Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (2001)

Custody Transfer Metering For Measuring Sales Gas In Gelugor Meter Station
Author(s): Ir. Hj. Ahmad Khairiri, Abdul Ghani Khairul, Nizam m Suttan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes evolution of real-time measurement technology in gas metering in Malaysia. PETRONAS Gas Berhad, the owner and operator of the sales gas pipeline system in Malaysia is currently managing approximately more than 50 custody transfer meter stations and city gates. Gelugor meter station, the newly constructed meter station is regarded as the most advanced meter station in this system. It is the first Class 4 ASME B31.8 meter station ever constructed by the company.
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Document ID: BF1C0531

Combining The Information And Measurement Worlds To Improve System Performance And Operational Readiness
Author(s): Fred Cruger, Ben Zarlingo, John Regazzi
Abstract/Introduction:
Standardization of software and hardware interfaces has led to a breakthrough in measurement product architectures. It is now possible to embed the measurement science of high-performance automatic test equipment (ATE) in a PC. Doing so provides connectivity with other PCbased applications, making it possible to connect the operational and maintenance world with the worlds of manufacturing and design. Real-world results can now impact next-generation improvements, while next-generation design and simulation data can be used to enhance real-world performance.
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Document ID: AD90D325

Non-Linear Propagation Of Uncertainty
Author(s): Ricardo A. Nicholas
Abstract/Introduction:
In the vast majority of cases, even the best measurement uncertainty evaluations are based only on a first-order approximation of the uncertainty of a model of the measurement process output quantity as a function of the significant input quantities. That is perfectly adequate if the function is linear, however if it is not, an error will be present in the first-order approximation estimate of uncertainty. The magnitude of that error will be related to the degree of non-linearity. The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (Guide) 1, 2 apparently considers a 6.5% error due to that cause in that estimate as significant, and implies that a higher-order approximation should be made. This paper presents some worked examples of secondorder approximations including example H.1 of Annex H of the Guide. A substantial working knowledge of this method can be obtained through practice by using the presented examples as models.
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Document ID: 547AE835

Risk-Based Control Limits
Author(s): Howard Castrup
Abstract/Introduction:
A methodology is presented for the development of SPC control limits for measurement processes. The methodology employs both Bayesian and traditional measurement decision risk concepts to establish control limits that flag whether measuring processes are in or out of control relative to the specifications of the artifacts they measure. The methodology has particular relevance for calibration and testing.
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Document ID: FF8E1271

Application Of Electronic Records & Signatures In Calibration Management Software
Author(s): Jim Erickson
Abstract/Introduction:
Effective August 20, 1997, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued 21 CFR Part 11, setting forth criteria under which the agency will accept, under certain circumstances, electronic records and electronic signatures as equivalent to paper records and handwritten signatures. Part 11 allows firms to take advantage of electronic technology, and to have electronic records considered equivalent to traditional paper records. Such systems will need to be validated to ensure accuracy, reliability, and consistency, and they will need security checks and audit trails to verify that records are accurate and that changes are recorded. Electronic signatures are subject to additional requirements, to ensure that a signature can only be used by its genuine owner, and that the act of signing a document electronically is equivalent to a traditional handwritten signature.
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Document ID: B46E36D8

Establishment Of Measurement Traceability For NIST Standard Bullets And Casings
Author(s): J. Song, T. Vorburger, m. Ols
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) is currently under development by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The NIST Standard Bullets and Casings Project aims to provide reference standards for instrument calibration and measurement quality control for the NIBIN. Important issues for the establishment of measurement traceability for NIST standard bullets and casings are discussed in this paper. These include developing a national virtual/physical bullet signature standard and a measurable parameter for quantifying bullet signature differences, and developing a measurement system for bullet signature measurements.
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Document ID: D3F48F04

Ste And Calibration The Ipt Approach
Author(s): Brian Willoughby
Abstract/Introduction:
Times have changed, the threat today is not what it was 10 or even 5 years ago. Today the Navy has the same number of surface combatants as it did in the 1930s. Defense spending is down worldwide yet the U.S. still represents 33% of worldwide defense spending, in contrast to Russias now 7% representation 2. This has driven us to greatly extended life cycles for our systems and drives us to greatly reduce development times. There are many traps to schedule reduction one of them is in the area of Special test Equipment (STE). Today we no longer buy black boxes or standalone weapons, but rather we buy integrated weapons system. This provides a great challenge to the Special Test Equipment (STE) community and hence the metrology community as well. The interactions between subsystems (and hence test equipment as well) produce conditions of tolerance stack up which can produce out of spec. test results from subassemblies that are within spec. This paper discusses some of the problems we have seen with regard to STE and potential calibration problems. We will then discuss a potential model and solution to reduce these problems.
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Document ID: 3016236B

Hydrostatic Weighing And The Production Of Density Standards
Author(s): Heather Fitzgerald, Denis Fitzgerald
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the construction and operation of purpose built laboratories and equipment used to produce certified reference materials for liquid density. Sources of uncertainty in the production of the liquid CRMs are discussed. Most of these liquids are subsequently used to calibrate density meters. The additional sources of uncertainty such as sample handling, movement of air in and out of solution, and absorption of water, are briefly discussed and quantified for a number of liquids.
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Document ID: D4E275F8

Trade Facilitation Through Mutual Recognition Of Calibration Certificates And Test Reports
Author(s): J A Gilmour
Abstract/Introduction:
Lack of acceptance of test reports is acknowledged by WTO and others to be one of the most serious technical barriers to trade. During the last twenty-five years much effort has gone into finding a solution a solution to this problem and many organisations have been involved in the process. This paper describes the role of laboratory accreditation in providing foreign users of calibration certificates and test reports with confidence in the competence of laboratories in exporting countries. In particular, it describes the evolution of mutual recognition agreements between laboratory accreditation bodies as a cost effective mechanism to achieve the goal of tested once, accepted everywhere
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Document ID: 4D5C4521

Aspects Of Practical Radiometry: Terminology, Uncertainty, And Physical Optics
Author(s): Eric L. Shirley, Raju U. Datla
Abstract/Introduction:
We discuss efforts that have been made to help establish-in practice-a greater uniformity of nomenclature used for various terms in radiometry as well as expression of measurement uncertainty. We also discuss the role of diffraction effects, which account for the influence on radiometric measurements resulting from differences between geometrical optics (the traditional, idealized mathematical model for radiometric measurements), and physical optics that considers the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation. We discuss the nature of corrections for diffraction effects and the impact of diffraction effects on measurement uncertainty. Some examples of diffraction effects in practical radiometry are noted.
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Document ID: FDE60132

Quantifying Measurement Uncertainty In Analytical Chemistry - A Simplified Practical Approach
Author(s): Thomas W. Vetter
Abstract/Introduction:
Following a simple and practical approach can minimize the headaches of calculating the components of measurement uncertainty. Basic requirements for planning an analysis, realistically estimating the magnitude of uncertainty sources, and combining uncertainty components will be presented using examples of analytical chemistry methods.
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Document ID: 0E381CFC

Intelligent Residential Ventilation System Designed Based On Ashrae Comfort Charts
Author(s): Tang-Jen Liu, Ming-Shing Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Opening windows is frequently done to refresh the indoor air for the occupants. To maintain the cleanliness and freshness of the indoor air, more air outside is needed. But its high temperature and humidity are harmful to the thermal comfort of the indoor environment. This work is to study how much outdoor air can be allowed to enter the room for the optimum conditioning of the indoor air. The ASHRAE comfort charts indicate the percent of subjects feeling comfortable during various combinations of dry-bulb temperature, humidity, and air movement. A set of mathematical expressions were proposed to model the charts in order to calculate the comfort degree of the outdoor air with its temperature and humidity as two input parameters of this model. The amount of outdoor air allowed to enter the room can be further determined after the calculation of the comfort degree of the outdoor air is accomplished.
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Document ID: 1398C81C

Thermal Comfort Measurement Of Outdoor Air Based On A Microcontroller
Author(s): Tang-Jen Liu, Ming-Shing Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Enthalpy is a result of combining thermodynamic properties. The enthalpy of a given air sample stand for its total energy possessed per unit mass. We will use this index to estimate the heat in the air and discuss the relation between its enthalpy and thermal comfort to the occupants. However, it is a complex process to calculate the enthalpy by using a microcontroller. To make it practical, a simplified equation to approximate the complex original one for calculating the enthalpy of the air was derived. Least Squares Theory provides us a good curve fitting method to find the simplified equation. Finally, a hardware based on a Microchips PIC16C7X family microcontroller, a SMT160-30-18 temperature sensor and a SMTHS10 relative humidity sensor is constructed for measuring relative air conditions and evaluating the enthalpy of the air. We also propose the application of the measuring module in residential ventilation control and thermal comfort distribution measurement.
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Document ID: CD24B8FE

Conventional Mass The Concept, Intent, Benefits And Limitations
Author(s): Randall m. Schoonover
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically and presently gravimetric measurements performed for governance incorporate an abitrary normalization methodology. In the past this normalization was given the name Apparent Mass Versus Brass and currently the Conventional Value of the Result of Weighing in Air, also commonly referred to as conventional mass and apparent mass. Discussed here is the concept of apparent mass or the Conventional Value of the Result of Weighing in Air, its intent, use, benefits and limitations.
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Document ID: 9967B41A

Automation In Calibration Of Block Weights
Author(s): Arend Helms
Abstract/Introduction:
The manual calibration of 20 or 50 kg block weights is one of the most time consuming jobs in calibration laboratories and verification branches, as for the calibration of high capacity weights for example of 500 kg and 1 t, larger quantities of these block weights are frequently needed. Also for the calibration and verification of scales in the ranges of tons, for example for the linearity test, lots of 20 or 50 kg weights are needed.
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Document ID: 1E08714A

Accreditation Is A Piece Of Cake
Author(s): Chester Franklin
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a management perspective on laboratory accreditation, to show that any calibration or testing laboratory (no matter the fields or accuracy) can be accredited, and to give some guidelines on how that can be accomplished. This paper reviews, but does not answer the questions of whether accreditation is desirable, necessary or economically feasible for everyone. What is an accredited laboratory? Simply stated it is one thats recognized! Somebody (a.k.a., a Third Party) pronounces that they recognize it (the laboratory) as being competent. That is to say that the laboratory personnel can demonstrate that they do their work according to their own documented procedures and the stuff in some written standard. Nowadays that written standard is usually a little twenty-two-page document popularly known as ISO 17025 (Guide 25 to those laboratories that are already accredited or who are behind the curve). However, there is no guarantee that an accredited laboratory can do everything that the customer wants done, the way he wants it done. Thinking is not a lost art!
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Document ID: 7C4E9E7B

The EUROMET Flow Testing Plans
Author(s): Dopheide
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 7556013D

Six Sigma, Business Measurements, And The Knowledge Revolution
Author(s): Thomas A. Pearson
Abstract/Introduction:
Six Sigma is the biggest thing in business and quality improvement since Japanese manufacturing success and W. Edwards Deming launched the SPC wave in the 1980s. The reason is simple: it produces good business results. As companies embark on the Six Sigma journey, they are finding new requirements for good measurements and business metrics. It all starts with the MEASURE phase. Now, smart system strategies for Six Sigma success can make all business improvement programs work better, faster, with less cost and lower risk. This paper takes a closer look at what people are saying about Six Sigma, Business Measurements, and the Knowledge Revolution, while making some predictions about what the winners will be doing in the year 2005.
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Document ID: 42831966

Improving The Accuracy Of On-Machine Probing By Volumetric Error Compensation
Author(s): Charles Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Manufacturing process control has long been recognized as an important and necessary milestone on the road to reduce cost, improve throughput and superior quality product. On-machine probing is growing widespread application for process improvement. It yields time, quality and productivity improvement. However, the major objection for on-machine probing is that the part is measured on the same machine which made it. Any positioning errors that occurred during machining are very likely to be repeated during inspection. Recently, Optodyne has developed a new laser vector measurement technique for the determination of volumetric positioning errors. The equipment cost is low, the setup and operation is simple. It can be operated by a machine operator and measure the volumetric errors in 2 to 4 hours for a working volume about 1 cubic meter. Using the measured volumetric positioning errors, a lookup correction table can be generated for the on-machine measurement software to compensate the machine positioning errors volumetrically. Therefore, improve the accuracy of on-machine probing and make it a viable process.
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Document ID: 0B72C96A

3D Mems In Standard Processes: Fabrication, Quality Assurance, And Novel Measurement Microstructures
Author(s): Gisela Lin, Russell A. Lawton
Abstract/Introduction:
Three-dimensional MEMS microsystems that are commercially fabricated require minimal post-processing and are easily integrated with CMOS signal processing electronics. Measurements to evaluate the fabrication process (such as cross-sectional imaging and device performance characterization) provide much needed feedback in terms of reliability and quality assurance. MEMS technology is bringing a new class of microscale measurements to fruition. The relatively small size of MEMS microsystems offers the potential for higher fidelity recordings compared to macrosize counterparts, as illustrated in the measurement of muscle cell forces.
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Document ID: 73E256C3

Widening The Calibration Bandwidth
Author(s): Paul Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
Working over a wide range of frequencies up to microwave and beyond is not a new requirement for measurement and calibration. There are mature fields with established infrastructures, methodologies, and availability of instrumentation and expertise at all levels from the national metrology institutes down to equipment users. What is new are the principal drivers and applications. In the past these were primarily military and defence industry lead, but in todays world the needs of commercial industry, businesses and society are shaping this area of measurement. Rapidly emerging and developing technologies ranging from information systems to telecommunications involving faster data rates, wider bandwidth signals and higher operating frequencies are the new drivers for RF, microwave, and optical measurements, bringing in their wake corresponding requirements for calibration. Alongside the technical challenges are the business and economic challenges of lower cost, reduced downtime and improved efficiency. This paper raises the question of what do we need to do to support these measurements and provide traceability at the required uncertainty levels by exploring these new drivers and the technical, logistical, and economic issues involved.
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Document ID: BE54878E

Measurement Accuracy Considerations For Field Testing Of Twisted Pair Copper Cabling For High Speed Data Transmission
Author(s): Henriecus Koeman
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of performance requirements for copper twisted pair cabling per US and international standards is provided. This type of cabling is predominant in commercial buildings and is used for high speed data communication, such as IEEE 802.3 ethernet. The measurement challenges that are present for high speed performance measurements are identified.
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Document ID: 28AE152B

Behavioral Measurement Of Carbon Dioxide Assimilation On Photosynthesis
Author(s): Tang-Jen Liu, Jor-Horng, Linming-Shing Young
Abstract/Introduction:
This Photosynthesis acts as a major role in determining the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the present atmosphere, and it is often convenient to equate the rate of carbon dioxide assimilation with photosynthesis. We hope that the photosynthesis can be initiated to reinforce the balance of concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen in our room. However, we have to find out the plants with higher efficiency of carbon dioxide assimilation. Therefore, We designed a computer-based automatic measurement system used to estimate the efficiency of carbon dioxide assimilation on photosynthesis. The plants in good condition were placed in an airtight and non-transparent box. After that, the box was filled with a constant concentration of carbon dioxide and then the fluorescent lamps were turned on to give rise to the photosynthesis of the plants. At the same time, the decreasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the box due to the progress of photosynthesis was measured and recorded by the system for a constant period of time. From the experimental results, the efficiency of carbon dioxide assimilation of the plants can be characterized as the rising time, falling time, peak value, average value, and the slope of these concentration curves.
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Document ID: 882C8451

NIST Measurement Methods And Standard Reference Materials For Health Status Markers : Current Program And Future Challenges
Author(s): Willie E. May
Abstract/Introduction:
NIST Measurement Methods and Standard Reference Materials for Health Status Markers : Current Program and Future Challenges A 1999 study by the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine estimates that up to 98,000 people die annually in the United States due to medical errors. While many medical errors are not due to inaccurate measurements, improved measurement accuracy could save lives as well as time and money. In addition, International standards organizations are beginning to require traceability of the accuracy of medical measurements to national standards. For example, the European Union now requires that certain diagnostic medical devices be traceable to standards of the highest order. We need to develop internationally accepted reference methods and certified reference materials to meet this requirement.
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Document ID: 73FC8B97

A New Piston Gauge Operating Mode For Defining Very Low Differential Pressures
Author(s): Michael Bair, Martin Girard
Abstract/Introduction:
Conventional piston gauges are limited in the lowest pressure that can be defined, in defining negative gauge pressure and in defining pressure at static pressures other than atmosphere or vacuum. This paper describes the development and practical implementation of a technique to use a commercial gas piston gauge to cover these difficult areas in a typical calibration laboratory. The principles of the method and its hardware and software implementation are presented. The measurement uncertainty associated with use of the method is also discussed.
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Document ID: FEC19DA0

The Next-Generation In Traceability: E-Calibrations
Author(s): Marc F. Desrosiers, Vitaly Yu. Nagy
Abstract/Introduction:
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is expanding into a new frontier in the delivery of measurement services. The Internet will be employed to provide industry with electronic traceability to national standards. This is a radical departure from the traditional modes of traceability and presents many new challenges. The traditional mail-based calibration service relies on sending artifacts to the user, who then mails them back to NIST for evaluation. The new service will deliver calibration results to the industry customer ondemand, in real-time, at a lower cost. The calibration results can be incorporated rapidly into the production process to ensure the highest quality manufacturing. The service would provide the U.S. radiation processing industry with a direct link to the NIST calibration facilities and its expertise, and provides an interactive feedback process between industrial processing and the national measurement standard. Moreover, an Internet calibration system offers global measurement harmonization that will remove measurement-related trade barriers.
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Document ID: AAF4A02B

Looking Under The Bridge
Author(s): Karl F. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
A technique is presented for observing the individual contributions of each element within a transducer based on the Wheatstone bridge measurement circuit topology. An analog signal representing the appropriate sum of all the individual analog elements is simultaneously available. The approach involves opening any convenient corner of the bridge and observing the resulting series string of varying impedances by using the Anderson loop measurement circuit topology. This technique finds application in the development and testing of transducers and can also be used to cause each element within a transducer to have the designers preferred influence on the output of the transducer.
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Document ID: 1ED40033

Recent Advances In Ac-Dc Transfer Measurements Using Thin-Film Thermal Converters
Author(s): Thomas F. Wunsch, Joseph R. Kinard, Ronald P. Manginell, Thomas E. Lipe, Otis P. Solomon, Kenneth C. Jungling
Abstract/Introduction:
New standards for ac current and voltage measurements, thin-film multijunction thermal converters (MJTCs), have been fabricated using thin-film and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Improved sensitivity and accuracy over single-junction thermoelements and targeted performance will allow new measurement approaches in traditionally troublesome areas such as the low frequency and high current regimes. A review is presented of new microfabrication techniques and packaging methods that have resulted from a collaborative effort at Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
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Document ID: B96FACE8

A Novel Primary System For Compressible Flow Calibration: Initial Testing And Calibration
Author(s): Richard W. Caron, Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation of a primary system for compressible flow calibration is typically based on either a gravimetric or volumetric method of mass determination. The gravimetric method provides direct determination of mass while the volumetric method utilizes measurements of density and volume. This paper describes the initial testing and calibration of a primary system designed to determine mass using both gravimetric and volumetric methods.
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Document ID: E3209C41

Updating The Uncertainty Analysis For A Flow Calibration Laboratory
Author(s): T. m. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
For over thirty years CEESI has maintained the same values of uncertainties for the mass flowrate of air. The uncertainty for one data point from a primary standard has been 0.10% at a 95% level of confidence. The primary standards are used to calibrate critical flow venturi (CFV) secondary standards. The uncertainty for one data point from a secondary standard has been 0.50% at a 95% level of confidence. A hybrid calibration involves a mix of primary and secondary data points, the uncertainty over a flowrate range of a hybrid calibration has been either 0.10% or 0.25% at a 95% level of confidence.
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Document ID: 6A79F3DD

Control Of A Complex Instrument Via Internet
Author(s): Frank Kaufmann, Kurt Guckelsberger
Abstract/Introduction:
To explore the possibilities of measurement via Internet, we use a rather complex polarized neutron diffractometer (POLDI) which involves 10 dc-current contollers, 6 neutron counters, 12 stepper-motors and a thermometer, as a test-bed instrument and run it with various software packages at a distance. Starting with legacy software for the virtual instrument dating from the eighties, we realized the same processes in three different ways: with LabView, VisualBasic and finally developped a LAMP-1 based tele-measurement system (LLinux, AApache server, MMySQL data base and Pphp, a script language providing dynamical html pages). As protection against intrusion and unauthorized use, a Linux based firewall is used as proxy and IP-filter, the secure socket layer allowing encryption. The virtual instrument is mapped onto an object tree, the content of which may then be distributed by a server to authorized clients, identified by their user name and IP adress. In this manner, a number of clients may be served simultaneously. The data plus other information, such as still pictures or video data, are time-stamped and written into the data base for future treatment and later reference. The system is running reliably and costs no license fees.
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Document ID: 0F816672

Future Voltage Metrology At NIST
Author(s): Y.H.Tang, J.E.Sims, M.H.Kelley
Abstract/Introduction:
At present, NIST uses a voltage calibration path to maintain the U.S. legal volt and provide for the dissemination of an internationally consistent, accurate, reproducible, and traceable voltage standard, tied to the SI units. Potential improvements and enhancements to the present system will be discussed. These include using the quantum standard to replace artifact references, intercomparisons for future Josephson voltage standard systems, and the application of information technologies to voltage metrology.
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Document ID: 04754DA7

Internet-Based Calibration Of A Multifunction Calibrator
Author(s): Lisa Bunting Baca, Len Duda, Russ Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as webaccessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.
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Document ID: B2AB2323

Method Of Measuring Shunt Resistance In Photodiodes
Author(s): Paul Thompson, Thomas C. Larason
Abstract/Introduction:
A method of measuring the shunt resistance of diodes, specifically photodiodes, is examined and the procedure of how the method is implemented using LabVIEW is detailed. Rudimentary comparison with other accepted methods in industry is done. The uncertainty analysis on the measurements using the specified method is given.
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Document ID: 07AD2E4F

Sources Of Uncertainty In Uv Radiation Measurements
Author(s): Thomas C. Larason, Christopher L. Cromer
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasing commercial, scientific, and technical applications involving ultraviolet (UV) radiation have led to the demand for improved understanding of the performance of instrumentation used to measure this radiation. There has been an effort by manufacturers of UV measuring devices (meters) to produce simple, optically filtered sensor systems to accomplish the varied measurement needs. We address common sources of measurement errors using these meters. The uncertainty in the calibration of the instrument depends on the response of the UV meter to the spectrum of the sources used and its similarity to the spectrum of the quantity to be measured. In addition, large errors can occur due to out-of-band, non-linear, and non-ideal geometric or spatial response of the UV meters. Finally, in many applications, how well the response of the UV meter approximates the presumed action spectrum needs to be understood for optimal use of the meters.
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Document ID: D7898FFB

A New Ultrasonic Range-Measuring System
Author(s): C. F. Huang, K.N. Huang, m. S. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
- A multiple-frequency continuous wave ultrasonic range-measuring system (MFCW) for use in air is described. This MFCW system successfully takes into account the finite bandwidth of conventional inexpensive transducers. Because the system is based on the detection of phase difference, the traditional acoustic attenu- ation problems of which have limited by time-of-flight methods are avoided. Such a ranging system utilizing three different ultrasonic frequencies, generating three corresponding different phase shifts, is used in this paper to calculate target distances. The MFCW method is relatively easy to be implemented with inexpensive ultrasonic transducers, a single-chip microcomputer, a temperature sensor and an LCD for robotic control. Measurement error is very low and practical range is far superior to competitive current systems.
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Document ID: 2540727E

Measurement Of Released Contaminants Levels During Home Cooking
Author(s): Tang-Jen Liu, Yu-Pei Huang, Ming-Shing Young
Abstract/Introduction:
An advanced piezoelectric ceramic transducer exhibiting a conspicuous piezoelectric effect is an available sensing material for converting the small impact at the bottom of the kitchen range hood produced by the rising cooking thermal plumes to electrical energy. Home cooking produces numerous contaminants including liquid and solid particles, odors, airborne moisture, and heat. The heat from the cooking surface generates thermal plumes that bring contaminants upwards to the kitchen range hood by the buoyancy-capture principle. The rising thermal plumes with the contaminants will produce various collision forces on the surface of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer attached to the bottom of the range hood.
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Document ID: B99EB13C

Accurate Vibration Measurement By Using Ultrasonic Phase-Shift Reconstruction Methods
Author(s): Yan-Chay Li, K.N.Huang
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a simple but efficient method for vibration measurements. Two low cost 40-Khz ultrasonic transducers are used in a transmit-receive mode to get the motion of a point on a vibration object. The relative motion of the object modulates the phase angle between transmitted and received ultrasound signals. We have developed a novel method to reconstruct the relative motion of an object from the acquired data of the phase angle changes. The measurement accuracy of the system in the reported experiments is within +/- 0.07mm. The main advantages of this vibration measurement system are high resolution, low cost, and non-contact measurement.
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Document ID: E9273F60

Principles Of Operation For Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental issues relative to ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical operation of todays Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM). The UFMs diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be discussed with test results. Finally, recommendations for installation will be provided, including an example of a good piping design.
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Document ID: 74B41D5A


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