Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2002)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity / Relative Density Of Gas
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean. Specific Gravity is formally defined as the ratio of gas density to air density when both are at standard conditions of 0 Degree C and 760 mm. Over the years the definition evolved to become the ratio of gas density to air density at the same temperature and pressure, Relative to each other. Hence, the term Relative Density. This is the most commonly used definition today. The fixed or Specific requirement of temperature and pressure, (0 degree C and 760 mm), had been removed over the years. The American Gas Association in 1985 officially replaced the term Specific Gravity with Relative Density. However, both terms are still used synonymously.
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Document ID: 1F851335

Fundamentals Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): Keven Conrad, Larry Lynnworth
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic contrapropagation methods have been used to measure the flow of natural gas since the 1970s, flare gases since the 1980s, and smokestack gases in cem (continuous emissions monitoring) since the 1990s. Since the early 2000s, ultrasonic clamp-on flow measurements, previously restricted mainly to liquids, were found effective in measuring in standard steel pipes, the flow of steam, natural gas and other gases and vapors, including air, as long as the flow velocity was not so high as to cause excessive beam drift or excessive turbulence (in other words, below about Mach 0.1), and provided the acoustic impedance of the gas was equivalent to air above about six bar and no important molecular absorption or scattering mechanisms were present. Although the flow of gases by ultrasonics has long been thought to be more difficult to measure than liquids, in fact the measurement is easier in two important respects. One is, for the contrapropagation method, the upstream - downstream time difference is generally much greater for gases, as a consequence of the much lower sound speeds in gases compared to liquids. The other significant factor that becomes important in mass flow metering (including scfm output) is the existence of theoretical and/or empirical relationships between ultrasonic propagation and density, where either of such relationships is easier to exploit for gases than for liquids. To provide an idea of the scope of applications addressable with ultrasonic technology that is commercially available now or likely to be available in the near future, this paper starts with an analysis from the point of view of acoustic impedance considers designs as a function of the number of nozzles, from zero to a dozen and lists factors conducive to high accuracy versus factors detrimental to high accuracy, i.e., conducive to uncertainty.
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Document ID: 0886F4A1

Fundamentals Of Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Les Bottoms
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many areas of the gas industry, such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing odorizers and samplers, as well as checking pipeline throughput. The insertion turbine meter provides good accuracy, and offers the user cost saving advantages at the initial purchase phase, and during installation and pipeline maintenance.
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Document ID: D5B16BA1

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety
Author(s): Linton T. Lipscomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material. To safely produce natural gas and natural gas products, a basic understanding of the hazards of the material itself and the processes required to bring it to market is essential. Lets start out with the hazards of natural gas as it is in its raw field gas state: 1. Flammable/Explosive 2. Hazardous Impurities a. Hydrogen Sulfide b. Benzene c. CO2 d. Liquid, Petroleum Gases (LPGs)
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Document ID: 4A7DD1EC

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the U.S. in 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar. As an inferential meter, the gas turbine meter competes with the rotary and diaphragm positive displacement meters. Like these meters, the turbine meter is versatile and accurate over a wide range of flowing conditions. Unlike these meters the turbine meter provides less pressure drop for equivalent flow rates. It also provides a digital pulse output for input with flow computers and local readout devices. Accuracy, the meters ability to measure as close to actual flow as possible, are typically in the 1% range or better. Repeatability, the meters ability to give the same readout under similar flowing conditions, is listed as 0.1%. The meters ability to hook up with local pressure and temperature correctors as well as offsite flow computers allows the full versatility of the meter to be utilized to provide corrected flow output and higher accuracys across its flow range.
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Document ID: 658638A8

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ron L. Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary Meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets This paper will present basic operating principles of rotary gas meters, accuracy and rangeability, installation of meters, maintenance and testing, meter instrumentation, and finally, a brief glimpse at the industry trends in rotary gas metering.
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Document ID: 8709E704

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Nicole Ford
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement is the vertebrae of any natural gas utility. Without the ability to measure, it would be impossible to account for the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. Very much like an accountant that labors to keep the ledger balanced, a utility needs metering to balance the gas producers receipts against the end customer delivery.
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Document ID: 4A3698A2

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Micheal Bealer
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device. The orifice meter body, tube and orifice plate are considered the primary measuring device. This primary device is equipped with pressure taps that allow for the hook-up of a secondary device to sense the output signal of the primary orifice meter. The secondary device is some type of recorder or datalogger that allows for the recording of the events (i.e. signal levels and changes) that are created in the primary device. For many years, the most widely used secondary device of the natural gas industry has been the circular chart recorder. The repeatability and accuracy are important factors when determining the volume of natural gas that is moved through a given measurement point within a given time frame.
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Document ID: 9DB523C3

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Ken Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate, economical measurement of process fluids. Orifice metering satisfies most flow measurement applications and is the most common flow meter in use today. The orifice meter, sometimes called the head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other flow meter available. The orifice meter consists of a primary element and secondary element(s). The primary element includes a section of straight run pipe with a constrictive device, most commonly and orifice plate, which causes change in energy. The energy changes in the form of a loss in static pressure and increased velocity through the orifice. The secondary element senses the change in pressure, or differential pressure. This differential pressure combined with correction factors for the primary device and physical characteristics of the fluid being measured allows computation of rate of flow. Proven flow factors and established procedures convert the differential pressure into flow rate. These factors and/or coefficients are based on measurable dimensions of the primary device, such as the pipe inside diameter and the orifice bore diameter, along with the physical properties of the fluid being measured, such as specific gravity, density, and viscosity.
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Document ID: DB34CE52

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why. This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas which the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: 9C706029

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include: Volume and pressure/temperature recording gauges Mechanical pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic flow computer
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Document ID: 0BE34220

Elements Of Gas Mixture Production
Author(s): Scott Martinez
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas standards manufacturing industry is driven by such terms as quality, accuracy and traceability. Many times these terms become confusing and are often incorrectly interpreted and used by individuals who do not fully understand their meaning. It is true that all three are interrelated and when correctly referenced represent a pinnacle of a product that can be used as a reference for measurement in its field of expertise. The following paper will discuss the Elements of Gas Mixture Production and the many complex terms and measurements involved to accurately deliver a product that can perform to its expectations. By understanding the processes and terminology used to produce these industry standards, the users may better understand what it is they are requesting and the true quality of product that they desire.
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Document ID: 8AAB700D

Telemetry Via Internet For Ldcs
Author(s): Joe Cusimano
Abstract/Introduction:
Commercial Telemetry & Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are rapidly embracing Internet and Intranet technologies to remain competitive. These developing technologies offer many opportunities and challenges for the Natural Gas industry. As a technology, issues such as security, performance, availability, reliability and methods will be discussed. The presentation will demonstrate hands-on techniques.
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Document ID: CD9D4D62

Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS
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Document ID: 671DB575

Applications Of Telemetering In Natural Gas Distribution
Author(s): Chuck Allmon
Abstract/Introduction:
A SCADA system takes its name from the term Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. This is a very broad concept, which has found applications in virtually every industry. In this short paper, I will explain the basic components of a typical SCADA system as found in a large natural gas distribution system. I will also provide some useful guidelines which my department has developed, through experience, for the installation and operation of our SCADA system.
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Document ID: D6D1B0A6

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Sixto Ortiz Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The reason gas companies odorize natural gas is simple: it is a legal requirement. In 1937, the high school in New London, Texas exploded, killing over 200 men, women, and mostly children. Natural gas emanating from a leak accumulated in the schools basement and ignited when someone entering the area flipped on a light switch. No one knew about the leak because un-odorized natural gas has no odor. This disaster led federal and state regulators to enact new regulations that required suppliers to odorize natural gas. Odorization remains one of the most important tasks performed by the gas company. Thus, it is critical that gas company management and employees have a clear understanding of the fundamentals of gas odorization. Knowledge of the basic characteristics of odorant compounds, the reasons for blending these compounds, and the potential problems that can arise is a vital component of an odorization programs success. The legal and human costs of natural gas accidents demand constant vigilance from everyone involved in an odorization program.
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Document ID: 758576E6

Remote Meter Reading Methods( Of Retrieving Data By Use Of Remote Devices)
Author(s): John Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote devices for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) have many common characteristics but vary depending on what kind of communication system is in place. A partial list of communication systems that current technology supports includes the following: Telephone dial-inbound Telephone dial-outbound Cellular Mobile radio Fixed network radio Pager systems Power line carrier Cable Satellite Hybrid
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Document ID: F8823034

Periodic Inspections Of District Regulator & Relief Valves
Author(s): Jerry Bowins
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspection of District Regulator Stations and over pressure protection devices are essential in complying with Federal and State Regulations. In order to understand the functions of a District Regulator, we must start with the City Gate Station. Some pipeline people call City Gates, Town Border Stations. City Gate Stations are where distribution companies purchase natural gas from the pipeline. The gas is measured and odorized here. Measuring devices are usually installed by pipeline companies. Odorizers are installed by distribution companies. Pipeline companies bring the gas from the well head and it goes into a gathering system. The gathering system is where a pipeline transports gas from a current production facility to a transmission line or main. From the gathering system, it goes to a compressor or dehydration regulating station. At this point, the pressure is lower or control to the MAOP of the pipeline system. The gas leaves the compressor station with xx amount of gas pressure. This gas goes to the City Gate Station, where the pipeline lowers their pressure to operating pressure of the line (MAOP) inside the City Gate Station.
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Document ID: E9431244

Field Testing By Transfer Proving An Explanation Of The Techniques And Procedures
Author(s): Ruben P. Sanchez, Larry Wunderlick
Abstract/Introduction:
Aristotle once said, Science begins and ends with Measurement. Without question, measurement is a function that truly influences the economics of the gas industry. This is true because the revenue of the industry, for the most part, is determined by the registration from meters. This is why it is said that meters are the Cash Registers of the business. Therefore, it is essential for service companies such as Reliant Energy to prove or test each meter. Transfer Proving is a portable method of meter performance testing. The methods to prove meters must continually be improved to assure accuracy of revenue at the lowest feasible maintenance costs.
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Document ID: FF5AF9E4

Local And Wide Area Networking Of Gas Flow Computers
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Communication has been around ever since man developed language and hand signs to exchange and share ideas. Smoke signals were used in the ancient world to send information from one place to another. In fact, a smoke signal is one form of wireless digital communication. The advance in modern communication, network and computer technology has led to the growth of electronic forms of communication. Electronic data can be transferred between workstations in the same office and sometimes even between offices in different cities. Electronic flow computers are used widely by the gas industry for measurement and control purposes. Measurement data is retrieved periodically and stored in the central computer system for accounting, engineering and administrative functions. Control commands are sent by the gas control department or the field operators to the gas flow computers. Data are collected from the field and shared by different departments so that decisions can be made more efficiently. Because of this, an effective communication system between the electronic flow computers, the central computer system and remote offices need to be developed.
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Document ID: A51685A1

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation. This presentation focuses on the following items: Developing a project perspective Establishing a sound baseline from which to proceed Examples of actual designs Typical design deliverables Conclusion
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Document ID: E0BA6DA4

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of Natural Gas as a fuel, higher natural gas prices, and the new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas. measurement and reduce the unaccounted for natural gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 million standard cubic feet per day of Natural Gas selling at 3.00/ MCF will cause an over or under billing of 109,500.00 in one year. This will more than pay for a proving system. The BTU in one barrel of oil for example is equivalent to approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 3.00 per thousand cubic feet, the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil costs 16.80 or more than the cost of a barrel of oil. In the petroleum liquid industry no custody transfer liquid measurement system would be complete without a method to prove the meter, either as part of the equipment or have connections provided on the measurement skid to connect a portable prover.
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Document ID: 549B846F

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, low gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data.
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Document ID: BEE108A0

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy markets and the environment of FERC Order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: 41DDF843

Detection And Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide is measured in the natural gas industry for several reasons: Personal Safety Corrosion Control Contractual Obligation H2S means that each molecule of gas is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one sulfur atom.
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Document ID: DE58640A

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is bought and sold based on its energy content and volume. The energy content is usually determined by calculations utilizing gas chromatographic (GC) analysis in combination with physical constants. The energy content or heating value is expressed in British Thermal Units (BTU). The energy value for a specific volume of natural gas is derived by multiplying the BTU data and the gas volume expressed in standard cubic feet. The result is expressed in MMBTU or dekatherms. The GC analyses are also used to correct the flow rate data for compressibility. Therefore, errors in analysis of the gas impact the total heating value in two ways, initial BTU determination and corrected flow rate. One of the largest sources of analysis error is improper sample conditioning. Most of the difficult problems associated with sample conditioning stem from either the presence of liquid in the source gas or condensation occurring in the sample conditioning system. This presentation will address both of these problems.
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Document ID: F2316652

Verifying Gas Chromatograph Operation At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
The on-line gas chromatograph (GC) has been widely used for natural gas quality analysis and energy measurement at custody transfer locations since the early 80s. The energy measurement and relative density measurement provided by the GC can have a large effect on unaccounted for Gas because the gravity effects volume calculations and the heating value effects energy rates. The gas chromatograph measures component concentrations first and then calculates physical properties of the gas such as heating value and relative density. Units of energy measurement can be British Thermal Units (BTU) Mega Joules (MJ) or Kilo Calories (KJ). This paper will refer to BTU for energy units, ISO (KJ) or SI (MJ) metric units can be used interchangeably.
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Document ID: D2CA9DE9

High Performance Flow Conditioners
Author(s): Michael P. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate flow measurement is best achieved with an optimized flow profile. All those involved in the design, implementation and operation of a custody transfer station benefit from flow profile standards of accuracy that far exceed those of the past 40 years. By including flow conditioning in their latest metering station design standards, the American Petroleum Institute (API), American gas Association (AGA) and ISO have recognized a technology that insures an unparalleled degree of flow accuracy. This technology is a High Performance Flow Conditioner-placed upstream of a flowmeter-which conditions the flow such that it enters the flowmeter with a uniform, non-swirling, fully developed profile. This happens regardless of the pipe configuration prior to the conditioner. Recent developments in High Performance High Performance Flow Conditioner technology have created a paradigm shift in the design and application of natural gas custody transfer metering stations. Whether it is Orifice Turbine or Ultrasonic applications, High Performance High Performance Flow Conditioners have brought increased accuracy and simplified installations to the industry at large. This paper discusses the high performance High Performance Flow Conditioner technology its application and recent calibration results from a number of calibration facilities in North America. In addition the paper with discuss the integration of a High Performance Flow Conditioner with an Acoustic Filter element.
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Document ID: A438BD52

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As the gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas. Many researchers have studied the effect of entrained liquids on orifice measurement. The existing literature can provide much information about orifice flowmeter errors. This information can be used to determine the course of future orifice plate research efforts. This paper will discuss four test programs that were conducted to examine the effects of entrained liquids on orifice meter performance. The results of these programs will be discussed as well as some simple flow models. The flow models will be used to explain why research into this area has been so difficult. The flow models are not intended as a guide for flow measurement correction.
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Document ID: E73A79B7

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 74A48AC4

Devices For Field Determintion Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality has always been an important issue, but within the last several years it has become a critical issue for many pipeline companies. When gas prices hit historical high levels in the winter of 1999-2000, anybody who had the ability to sink a well and start pumping natural gas did so. Unfortunately, gas quality has taken a back seat to the urgency of fulfilling energy requirements. We are now seeing the effects of this push to get as much gas into the system as possible with out regard for overall quality. One of the key quality factors is moisture content. This paper will review the different sensor technologies in use today and also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sampling system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: 0B8B81C6

Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Betsy Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic calibrators are fast becoming the benchmark for measurement and are replacing mechanical types of instruments for testing and calibration checks. Techniques, usage, and traceability requirements, and problems are changing as quickly as technology advances in the development of these instruments. Information concerning these issues is often outdated by the time the technician receives it. The quest for near perfect measurement is being relegated to the ever changing microprocessor. Replacement costs for hardware with the latest technological breakthroughs and constant training for the technicians are becoming considerations. The selection of reliable and knowledgeable vendors is more important now than ever before.
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Document ID: B4C76318

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: B7FD3AC6

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation - Basic Principles, Design And Characteristics Of Regulators
Author(s): Bill Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: CA39FF28

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices. So how does a company, with the need to progress on the automation curve, sort through the many options available today? The effort requires a continuing education process. The decision maker must understand not only what the available technology can do for his company today but must understand its future impact on the company.
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Document ID: 708D583A

Low Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Don W. Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, like the computer industry, have been changing rapidly over the past few years. Faster, more powerful microprocessors, higher quality batteries and solar panels, improved electronics and new methods of remote communication now make it possible to automate field production and pipeline systems primarily using low power flow computers as the core hardware. Low power flow computers were originally designed to replace mechanical charts used in custody transfer gas measurement. They now are being used in whole scale SCADA systems often performing multi-tube and tube switching operations, flow control, tank monitoring, compressor monitoring, artificial lift and total MMBTU calculation. Software packages, both man machine interface and central data management and communication programs, have become powerful efficient tools for operating, controlling and managing field production and pipeline systems. These systems are often integrated with sophisticated computer graphics programs to simplify monitoring and control operations throughout the computer networks. Advances in remote data communication enable companies to gain access to these sites to get current status, collect historical data and perform a host of control functions from the comfort of a field or home office.
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Document ID: 254845C8

Electronic Tranducers And Transmitters
Author(s): Mark Menezes, Eric Wickberg, Les Callender
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern flow meters used for natural gas custody transfer offer very high accuracy and repeatability - typically 1% of mass flow for orifice meters, and often better for linear meters. These specifications are usually verified in a flow laboratory. Unfortunately, even with a wellinstalled and maintained meter, every flow technology provides worse performance in the real world. This paper presents the key reasons for this deviation between laboratory and real world performance, and tools that allow the user to quantify expected deviations prior to installation. Finally, best practices are detailed which will allow the user to minimize the difference between laboratory and real-world performance.
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Document ID: 4B46698F

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom R. Cheney
Abstract/Introduction:
There isnt any one who isnt impacted by the continuous growth and changes in the world of technology. In todays world, we accept computers and the functions they perform without question. In fact, we place our hardearned dollars and in some cases our very lives in their care without a second thought. Computers and electronic technologies have greatly impacted the way work is done in the oil and gas industry. A good example of how these changes have impacted this business is the use of electronic gas measurement devices often called (EFMs). With the use of the EFM, and associated electronic equipment, we not only have the option to measure gas volumes but to retrieve required data instantly and enhance production through well automation. As in any business, before the decision is made to upgrade or change from the standard method of measurement using the typical dry flow chart recorder to EFM, the economics of such a decision needs to be evaluated. It is becoming common practice to install EFM on all new measurement stations. The real battle over economic justification seems to be in the decision to replace meter stations, which already have chart recorders in place with EFMs. You will find that the economic justification of using EFM is often difficult to quantify.
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Document ID: 6D2AA718

Multiphase Flow Measurement In The Gas Industry
Author(s): G. Joel Rodger
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last 20 years, a number of multiphase flow measurement techniques have been developed for metering oil (or condensate) / water / gas commingled streams. The available techniques can be characterized as those that operate inline or with partial separation. The inline variety typically consists of several meters or measurements and a central computer to interpret the signals and calculate individual phase flow rates. Techniques that employ some element of separation typically use a compact, continuous mode gas-liquid separator with subsequent metering on the gas rich and liquid rich flow streams. This paper will review some of the more common techniques being used with a focus on the application of GLCCs (gas-liquid cylindrical cyclones) in multiphase flow measurement.
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Document ID: 8963F518

A New Perspective On Measurement - The Impact Of Measurement In A Changing Business Environment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbons has evolved significantly through the years, from both a technical and business application perspective. Developments and advances in technology have made the measurement of hydrocarbons more precise, efficient and available. Changes in the energy business environment have placed the measurement of hydrocarbons into a more significant role within organizational and industry business processes.
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Document ID: BB96F1E6

Understanding The Different Standards That Govern Measurement
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of questions should be answered regarding the origin of Measurement Standards used in the United States. Why do we need measurement standards? Who decides when a standard will be written? What group undertakes the preparation of a document? How much time is spent writing a document? Who decides the document is adequate and approves it use? Are there any checks and balances?
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Document ID: 874F36E7

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology in the field of gas measurement and control is constantly evolving. While many are well training in the specific equipment used in their own companys operation, it is important to have a solid understanding of the fundamentals and theory of operation of the mechanical and physical process involved as well. Therefore, the training of field measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment, electronics, communications and metering devices on the market. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 41D51A37

Update On Gas Sampling Research
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past seven years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and will be published in 2001. The API Chapter 14.1 Working Group, a research steering committee consisting of natural gas sampling experts from major oil and gas companies, provided input that helped focus the project on improving current field practices. The research identified several causes of natural gas sample distortion, as well as techniques for avoiding gas sample distortion. The research data illustrated how errors in calculated gas properties, such as heating value and density, can occur as a result of poor sampling technique.
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Document ID: 8D866721

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
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Document ID: 0FE1A5EC

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Don W. Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry is utilizing electronic devices in many different and diverse areas. One of the areas that has seen a rapidly growing usage of Electronics is Gas Measurement. Thus many Gas Measurement Technicians have been forced to take on the responsibility of installing and operating Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices with little or no background in Electronics. It is hoped, therefore, that this paper will supply a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short-changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those who have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 7714C311

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results.
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Document ID: 14A96C21

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association has published (June, 1998) a recommended practice Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters. This paper reviews some of the key contents of A.G.A.-9 including recommended meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. An update for the committee work in progress for year 2001 and beyond is integrally included. The paper addresses some of the most commonly asked questions by new users of the document.
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Document ID: 4773C7D8

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: 51EB92F3

Report On API 21.1 Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
Since this report references both itself and the 21.1 standard, the following nomenclature has been adopted to make it clear which document is being referenced. report - references this document, the one you are now reading. standard references the 21.1 standard, unless otherwise noted. section and subsection both refer to portions of the API 21.1 standard. document is a generic term that could be referencing either document. Hopefully the context will make it clear which document is being referenced.
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Document ID: 4177C7EE

A Review Of The 2000 Revisions To Ansi 2530/API Mpms 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - PART2
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period 1993 through 1999 Part 2 of ANSI 2530/API MPMS 14.3/AGA Report No 3 underwent revision. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the highlights of this revision.
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Document ID: 2BDB5990

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA- 3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: C39A4B9A

Gti Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Marybeth G. Nored
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Technology Institute (formerly the Gas Research Institute) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization (RD&C) program aimed at improving natural gas metering performance in the field. This paper summarizes some of the recent accomplishments of the research program at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Metering Research Facility (MRF), a high-accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs. The MRF, located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, supports a variety of GTI-sponsored research and third-party test and calibration activities. Major research initiatives currently being funded by GTI (formerly known as the Gas Research Institute or GRI) include ultrasonic and turbine flow meter research and gas sampling methods research. Over the past year, GTI has also funded Coriolis flow meter research and the development of a new energy flow rate meter concept. Through its portfolio of projects addressing priority research needs, the GTI natural gas measurement program provides significant benefits to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: C8DD4B9C

Communication Between Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%.Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing with a daily closing schedule is knocking on the door. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: 411813C4

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing electronic gas measurement information demands a thorough knowledge of both field and office measurement procedures and as much information from the primary, secondary and ancillary equipment as possible. Despite equipment advances in the electronic measurement field, todays auditor finds the demands of investigating electronic measurement differ little from auditing chart-based in the amount of raw information needed. Confirming accuracy or resolving discrepancies requires gathering as much information as possible.
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Document ID: 03FA3197

Chart Auditing Auditing And Verification Of Measurement At Chart Measurement Stations
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing of measurement stations is critical to insure proper credit for delivered. Our experience has shown that over 3% of months audited on chart measurement stations have problems that result in a measurement adjustment. Return on investment in auditing should be greater than two to one. If properly installed check measurement exists and is used to select those stations for which a full audit is performed, the return may be a high as ten to one, not including the ongoing cost of the check measurement, or four to one including such costs. Therefore failing to properly audit can result in substantial profit loss for your company.
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Document ID: 4AFA0957

Operations Of On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a process to separate individual molecular components of a gas mixture. A sample of gas is distributed between two phases to separate the individual components using a chromatographic system. The chromatographic system consists of the following components: detector, oven, column set, and valve. Static and stationary are the two phases in a chromatographic system. The static phase refers to the carrier gas used in the system. The stationary phase refers to the column system contents.
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Document ID: 2BB189E1

The Gas Industry Standards Board An( Example Of A Public-Private Partnership)
Author(s): Cynthia Corcoran
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB) has been fortunate to develop public-private partnerships with several agencies, and these partnerships have contributed to GISBs credibility and its success. GISB strives to be responsive to the industry and government agencies through the efforts of its volunteers. Without the commitment of the members and interested industry participants, we would not have developed public-private partnerships that have evolved over the years to support GISB as an effective mechanism for setting industry standards.
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Document ID: DC136199

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Our industry has seen tremendous progress in the accuracy of natural gas measurement since the implementation of electronic gas measurement (EGM) in the 1980s. With respect to orifice measurement, the transition from mechanical chart recorders to EGM had an unprecedented impact on our ability to measure natural gas and adjust to market demands throughout the country. In order to realize the benefits of EGM, gas contracts should include measurement provisions specific to this technology and its downstream data management requirements. Furthermore, they should represent both buyer and seller in the most equitable manner possible. This writing discusses some of the challenges in our industry, both then and now, while recommending measurement provisions for gas contracts.
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Document ID: DB3368D2

Internet Based Measurement Monitoring And Control
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of monitoring and control technology in the oil/ gas industry has experienced a steady evolution that has paralleled the advances in SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) and related technologies during the last 30+ years. The most recent of these developments is the use of the Internet to provide monitoring and control of remote facilities in both the upstream and downstream operating environments.
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Document ID: BBEDF721

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Dennis Kline
Abstract/Introduction:
As competition, deregulation and economic health among utilities becomes more intense, capital expenditures and cost reductions become high priorities - yet operational control and system reliability are more important today than ever before. Coupled with rapidly changing technology, this paradox presents a unique challenge for the efficient design and operation of a remote Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) system. Capturing remote data and the method of transporting the data back to a central host essentially falls into two basic categories, or a combination of these two categories: wireline - such as telephone facilities, copper based facilities, or fiber optic cable wireless - such as satellite, cellular, PCS, or a utility owned radio networks such as MAS In this paper, we will discuss some of the advantages, efficiencies, costs and risks associated with these technologies, and how each can be utilized in Electronic Gas Measurement applications.
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Document ID: EDA29DED

Cellular Digital Packet Data Technology For Scada And Telemetry Applications
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of Cellular Digital Packet Data technology (CDPD) came about after the build out of the cellular voice systems in the United States. The designers of those systems realized a part of that technology was not being used that could send short burst packets of data without interfering with the voice transmissions. The definition of CDPD would be: CDPD is a technology intended to provide packet data networking services to mobile hosts. The method used consists of radio channels typically used for Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) cellular service.
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Document ID: DF2C80BA

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Keith B. Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective training program makes a significant impact on the bottom line of an organization. Volumes are relative to every purchase and sale of gas. Therefore, accurate volume measurements play either a direct or indirect role in the profitability of all the organizations in our industry. An effective training program is one of the best ways to promote accurate measurements and insure the optimal use of human resources.
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Document ID: 72E5131D

Overall Measurement Accuracy - Determination And Influence
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance.
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Document ID: 6F5C7E1D

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 0FA50502

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): R. Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: 74EDBFD4

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group will read the chart, apply information supplied by the field, calculate the amount of gas delivered, and generate and deliver volume statements to the customer. It must be recognized that the office group can not calculate volumes until it receives the charts and other required data from the field, and that the volumes are only as accurate as the data received. With this in mind, lets look at the two separate groups and see the team effort involved in producing accurate and reliable measurement from Pen tip to Volume Statement.
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Document ID: BDAF8C4B

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important thing in taking a sample is where and how it is taken. A sample can be taken as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph.
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Document ID: AF386F17

Proper Testing Of Odorant Concentration Levels
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
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Document ID: 3F3879F6

Understanding DOT/PAM Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Jesus Ramos
Abstract/Introduction:
After a decade of deliberation between government and the pipeline industry, the action of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requiring qualification for individuals performing covered tasks on a pipeline facility is a reality. The synergistic efforts of the members of the Regulation Negotiation Committee resulted in the authoring of an acceptable proposed rule, Qualification of Pipeline Personnel. New Subparts to 192 and 195 are requiring pipeline operators to write a qualification program which identifies covered tasks, establishes evaluation methods, execute the evaluations to qualify individuals, preserve individual qualification, and maintain records of these activities. The written program must incorporate all the above requirements to accomplish the rules intent of ensuring a qualified pipeline work force to curtail incident probability and consequences caused by human error. The Regulators have the responsibility, hence the authority, to review Qualification of Pipeline Personnel programs, ensure that federal regulatory standards are complied with nationwide and may question an operators inclusion and/or exclusion of particular covered tasks. Program modifications may be required if it fails to meet rule requirements. The compliance time line is dependent on the Qualification of Pipeline Personnel Rule being published in the Federal Register which was August 27, 1999. The official compliance clock began when the rule was published in the Federal register. The operator must complete the written program by April 27, 2001 and must qualify all individuals performing on the pipeline facility by October 28, 2002. The primary advantage for the operator is that the operator writes a qualification program specific to his pipeline operating, maintenance and emergency response policies, procedures and practices. The impact on the operator will vary depending on what preparation the operator has accomplish to date. Those companies that waited for the final rule to be published in the Federal Register, may fine themselves rushing to complete the minimum requirements before the deadlines. The indisputable impact of the operators qualification program effectiveness will be manifested after Regulators critique the program or when a reportable incident is investigated.
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Document ID: 076EEE24

Development Of A Standard Gas Measurement Data Model In Scada Systems
Author(s): Chris J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
In large-scale gas SCADA systems, the variety and extent of field equipment requires a new look at the development of data concentrators, common data models, and broker based messaging for connection to the enterprise. Scanned devices have a limited range of data structures which must be aggregated and normalized to an open vendor independent model at the front end of SCADA and MEASUREMENT systems before being applied to general applications and decision support in the enterprise. The development of object technology and brokered messaging systems is now allowing SCADA vendors to flatten architectures and improve interconnection between applications. The adoption of a Common Information Model (CIM) in gas measurement will allow SCADA and MEASUREMENT systems to operate as open peer data sources to the enterprise, yet still retain independence of purpose and ability to grow and evolve separately.
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Document ID: 1D5B51B0

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies goals for a greener image raises the standards of operations even higher, the demands placed on accurate hydrocarbon measurement with minimal maintenance, space and weight requirements becomes increasingly greater. These financial, governmental and technical challenges coupled with normally high flow rates and therefore wide flow range requirements have enhanced the development and application of new technology such as ultrasonic gas and liquid meters, multiphase flow meters, microwave and near infared (NIR) water cut analyzers, coriolis flow meters for oil and gas and compact orifice meter tubes utilizing isolating flow conditioners and liquid meter provers. This paper will attempt to provide guidelines in selecting, installing and operating this equipment to insure cost effective designs and reliable operation with a high degree of accuracy. Since the authors background is primarily in project design, emphasis will be placed on the decision process of selecting, installing and commissioning metering equipment.
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Document ID: 655EA216

Terminology Used In Instrument Accuracy
Author(s): Rick Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief explanation and discussion of many key terms used in describing instrument accuracy. The terms included within this discussion are most commonly used for defining performance standards with primary sensing elements typically used in the measurement of flow, level pressure and temperature instruments. Many of the terms used may apply to controllers, recorders and final control elements. However, the focus provided herein is the primary element device. The specific devices include transmitters (differential pressure and temperature) and flow meters (e.g., magnetic, vortex, turbine, variable area and positive displacement).
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Document ID: 96B7E34C

Techniques Of Natural Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to be able to take a representative sample of a hydrocarbon product is necessary to ensure proper accounting for transactions and efficient product processing. Sampling can be accomplished by primarily three techniques spot, continuous composite or continuous on-line sampling systems. The various spot sampling methods that are available and the implementation of these methods are briefly investigated in this paper, as well as the most appropriate equipment to use.
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Document ID: 9F82BA6B

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know:
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Document ID: 8DA842F6


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