class 2080
Author(s): Tommy Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
Normal procedures for custody transfer of oil from lease tanks requires the driver/gauger to manually gauge the producers storage tank to determine the volume of oil in the tank and the S&W content of the oil. This procedure requires the driver to climb to the top of the tank where exposure to H2S or injury from falling from the tank is a risk. This paper will compare the manual method of tank gauging as described in API Chapter 18, Section 1 to the use of a measurement system that is mounted on the transport truck. The truck mounted measurement system relates to a system and a method for measuring crude oil, and more particularly to a system for accurately measuring oil as it is transferred from a lease storage tank to a transport vessel.
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Document ID: 6EF74C12

On-Site Gas Meter Proving Class CT-4070
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: 3042C1B7

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of L.A.C.T. Units Class 2090
Author(s): Michael S. Sulton, Daniel S. Maybeile
Abstract/Introduction:
L.A.C.T. Lease Automatic Custody Transfer units are designed to measure the quality and quantity of Crude Oil, Condensate and other Hydrocarbon products as the products change hands (custody) from transporter to transporter. LACT units, consisting of multiple or single meter runs are found in both onshore systems as well as off shore systems. The number of meter runs are determined by the flow rates, space available, and capacity of the meter prover.
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Document ID: D950FC0F

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness Class 4080
Author(s): David L. Shurtz
Abstract/Introduction:
Understand the operation of the LACT unit and you will understand the importance of the role of the witness. LACT means lease automatic custody transfer, which is a unit that is designed to provide automatic, unattended, custody transfer of liquid hydrocarbon from a lease site to a connecting carrier or purchaser like a pipeline or a truck.
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Document ID: 1C579E8D

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional() Class 4090
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroleum industry has used conventional pipe provers for on line calibration of liquid flow meters for over 30 years. With the widespread use of turbine meters for custody transfer, accurate measurement is more dependent on frequent proving, thus the industry will continue to demand advanced provers and proving techniques. The author will discuss the aforementioned subject with regard to both bidirectional and unidirectional pipe provers. In the last several years, a number of innovations have come to the forefront that enhance the reliability of pipe provers, reduce their size, make them more accurate, and increase their value to the end users.
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Document ID: E173CEDE

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement Class 2110
Author(s): R. Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD Meters. It will also highlight the system and the parameters that must be considered before accurate meter selection can be made. Comparisons will be presented utilizing the six (6) most common PD Meter principals: (1) Oscillating Piston, (2) Sliding Vane, (3) Oval Gear, (4) Tri- Rotor, (5) Bi-Rotor, (6) Nutating Disc.
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Document ID: 552132DD

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques Ct 4095
Author(s): J. H. Harryjames
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers and shippers are becoming more and more aware of the importance of accurate measurement. Their bottom line depends on it. As a result, measurement accuracy is being scrutinized more vigorously than in the past. Companies are being required to Verify their metering accuracy. Therefore it is essential that all procedures and auxiliary equipment be operated in a defendable manner.
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Document ID: 2E0E52A7

Polymer-Grade Ethylene Measurement 2140
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS An ethylene transportation system consists of a pipeline network and salt dome storage facility linking producers and consumers. Since producers and consumers are not equipped with on site storage, the systems are designed with maximum flexibility to satisfy the continually changing demands of the operations (Figure 1).
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Document ID: F7A3452F

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches Class #410
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability.
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Document ID: 9F7648ED

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks Course No. 2150
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was studied to develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was system loss control. During the early 1990s, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began programs for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission.
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Document ID: AFAFEF12

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers Class #4110
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
Small Volume Provers (SVPs) were introduced several decades ago. There are numerous publications providing empirical data and outlining the technical operation of this equipment. However, the following document will focus on the authors experience, addressing common concerns and questions regarding SVPs.
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Document ID: 753C7042

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement- Part 1 Class Number 2160
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
If I were buying a barrel of oil from you, I would want the liquid to be as cold as possible. On the other hand, you, as the seller, would like the liquid to be as hot as practicable. Why? Because liquids expand with increased temperature and shrink with lower temperature. So, when I buy a barrel of cold oil, I actually get more oil for the price of one barrel, and when you sell a barrel of hot oil, you actually sell less oil for the price of one barrel.
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Document ID: AEC73257

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Doug Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of liquid petroleum can be performed with the liquid in a static or dynamic state. Custody measurements are made in both states. Static measurements of petroleum liquids are made with the liquid in a tank. This paper will discuss the steps required to calibrate, gauge and sample tanks. These are the steps necessary to measure liquid petroleum in a static state.
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Document ID: 38CF72A3

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters Class 4130
Author(s): J. W. Sulton
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter proving is a physical test used to determine the accuracy and performance of a liquid meter. By placing a liquid meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known or base volume in such a way that all the liquid measured by the meter is also measured by the prover. The liquid measured by the meter is compared to the known prover volume. This correction is the meter factor.
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Document ID: B649E588

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III Class 2180
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
weve learned when measuring crude oil that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, pressure and viscosity must be measured. With these measurements correction factors such as Volume Correction Factors (VCF) can be determined to allow volumes determined at operating conditions to be expressed at standard reference conditions.
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Document ID: 4706D7E2

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems Class 4140
Author(s): Brad D. Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow meter has long been established as the industry cash register. With the high cost of producing and the reduced selling price of products, the accuracy of the meter becomes increasingly important to ensure profitability. To this end regular proving of the meter is essential. Liquid meter proving is carried out by placing a Meter Prover in series with the meter under test the prover having a calibrated base volume. Proving of the meter is by comparing the quantity recorded by the meter with the calibrated quantity displaced by the prover.
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Document ID: 104DB792

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement Class # 4150
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of working tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter.
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Document ID: 94A178C1

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing Class # CT-4160
Author(s): Scott Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has seen many changes lately. Producers and pipeline companies have seen, downsizing and reorganization through mergers and acquisitions, and the influx of electronic gas measurement, and real time data acquisition. These changes would lead one to believe that the need for witnessing and field-testing of natural gas measurement equipment would become a thing of the past. This is quite the contrary. The advances in technology in the last decade have put a computer and cellular phone at everyones fingertips literally and increased the need for electricity, thus the need for natural gas to generate this electricity. With this increased demand for natural gas, the logistics involved in acquiring it, and the profit differential between these two, the need for witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing is more important than ever.
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Document ID: D48240BC

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters Class 2190
Author(s): Michael Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine flow meters are an effective means of accurate measurement of liquid and gas products in many industries. Because of the turbine meters versatility and flexibility in product metering applications, it is one of the most widely used technologies in flow measurement.
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Document ID: D823D7CA

Auditing Gas Laboratories Class 5010
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the effort expended by measurement personnel is directed toward assuring that volume gas measurement equipment is in tip-top condition. This discussion will focus on a process that will assure that the gas quality information used both to calculate those volumes and to make the conversion to dekatherms is performing at the same high level expected of all volumetric measurement systems. Many of the laboratory facilities that determine gas quality have as much or more impact on revenue than even the largest individual volume exchange stations. There are few services an employee can provide to an employer that will deliver more bang for the buck than improving the performance of a gas analysis facility.
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Document ID: FF50FB68

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks Class # 2200
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Gauging is a measurement procedure whereby the QUANTITY and QUALITY of the crude oil are determined at the point of sale by a company gauger or other designated representative, such as a Crude Oil Truck Driver (COTD). Typically, we think of lease tanks as having volumes of less than 1,000 barrels. The gauger is primarily responsible for rejecting nonmerchantable crude oil and buying accurate volumes of merchantable crude oil that can be refined, traded, or sold. His company is fully dependent upon his competence and sound judgment, while his high public visibility requires him to be conscientious, accurate, professional, and courteous.
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Document ID: A274D3DE

Helical Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement Class Number 2202
Author(s): Raymond J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 30 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosity liquids. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental differences between conventional and helical turbine meter measurement as well as new developments in flow conditioning, proving helical meters and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: ED7D0682

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph Class 5030
Author(s): Steven G. Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Gas chromatography has become the preferred method of determining the BTU value of natural gas. The analysis also supplies composition data necessary for gas rate and volume per AGA3, AGA7, and AGA8. (Refs. 1,2,3) Gas chromatographs are asked to perform in a variety of different environments. The principal types of chromatographs are laboratory, on-line, and portable.
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Document ID: 67CDA2BB

Installation And Operation Of Liquid Densitometers Class Lm 2205
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Typical units used in the United States are grams per cubic centimeter or pounds per gallon. Densitometers determine the density of a fluid at operating conditions. This density is used in determining the total mass usually pounds for a particular period in time such as the ticket period.
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Document ID: 71A7559B

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines Paper Number 2210
Author(s): Laurence E. Demick
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of leak detection on petroleum pipelines is to identify a breech in the integrity of the pipeline in a time frame to permit isolation of that breech before there is a significant loss of the product. What constitutes a significant loss depends on several factors. These include, for example, the environmental sensitivity of the area at the leak and the value of the product. In principle, the actual isolation of the breech is not a part of the leak detection system, but the ability to isolate is also an important factor in establishing sensitivity criteria for the leak detection system, since it ultimately establishes how much product is lost once a leak is detected. These factors combine to establish required system sensitivity criteria that include the minimum size of leak to be detected and the time frame in which this size leak will be detected. An overriding criterion, however, is that the leak detection system must not be so sensitive as to be subject to frequent false alarms. Experience shows that a system which false alarms frequently is either shutdown or ignored, and real leaks are not identified in a timely manner
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Document ID: DE5E4FFE

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer Class # 5070
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss automatic sampling systems, their ability to obtain representative samples of shipments, and how to know when a sample is representative. The question is, How do you know if a crude oil sample is representative? Samples look the same whether they are representative or not. Just by looking at the 5 gallons (or more) of sample in the receiver, mixing it and withdrawing two 50cc samples for the centrifuge test, or 100 or 200cc for distillation, or 1 cc for the Karl Fischer titration, how do you know it is representative of a 100,000 barrel shipment?
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Document ID: 13A8AA23

Design Considerations For A Crude Oil Fiscal Sampling System
Author(s): Dennis C. Ditrich
Abstract/Introduction:
Loss control specialists wish to be sure of both the quantity and quality of the oil received on board ship and at point of discharge (receipt port). Confidence in the measurement accuracy reduces risk and improves the demand price of the batch. The quality measurement accuracy is a function of all the steps involved in sampling, failure to maintain the representivity of the sample at any point i.e. from pipeline to analysis invalidates the sample by introducing random errors.
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Document ID: 8123E3FE

Liquid Measurement Field Surveys Class Number 2220
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of measurement facilities and procedures is often called an audit. This can be confusing, though. The dictionary defines Audit as An official examination and verification of accounts and records, especially of financial accounts.
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Document ID: 95CB3204

Liquid Measurement Station Design Class 2230
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas Corpus Christi, Texas
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations are necessitated by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of accurate liquid measurement stations is essential. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement, stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple, and a user friendly operator interface is highly desirable. The task of the station or system designer is to transform these requirements into engineering specifications, drawings, and bills of materials for procurement, manufacture, test certification and delivery to the end user of a cadre of components specifically selected and assembled to work together to meet the requirements of the measurement agreement and applicable codes. This paper will discuss the various topics the designer must address and the methodology he must use to produce a satisfactory system.
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Document ID: 0879EA00

Crude Quality- What Is Involved And Why Is Quality Important Class # 5080
Author(s): Aaron L. Dillard
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude Quality- What is Involved and Why is Quality Important is a major issue in the petroleum industry today. A Crude Quality Oversight program is designed to monitor the ongoing quality of a crude supply by measuring certain key properties which directly correlate to quality, value and performance. There are many benefits to this type of monitoring program.
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Document ID: FBC22A99

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas Class EQ5090
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide is measured in the natural gas industry for several reasons: Personal Safety Corrosion Control Contractual Obligation H2S means that each molecule of gas is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one sulfur atom.
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Document ID: F2A2A3B4

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems Lm 2240
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the different types of measurement systems used at crude oil terminals, the requirements of these systems and why they are important.
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Document ID: 08493279

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures 2250
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the mass measurement of natural gas liquid mixtures. It includes information for turbine, P.D. and orifice metering systems as well as brief segments on Coriolis mass meters and scales. The basic equation and industry standards covering mass measurement will be addressed, as will some of the common operating, mechanical and procedural problems that often degrade the performance of these systems.
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Document ID: 71313848

Determination Of Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Gas Class Number 5100
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is rapidly becoming the fuel of choice for everything from home heating to power generation. The determination of the water vapor content in natural gas is one of several key factors in determining the ultimate quality of the gas. With economic conditions as they exist today, many companies have been forced to cut personnel in order to maintain a reasonable balance sheet. The loss of experienced measurement technicians places a heavy burden on instrument manufacturers to provide an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas. This paper will review the different sensor technologies in use today and also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sampling system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: 5838EA54

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement Class 2260
Author(s): Ed Otto
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis mass meters were introduced to industry in the early 1980s and have gained wide acceptance as accurate and reliable flow measuring devices. Today Coriolis meters are recognized as one of the more significant, estimated shipments of 80,000 units in 2002, and fastest growing of the new technology flowmeter types. There are several factors that have contributed to the growth and acceptance of Coriolis meters. A major factor contributing to their popularity is the basic means by which Coriolis meters measure fluid flow. Coriolis meters measure mass flow directly. By directly measuring mass, Coriolis meters eliminate the need to compensate for pressure and temperature thereby reducing a great deal of measurement error. The result is improved accuracy and application versatility. Multivariable measuring capability further enhances the versatility of a Coriolis flowmeter. In addition to measuring mass flow, fluid density and temperature are also measured and transmitted. Coriolis meters use primary measurement of fluid mass and density to determine and output volumetric flow rate as well. With accurate measurement, application versatility and no moving parts to wear as established features, Coriolis meters have gained acceptance as a viable meter type for liquid hydrocarbon custody transfers. Confirming this trend is the recent publication of Draft Standards by the American Petroleum Institute for Measurement of Single-phase, Intermediate and Finished Hydrocarbon Fluids by Coriolis Meters and Measurement of Crude Oil by Coriolis Meters. The following discussion seeks to enhance the readers understanding of Coriolis technology and general considerations for mass meter measurement of liquid flow.
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Document ID: 48F0BAA8

Devices For Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Gas Class Number 5110
Author(s): Lawrence Drobnitch
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content, and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
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Document ID: E781EE7F

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging Class Number 2270
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
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Document ID: 063D5240

Devices For Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Gas Class Number 5110
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The water vapor dew point temperature (moisture content) and hydrocarbon dew point temperature are two of many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also many different instrument types available to measure the moisture content. In this paper, we will discuss the measurement methods and we present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: 3D14E3A1

Measurement Losses By Shrinkage Ct 2280
Author(s): J. H. Harryjames
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies. Mathematicians have been telling us for centuries that one plus one equals two. In an ideal world of Newtonian physics this is the case but in the world of volumetric hydrocarbon measurement one plus one is usually less than two. However it can, in rare circumstances be greater than two. As stated in the Dec. 1967 edition of API Publication 2509C regarding the result of blending two different hydrocarbons, If the nature of the molecules of the components differ appreciably, then deviation from ideal behavior may be expected. This deviation may either be positive or negative that is, the total volume may increase or decrease when components are blended . . . . . . Inasmuch as petroleum components contain molecules of various sizes and weights, solutions of two separate components are seldom ideal. Consequently it is to be expected there may be a change in volume associated with the mixing or blending of petroleum components of varying gravities and molecular structure. In liquid petroleum blending however, the result has always been a shrinkage. In this paper, only the negative deviations or losses will be addressed.
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Document ID: 23868810

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography Class Number 5130
Author(s): Kenneth E. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
As the Natural Gas Industry strives to become more efficient and meet customer demands, we find that the old ways of doing business cannot be raised to todays standards of performance. One of these areas is in the way we buy and sell Natural Gas. The days of custody transfer based strictly on volume are quickly coming to a close. More and more often, Natural Gas is bought and sold in terms of total heating volume (Hv). Total heating volume is the energy measurement standard of the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 8B473801

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels 2310
Author(s): John A. Jack Szallai
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine measurements are, generally, used to confirm the validity of shore side custody transfer measurement from meters or gauging of shore tanks. Marine measurements can also be used for custody transfer if no other valid means are available or the shore side custody transfer system is not available.
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Document ID: 7B5705F0

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chromatography 5140
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas energy rate stations are becoming more sophisticated and more common. New power units across the country are now typically metering with ultrasonic meters in concert with gas chromatographs. This issues some new challenges to the field metering professional. Technicians will invariably be the link to the success of any changing technology that would survive and thrive in the real pipeline environment. Meter stations must be maintainable and provable. The system and requirements will be examined from that perspective.
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Document ID: 7B3194F8

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatographs 5150
Author(s): David Anders
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to the late 1970s most natural gas custody transfer contracts used MCF (gas volume) for the units of trade. Then in an attempt to deregulate the gas industry, Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. This act stated that natural gas should be bought and sold based on energy content per cubic foot. Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the energy value (BTU) per unit volume.
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Document ID: 1D949DEA

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment & Water In Crude Oil Class 5160
Author(s): Peter W. Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Sediment and water (S&W) are components that occur naturally in crude oil. In the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) vocabulary section, sediment and water is defined as A material coexisting with, yet foreign to, petroleum liquid, that requires a separate measurement for reasons that include sales accounting. This foreign material includes free water and sediment and emulsified or suspended material and sediment. The quantity of suspended material present is determined by analytically testing a sample of petroleum liquid (see free water).
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Document ID: C7DADB93

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography Class 5170
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Russian botanist Mikhail Tswett is credited with discovering the technique of chromatography. Using alcohol as a mobile phase and chalk as a stationary phase, Tswett was able to separate various plant extracts.
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Document ID: 95EE4908

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling 5200
Author(s): Lance L. Witt
Abstract/Introduction:
Whether you are buying or selling any product, a value for the product must be determined. The product that is the topic of this discussion, is a mixture of Light Hydrocarbon Liquids, a.k.a. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG). The value determination is dependent on quantitative and qualitative measurements. Although this discussion will focus on a custody transfer situation, the following principles and practices are used to balance fractionation plants as well.
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Document ID: 5A4A5C95

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases Lpgs() Lm 5210
Author(s): Henry A. James
Abstract/Introduction:
LPG is defined as Butane, Propane, and other light ends separated from natural gasoline or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, LPGs revert to the gaseous state. This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the volumetric measurement of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPGs). Operational experiences with measurement systems will be addressed that often degrades the performance of these systems. It includes information for turbine and positive displacement meter used in volumetric measurement systems. The basic calculations and industry standards covering volumetric measurement will also be covered.
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Document ID: 0304F78F

Natural Gas Sampling Uncertainties And Economics 5230
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The precise measurement of natural gas is a subject of continuing study and discussion. The impact of the precise measurement of gas quality and composition is often considered to only effect the thermal value of the measured quantity of gas. This idea, however, is far from accurate. The precise measurement of natural gas flow rates (quantity)is dependent upon the precise measurement of the composition of the natural gas product stream (quality). These measurements of quantities and thermal values are considered in terms of acceptable levels of measurement uncertainty. In other words, a level of variance exists around the point of absolute accuracy which is considered acceptable to those who are party to the transfer of the product from the custody of one to another. Thus, the term custody transfer quality measurement implies that the determined quantity and total energy content of the product exchanged between parties are within these levels of acceptable variance, or uncertainty, from the absolute point of accuracy, or zero uncertainty.
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Document ID: 2F95CB8A

Product Quality Assurance For Pipeline Transportation Class Number 5240
Author(s): Jim E. Buster Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
The movement of liquid petroleum products through pipelines has occurred for over 100 years. Todays liquid petroleum pipeline systems are generally grouped into two categories, refined products and crude oil. The following paper focuses on refined products pipelines only. An overview of product types, special handling issues for each type, and general pipeline operations is discussed to provide background information needed to understand the basics of a pipeline quality oversight program.
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Document ID: E70C5C2E

Proving Tests For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems Class # 5250
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the testing and proving of automatic sampling systems in crude oil service in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 8, Section 2, Appendix A and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-4177. An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment, installation and operational procedures that produce a representative sample of shipments or batches. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system, including the analysis of the sample. This paper is about the testing, proving, and certification of automatic sampling systems in crude oil and other hydrocarbon service. This test, in various forms, is also applicable for petroleum products as well as blending systems.
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Document ID: E052DFD4

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids Class Number 5260
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is bought and sold based on its energy content and volume. The energy content is usually determined by calculations utilizing gas chromatographic (GC) analysis in combination with physical constants. The energy content or heating value is expressed in British Thermal Units (BTU). The energy value for a specific volume of natural gas is derived by multiplying the BTU data and the gas volume expressed in standard cubic feet. The result is expressed in MMBTU or dekatherms. The GC analyses are also used to correct the flow rate data for compressibility. Therefore, errors in analysis of the gas impact the total heating value in two ways, initial BTU determination and corrected flow rate.
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Document ID: 3EC58ABF

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas Class # 5265
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: 75759724

Shipboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer 5270
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
New technology continually gives opportunities for achieving higher confidence in measurement of hydrocarbons. It is now possible to detect water concentrations on-line in real time. This can be especially beneficial if any intervention is desired whenever there is a short term limit of allowable water. Short term limits can sometimes be imposed by the receiving pipeline. To prevent damage to a refinery process unit, short term limits are also sometimes required (e.g. during periods of low inventories causing the need for tight-line receipts. However, automatic in-line samplers are most often used for custody transfer purposes whenever metering systems are used. Large pipeline systems, except in the rare absence of flow meters, use automatic in-line samplers almost exclusively.
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Document ID: 59A59F2B

Techniques Of Composite Gas Sampling 5280
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The level of interest in effective and accurate gas sampling techniques is currently at a very high priority within the natural gas industry. With the fluctuating ranges in natural gas prices, exploration interests, profitability, deregulation and consolidation of the work force, recoverable revenue must be accounted for. At large volume delivery points, a 3-5 BTU error in energy determination can cost companies tens of thousands of dollars within a very short time period. Accurate sampling techniques must be implemented with equal interest as is given to accurate volume measurement. MMBTU is the total of volume and energy. Sampling is the energy determination delivery system for this equation.
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Document ID: 4CB920AF

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas Class # 5310
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: C7EC9F2D

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability Class 6010
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: D8D9ED41

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines Class 6020
Author(s): Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it. This paper will discuss the following topics: 1. History 2. Definitions/terminology 3. Why surge occurs 4. Problems from inadequate surge protection 5. Controlling Surges
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Document ID: AC36F759

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators Class 6030
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: 51CE9C1E

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers Class 6040
Author(s): Jamie Henaman
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers are a familiar sight in most industrial operations. The performance of these important components determines the quality of performance provided by a complete control system. Optimum performance results from understanding fundamental relationships of controller actions and making the proper adjustments to suit the process. Most standard controllers have three common modes of operation: proportional mode, reset or integral mode, and rate or derivative mode. This paper will discuss the effects of each mode and the corresponding construction of a controller. Controllers measure a signal from a measuring element. This input signal represents the value of a process variable, whether it is at steady state or changing. Pneumatic controllers utilize compressed air as the supply of the signal.
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Document ID: 9BC5A842

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators Class 6050
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: D28BC504

Gas Service Regulators - Installation, Selection, And Operation Class 6060
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: 7D410A0D

High Pressure Regulators Class 6070
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure regulator is a self-contained valve and actuator combination that does not bleed gas to atmosphere. The function is to match demand while maintaining a constant downstream pressure. This paper addresses high pressure regulators (commonly considered) as a psig-to-psig reduction. Discussed will be both self-operated and pilotoperated designs. We will cover essential elements of regulators, as well as applications, characteristics and criteria used for selecting and sizing high pressure regulators.
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Document ID: DF82F960

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators Class 6080
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: 3490D470

Over Pressure Protection Methods Class 6090
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry uses many different types of pressure regulation equipment to control the flow of gas as it cascades from systems with higher pressure ratings to systems with lower pressure ratings. In the event this pressure control equipment fails, some form of over pressure protection is required to prevent the system with the lower pressure rating or lower MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure) from being over pressured.
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Document ID: 86F5F518

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Stations 6100
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
Consistent and continuous pipeline operations are key and critical factors in todays natural gas pipeline industry. The competitive nature of the business, together with the strict rules and regulations of natural gas supply, mandate that companies stay on top of all operational parameters that could cause interruption or complete shut-down of the natural gas supply to customers. Identifying what may ultimately cause problems is a first step to controlling and eliminating those problems for the supplier.
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Document ID: 3F9F8953

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids Class 6110
Author(s): Jamie Henaman
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve sizing and selection in todays industrial world is essential to operating at a costeffective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valve will not pass the required flow, while a valve that is oversized will be more costly and can cause instability throughout the entire control loop.
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Document ID: BB8AE5D3

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measurement And Regulator Stations Class # 6120
Author(s): Tracy D. Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of turbulence on measurement and regulator stations can cause erroneous measurement as well as pipe fatigue, noise levels that are not healthy for the human ear, and a host of other undesirable elements.
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Document ID: F6D6F771

Liquid Allocation Measurement Class #7010
Author(s): Raymond Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
An allocation meter is one whose purpose is to determine which portion of the royalty meters volume is attributable to a particular lease, well, or measurement point. Some allocation points fall under federal guidelines, while others fall under other regulatory bodies. Individual contractual agreements must meet and will often exceed regulatory guidelines. Therefore, certain accuracy and procedural standards are set. These standards are intended to treat all producers uniformly, to be fair to the small producer as well as the larger ones.
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Document ID: 3384850C

ANSI/API 2530 On Orifice Meter Primary Element Class 7020
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
The April 2000 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard includes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditioner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard.
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Document ID: 0ACBDADC

API Coriolis Standard For Mass Measurement Of Crude Oil Class Number 7022
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
More than a decade ago, meter manufacturers introduced technology utilizing the Coriolis force: an apparent force that results from earths rotation, deflecting moving objects or flowing streams to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. The Coriolis force allows a meter to directly measure mass, dynamically.
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Document ID: 96ACF93E

Audit Of Electronic Gas Measurement 7030
Author(s): Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
With rapid advances in the world of gas measurement, how is one supposed keep up with it? What is the best equipment to use for electronically recording and transmitting measurement data? With these rapid changes come some of the following questions: What Standards apply, and does the metering equipment reporting your volumes and energy comply with those standards? Is the amount of energy being reported correctly? Are you sure your company is receiving the correct amount of revenue due or being properly invoiced for the amount of Natural Gas being metered? How are those volumes supposed to be calculated anyway? Questions, questions, questions.
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Document ID: C6D11612

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems 7040
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Beginning sometime in the 1980s, the auditing of gas measurement and accounting systems became a little more complicated as computer-based technology arrived on the scene. Today, many large and small gas companies, endusers, and others rely on high-speed communication and computer networks to gather massive amounts of data needed to do business in todays fast-paced energy environment. Total energy, rates of flow, volumes, pressures, temperatures, gas quality, flow factors, meter design information, and a lot more is Included in this information mix.
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Document ID: 21208E30

Auditing Liquid Measurement Class Number 7050
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement.
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Document ID: 352EDBE5

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement Class 7060
Author(s): Raddy S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: AC9302BC

Overview Of API Copm()- Measurement Activities 7120
Author(s): Jon Noxon
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during the First World War. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because industry competitors could now work together toward mutual objectives, using API as the forum, without violating U.S. antitrust laws.
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Document ID: DC1B23A9

Review Of API/ANSl 2530 (AGA #3) Class 7130
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period of 1990 through 1993 two industry gas measurement standards were revised and a third was created. It is the intent of this paper to discuss to influence the revisions to the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report Nos. 3 and 8 will have on natural gas volume measurement.
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Document ID: 142666B2

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement Class Number 7140
Author(s): Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially in the oil and gas industries. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifice for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters.
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Document ID: CF3EC49E

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators Class 8020
Author(s): Leo J. Buckon
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators in the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. Readings appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration readings or methods, and terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, stability and traceability have become common. Technicians began using correction factors to achieve standard conditions. These correction calculations presented challenges to technicians when performing their calibrations. They began to see the effects of temperature on their test instruments and how temperature affects the accuracy of the gas measurement. More recently, the wide spread use of digital field devices such as smart transmitters has continued to change the technicians world as new tools became necessary to configure and maintain field instrumentation.
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Document ID: D3A297A4

Development Of Orifice Meter Standard Past(, Present, And Future) Paper # 8030
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
A standard is something that is established by an authority, social practice, custom, or by general consent of a group of people to set an example or develop an acceptable model. Flow measurement standards are often established by regulatory agencies, users, manufacturers, and/or a group of knowledgeable people. Measurement Standards are established to provide a uniformity of installation, operation, and secondary instrumentation that will improve metering efficiency, measurement repeatability and accuracy, and ensure equity between all parties concerned, especially for custody transfer application.
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Document ID: D5737DD5

Dot Qualification - Measurement & Control Technicians Class 8040
Author(s): Richard E. Sanders
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of Congressional legislation, the Department of Transportation (DOT), Office of Pipeline Safety, developed and issued a new rule in 1999 impacting all pipeline operators covered by the pipeline safety regulations in 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195 - Qualification of Pipeline Personnel (also referred to as the OQ rule or the OpQual rule).
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Document ID: 87C3BCDD

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Gas Measurement Class CT-8050
Author(s): Darin L. George Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many causes for natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations. Many of the sources for meter error are identified in the proceedings of this conference. For instance, errors can result from an improper installation configuration, calibration of a meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or degradation of meter performance over time.
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Document ID: 305A7307

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines Class No. 8065
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
Many petroleum pipelines are used to transport multiple liquids. These liquids are often pumped in series through the pipeline. For example, a tender of gasoline may follow a tender of diesel fuel. During a typical delivery, the diesel fuel is collected in a storage tank at the end of the line. As the trailing gasoline approaches the end of the line, it is necessary to identify when valves must be shifted so the gasoline can be diverted to another storage tank and avoid contaminating the diesel fuel storage tank. In this scenario, it becomes clear that a device for detecting the interface must be able to rapidly sense a difference between the two liquids and provide an output signal.
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Document ID: 67CF195A

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail MS8070
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Compressed Gas Industry has a responsibility to provide an LPG-Propane product intended for domestic use that has been odorized to detectable levels. In addition to this responsibility, the industry is also responsible for insuring that the documentation proving correct odorization is accurate.
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Document ID: 461F71FC

Multiphase Flow Measurement Class 8110
Author(s): G. Joel Rodger
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an update of the paper presented by. Dr. John S. Lievois, Ph.D., P.E. at ISHM in 200 1. Over the last 20 years, a number of multiphase flow measurement techniques have been developed for metering oil/water/gas commingled streams. The available techniques can be characterized as those that operate inline or with partial separation. The inline variety typically consists of several meters or measurements and a central computer to interpret the signals and calculate individual phase flow rates. Techniques that employ some element of separation typically use a compact, continuous mode gas-liquid separator with subsequent metering on the gas rich and liquid rich flow streams. This paper will review some of the more common techniques being used with a focus on the application of GLCCs (gasliquid cylindrical cyclones) in multiphase flow measurement.
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Document ID: C2F6F8E9

Natural Gas Testing Instruments And Applications Class 8120
Author(s): Stephen R. Silliman
Abstract/Introduction:
Maintaining and monitoring the level of odor in Natural Gas provides a means of detecting the presence of gas for safety purposes. Put simply, should gas leak into one of our homes, schools, or workplaces, the odor in the gas will alert the occupants before an explosion occurs. For an example of what could happen were we to ignore our odorization responsibilities, one need only look to the notorious school explosion that occurred in New London, Texas, in March of 1937. East Texas oil field money made the New London school district one of the wealthiest in the nation. To save about 30.00 a month, the United Gas Company had supplied the school with less expensive green or wet gas. A leak allowed the wet gas, which had no odor, to fill the basement of the school.
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Document ID: 967E6F30

Determination Of Proper Odorization Of Natural Gas Class # 8130
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
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Document ID: 9E36820B

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Odorization Ms 8130
Author(s): Sixto Ortiz Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The reason gas companies odorize natural gas is simple: it is a legal requirement. In 1937, the high school in New London, Texas exploded, killing over 200 men, women, and mostly children. Natural gas emanating from a leak accumulated in the schools basement and ignited when someone entering the area flipped on a light switch. No one knew about the leak because unodorized natural gas has no odor. This disaster led federal and state regulators to enact new regulations that required suppliers to odorize natural gas.
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Document ID: 2660E9F7

Orifice Meter Tube Dimensional Tolerances 8132
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Reliable orifice meter performance depends on a properly designed, precisely fabricated, and correctly maintained meter tube. Any orifice meter tube not fabricated and maintained to specific dimensional tolerances (geometry) will increase measurement uncertainty, and can cause a measurement bias. Orifice meter tube dimensional tolerance verification is essential in confirming the accuracy of an orifice meter. Even the most modern electronic flow computers, smart transducers, highspeed communication systems, and elaborate editing programs cannot provide reliable results without a geometrically correct orifice meter tube.
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Document ID: C7D4329B

Other Differential Pressure Meters 8135
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, orifice meters are arguably the best known and most widely used type of differential pressure (differential-producing) meter. Orifice meters can measure a variety of fluids, including natural gas and many common hydrocarbon liquids.
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Document ID: 081EE62D

Program For Training A Measurement Technician Class 8140
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for quality measurement has increased dramatically in the past several years. Deregulation of market pricing structures, open access markets, increased exploration and drilling costs, fierce competition, and new regulatory requirements have all influenced todays approach to quality measurement methodologies. In fact, the terminology has evolved from gas volume measurement to total energy measurement. Today not only is the volume of gas a consideration, but also the quantity of energy the gas produces.
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Document ID: BF707063

The Effects Of Additives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated using a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Current blends that make-up fuel & chemicals introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are minimized or resolved by use of chemical additives. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that address these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process.
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Document ID: 8C0ECD7B

The Process Of Blending Calibration Gas Standards Class # 8190
Author(s): Randy Rhodes
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs are the industry standard for accurately measuring the components in a gas stream and therefore the energy content of a gas. Many variables are involved in the process of correctly using a GC. This paper addresses the Calibration Gas Standard and specifically the preparation of the Gas Standard. By understanding the variables involved in preparation of a Gas Standard, GC users may be able to specify a blend that will be optimally suited to their application.
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Document ID: 505BA658

About Ishm 2002
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: D7F2697D


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