Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2001)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2001 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an orifice meter? The answer usually depends upon whom you are talking to. The term orifice meter is used to mean every thing from the orifice meter chart recorder to the entire meter station. American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit comprised of primary and secondary elements. The primary element consists of an orifice meter tube constructed to meet the minimum recommended specifications of the measurement authority contractually agreed upon by two or more parties. The secondary element consists of equipment that will receive values produced at the primary element. The values may be measured and recorded onto circular charts or received by electronic flow computers that calculate a volume onsite, to be retrieved as desired.
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Document ID: 871092D8

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurment
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, positive displacement meters, and multipath ultrasonic flowmeters.
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Document ID: 724A640B

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): E. D. Rusty Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
There is more to the design of a measurement facility than the word suggests. Generally, the measurement arena may include any or all of the following broad categories:
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Document ID: 34430E56

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide C02 has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience had been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: 447AF246

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pierre Trolin, Tim Patten
Abstract/Introduction:
Widely known for liquid and liquid-solid slurry measurement in the Chemical, Refining, and Food and Beverage industries, Codolis meters are now being successfully applied to gas-phase measurement. Highly accurate, direct mass measurement over wide flow ranges has enabled many processes to now be better controlled. Principal gas applications for Coriolis meters include fiscal transfer of valuable process gases such as ethylene, oxygen, and hydrogen, utility gases such as natural gas, and reactor feed gases such as hydrogen, ethylene, ammonia, and chlorine. Coriolis meters offer improved measurement accuracy over wide turndowns and with less installed uncertainty due to swirl and flow profile effects. Coriolis meters have been used to measure numerous industrial gases, as presented below:
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Document ID: 145EE42A

Coping With Changing Flow Requiements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays market is a challenge that Companies must meet. Deregulation, increasing share values, diversity and the ability to adapt are everyday terms that we must completely understand. Companies must be aggressive to survive customer demands. Revenues are made and lost everyday at our metering stations. If our products are not measured accurately, customer satisfaction will not be achieved and companies will lose revenues. In todays market, there are several factors that dictate what changes in flow requirements we must deal with. Some of these factors include equipment and technology, customer demand and a changing industrial market.
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Document ID: D8B681BB

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties applied to companies can be very high if the required work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as weather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: AE96978F

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 456FFDDB

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now known as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991.
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Document ID: F736DF31

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971 E. J. Burgin of Florida Gas Transmission Company presented a paper at ISHM entitled Factors Affecting Accuracy of Orifice Measurement (Primary Element). Burgin noted that A.G.A. RePort No. 3 (of that time) claimed that an orifice meter with flange taps and with a diameter ratio, , between 0.15 and 0.7, fabricated and operated in accordance with the specifications in the standard, would have a discharge coefficient value within + 0.5% of the value calculated from the orifice equation. The purpose of Burgins paper was to examine some of the specifications in the orifice meter standard and to review the effect upon measurement accuracy when the specifications are ignored.
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Document ID: 84B59CA3

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters (see fig. 1) were introduced in 1963, and since then have gained world wide acceptance in the industry as an accurate, extremely repeatable, reliable device. The gas turbine meter is easy to understand and maintain in the field, and is easy to interface with the new electronics available in the industry today.
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Document ID: AD41933C

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on he use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the East Coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success, New York businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc. and the new U.S. gas distribution industry began to flourish.
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Document ID: D9F056B8

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ron L. Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, long-term accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among gas utilities for billing purposes in industrial and commercial applications. Rotary Meters have also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets
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Document ID: 28A6DEA7

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: DB35245B

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-today gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: B1D1602A

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 0F91DEFD

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and odfice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well-defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters.
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Document ID: 40B785E1

Multi-Path Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an outline of the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principals and underlying equations are discussed as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flowmeter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with a 3-path (8 chord) and 5-path (12 chord) custody transfer flowmeter, however many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: B16F35E5

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increase in Natural Gas prices, and new federal regulations, buyers and sellers of natural gas are seriously looking at ways to improve their natural gas measurement and reduce the unaccounted for Natural Gas. An error in measurement of only one tenth of one percent (0.1%) on 100 million standard cubic feet per day of Natural Gas selling at 5.00/MCF will cause an over or under billing of 182,500.00 in one year. The Btu in one barrel of oil for example is equivalent to approximately 5,600 cubic feet of natural gas. At 10.00 per thousand cubic feet, (the price of Natural gas this past winter) the natural gas equivalent of one barrel of oil costs 56.00 or more than the cost of a barrel of oil at that time. In the petroleum liquid industry no good crude oil measurement system would be complete without a proving system.
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Document ID: 9AFD0985

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Rod Dent
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most widely used method of fluid measurement currently in use. Orifice fittings, developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube, are also commonly used in current meter tube designs. Each of these components must meet specifications of industry standards such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3, and the Amedcan Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14 section 3 on Petroleum Measurements Standards to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: 1BC3B6F2

Orifice Meter Gage Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more accurate gas flow measurements, industry is placing more emphasis on defming and avoiding adverse unsteady flow conditions. Interactions of pulsation energy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gage line tubing with closecoupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper touches on gage line effects on gas flow measurement.
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Document ID: B63F4C9A

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery. The orifice meter was developed in the early 1900s. They have become the industry standard for measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
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Document ID: A36E09F7

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments. Total energy measurement has become an integrated system of devices and people which must effectively communicate in a knowledgeable manner to obtain the goal of better overall measurement accuracy. The meter itself may only contribute 50% of the total measurement package depending on the application. Finally, as with any type of proposed capital investment that may improve revenues or reduce costs, a good financial analysis should be performed to insure a desirable rate of return for the companys expenditure in new plant.
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Document ID: FED4CBE1

Thermometry In Measurement
Author(s): Joshua J. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many conditions in natural gas flow measurement that can cause undesirable errors that are difficult to pinpoint. Finding inconsistencies in large measurement systems is cumbersome, especially if the base measurements are in error. To determine reliable natural gas volumes, all variables must be measured correctly. When temperature is measured incorrectly, it can have a pronounced effect on overall flow measurement.
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Document ID: 90F63829

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When material flowing in a pipe is made up of a mixture of fluid phases the term multiphase is used to classify this type of flow. Multiphase flow comprises a broad range of applications in different industries. Some examples include gas bubbles in flowing liquid, solid particles carried by a gas, and the flow of two immiscible liquids. Often a flowing stream of natural gas contains some level of hydrocarbon liquid and/or water. This is a form of multiphase flow often called wet gas. This paper is intended to introduce the reader to wet gas multiphase flow measurement. First, some basic terms and flow features are presented. Second, a simple analysis of wet gas flow through an orifice meter is discussed. Finally, the difficulty in predicting phase behavior of gas/condensate systems is described.
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Document ID: 55440207

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mike Pritchard
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the types of density meter in common use in the petrochemical industry, their advantages and disadvantages. It then deals more specifically with the vibrating element density meters and their general uses. The paper then goes on to deal with specific liquid applications in crude oils, refined products, liquefied gasses, etc. The paper is not a grand opus, but deals with basic terms usage and rules of thumb of density measurement in real process applications.
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Document ID: E8F472DA

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are continuing to evolve. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was an abundance of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of +0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
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Document ID: 606C8438

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Dale A. Bohman
Abstract/Introduction:
Truck loading can be automated with an electronic preset device. The preset can regulate delivery of the product by controlling the pump, flow control valve, and any associated additive injectors. Security of the loading process can be achieved via passwords, permissives, and communications control.
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Document ID: 6B8222A7

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Dynamic Measurement
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction.
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Document ID: 809475D4

Calculation Of Liquid Quantities By Static Methods
Author(s): Bob Dix
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the procedures to be followed when calculating either a volumetric or a mass quantity of crude oil, petroleum products, or petrochemicals contained in or transferred to or from static tanks or marine vessels. All procedures are in conformance with the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 12 Section 1, Part 1. The procedures are intended to provide a uniform approach to calculations where different parties using the same input data are able to reconcile quantities.
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Document ID: C69A7E7D

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 60B4D786

Crude Oil Gathering - Metering Versus Manual Gauging
Author(s): Charles R. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements made for the custody transfer of crude oil at lease stock tanks are at present performed by manual gauging. API Chapter 18 describes the methods of obtaining quantitative and qualitative values for volumetric measurement of tank contents. The second edition, published in April 1997, specifically describes the process for taking measurement readings to determine the amount of merchantable oil transferred from the tank to the transporting truck. Delivery of the same transfer of product is more accurately measured by a metering system than by tank gauging. The factors affecting the volumetric measurements obtained by metering and tank gauging are discussed.
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Document ID: 0E409A2D

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): James Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the design, construction and accuracy theory of positive displacement (PD) meters for liquid measurement. It will provide the reader with the history and background of the PD meter along with an explanation of operating principles and parameters, application considerations, and an explanation of accuracy theory and considerations for achieving good measurement.
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Document ID: E6602572

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Lundberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Many a time did I stand beside such a pipe and exert myself to invent how to force these pipes to reveal the secret of their hidden action (Clemens Herschel 1898). Instead of inventing ways to force these pipes to reveal the secrets of their hidden action, flow conditioners create predictable, reproducible and symmetric flow profiles. Process industries are required to measure flow accurately to meet both plant operation and cost accounting objectives. However, these objectives can be difficult to achieve because the accuracy of many flowmeter technologies are adversely affected by flow disturbances, which increase flowmeter errors generally outside of their specified performance limits. These errors often go undetected, as it is very difficult to make a comparative measurement of the actual flow against the flowmeters indicated flow in the field.
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Document ID: 29FDECB2

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
An ethylene transportation system consists of a pipeline network and salt dome storage facility linking producers and consumers. Since producers and consumers are not equipped with on site storage, the systems are designed with maximum flexibility to satisfy the continually changing demands of the operations (Figure 1).
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Document ID: FC18F374

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement- Part 1
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
If I were buying a barrel of oil from you, I would want the liquid to be as cold as possible. On the other hand, you, as the seller, would like the liquid to be as hot as practicable. Why? Because liquids expand with increased temperature and shrink with lower temperature. So, when I buy a barrel of cold oil, I actually get more oil for the price of one barrel, and when you sell a barrel of hot oil, you actually sell less oil for the price of one barrel. To avoid this dilemma the Petroleum Industry has adopted standards of volume. In the United States, the standard volume is the barrel containing 42 US gallons measured at the standard temperature of 60F. In Europe and many other parts of the World, the standard volume is the liter measured at the standard temperature of 15C. Tables of Volume Correction Factors (VCF) for correcting volumes measured at any temperature to the equivalent volume at standard temperature are available from the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the International Standards Organization (ISO).
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Document ID: 98CBE0F5

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II
Author(s): Bob Dix
Abstract/Introduction:
The process of Custody Transfer of quantities of oil through storage tanks, whether they are as small as 50 barrel or as large as 750,000 barrel, is still an integral part of todays oil industry. Static measurement remains an important part of all pipeline, refinery, and terminal operations. The accurate measurement of the transfer of oil depends on several factors, two of which are of most importance the calibration of the tank, and the measurement of the oil in the tank, commonly known as gauging the tank.
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Document ID: 37E3C377

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement III
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Weve learned when measuring crude oil that liquids expand and contract with increases and decreases in temperature. The liquid volume also decreases when pressure is applied. All these effects are part of the physical properties of liquid petroleum fluids. We learned in Fundamentals of Liquid Measurement I how these physical properties effect the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons. The objective of either static measurement or dynamic measurements is to determine the quantity and quality of hydrocarbons transferred. However these measurements are rarely performed at the standard conditions discussed in Fundamentals I, therefore not only must temperature be measured, but also density, sediment and water, vapor pressure, pressure and viscosity must be measured. With these measurements correction factors such as Volume Correction Factors (VCF) can be determined to allow volumes determined at operating conditions to be expressed at standard reference conditions.
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Document ID: 40001E19

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Raymond J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 30 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principals of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits.
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Document ID: A17A1794

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): David L. Shurtz
Abstract/Introduction:
Gauging, testing, and running of lease tanks is all about Custody Transfer and static measurement. According to the American Petroleum Institute (API) custody transfer measurement provides quantity and quality information used for the physical and fiscal documentation of a change in ownership and/or a change in responsibilities for commodities. In this case we are dealing with lease tanks, which are usually tanks less than a 1000 barrels. Because of the expense of new technology for measurement, combined with the massive number of lease tanks and dealing with small volumes, custody transfer in this environment is still done manually using the same type gauging equipment that has been used for decades. It has improved in time through emphasis on training, education and expanded quality control from production to the end user. There is also emphasis on utilizing APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards and quality gauging equipment traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
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Document ID: 2E4A7C84

Liquid Measurement Field Surveys
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of measurement facilities and procedures is often called an audit. This can be confusing, though. The dictionary defines Audit as, An official examination and verification of accounts and records, esp. of financial accounts. In the oil patch, Audit is often used loosely to describe either or both aspects of a measurement review which includes:
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Document ID: 353395A3

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Accident statistics clearly show that pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardous to life, property and the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planning to install real-time methods for determining when leaks occur. The intent is to detect leaks as soon as possible to permit the operator to shut down a pipeline and minimize the amount of stock loss and potential hazard to the public. Some federal and state regulations require some form of leak detection on pipelines which transport hazardous fluids through populated and otherwise sensitive areas.
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Document ID: 70A70C33

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the mass measurement of natural gas liquid mixtures. It includes information for turbine, P.D. and orifice metering systems as well as brief segments on Coriolis mass meters and scales. The basic equation and industry standards covering mass measurement will be addressed, as will some of the common operating, mechanical and procedural problems that often degrade the performance of these systems.
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Document ID: 9AEB7D09

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Simon Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
The mass flowmeter most commonly used for liquid measurement applications is the Codolis principle meter. Patents for Codolis devices date back to the 1970s and since that time the market has expanded rapidly. It is expected that within the next 5 years Coriolis meters will be established as one of the top 3 metering technologies, along with differential pressure and magnetic flowmeters.
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Document ID: D25036B1

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations. The volume contained in a tank can be determined either by manually gauging the tank or by using an automatic gauging system installed on the tank. Hand gauging of tanks has normally been considered a very accurate method to determine the quantity of oil transferred into or out of a tank. In the United States, most automatic gauging systems have been considered to be less accurate than hand gauging, but there are automatic tank gauging systems available that meet the requirements for custody transfer.
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Document ID: F7F028E8

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Jim Gardner
Abstract/Introduction:
As technology has advanced the number of accepted practices for liquid tank gauging has increased. Today there are many categories of mechanical and electronic tank gauges available. Each new technology has unique advantages and benefits, which make selecting a new tank gauge a more complicated process than it was prior to the dawn of digital technology and the birth of the SCADA system.
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Document ID: D157D815

Measurement Of Large Volumes By Turbine Meter
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Large turbine meters have been used successfully to measure large volumes of hydrocarbons, including high viscosity crude oils. Installation and maintenance cost make the turbine meter the ideal meter for large volume measurement requirements. Also on offshore platforms where available space and weight are primary considerations the turbine meter installation is the best choice. Experience has shown that turbine meters can be used for high viscosity crude oils where displacement meters were thought to be the only alternative for good custody transfer measurement.
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Document ID: E72A9B5B

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Robert W. Goldstraw
Abstract/Introduction:
A large quantity of petroleum is moved to, from and within the United States annually on board tank ships and barges. To be certain that as much of the petroleum as possible is accounted for during these marine custody transfers, most of these cargoes are measured both in the delivering and receiving shore tanks and on board the ship or barge at both the loading and the unloading ports.
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Document ID: 504874BD

New Ideas In Fluid Measurement Class Number 2320
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Each year as we attend ISHM, we look forward to hearing about advances in methodology and the experiences of other in the industry portrayed in technical presentations. This effort, by so many people, helps each of us to expand our understanding of the methodologies being employed. Perhaps, through them we gain some insight into the success or failures of those using them.
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Document ID: C772C977

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters of various designs have long found use in industry. Their use dates back in excess of twenty years and one might reasonably ask why there is a renewed interest among potential users for such a dated technology. The answer resides in recent advances in the technology that werent even dreamt of a few short years ago. Advances that are in the process of altering the landscape of our traditional responses to demands for precision flow measurement.
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Document ID: 91B9851D

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, governmental authorities and the general public. In fact, accurate measurement of hydrocarbon fluids has a high impact on the Gross National Product of exporting and importing countries, the financial performance and asset base of global companies, and the perceived efficiency of operating facilities. The need for accurate hydrocarbon measurement is obvious. As a result, accurate unbiased hydrocarbon measurement is an essential goal of any responsible organization. Fiscal measurement involves the use of standard proven equipment and procedures.
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Document ID: 412BB71B

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
The term pycnometer refers to both glass and flowthrough pycnometers. Pycnometers are defined by the following criteria: They are vessels with a flow-through design that traps a representative sample of the test fluid at operating conditions. They permit safe handling of high-pressure fluids during sampling and transport. (Caution is needed when transporting a liquid-full cylinder. The expansion of the fluid as the temperature of the pycnometer rises could cause an unsafe condition in a very short time period.) Their volume and evacuated weight are known to a precision of 0.02 percent over the operating pressure and temperature range.
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Document ID: 0AF7706C

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Herbert H. Garland
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a custody transfer? It is the volume of liquid moved multiplied by the tariff, which equates to l It is the bottom line, which is the cash register. Is your companys cash register running over or short? What is the percentage it is off?
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Document ID: A1BBC002

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach Paper Number 2360
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynte
Abstract/Introduction:
Two things are essential to accurate measurement with a meter: 1. A healthy meter which is performing the way it is supposed to, and 2. Accurate meter factors. So how do we know if we have either, or both, of these at any given time for any given meter?. Meter factor control charts and some other simple tools can be used to evaluate the performance of a meter, and to assess the accuracy of meter factors.
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Document ID: 80A9A038

The Developing Role Of Helical Turbine Meters Class # 2370
Author(s): Kyle m. Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
The oil industry has used conventional turbine meters and positive displacement (PD) meters in the custody transfer measurement (CTM) of crude oil and refined products for many years. The choice of which meter to use depends on the product being measured, the accuracy required, performance range of the meter, and total cost of owner ship.
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Document ID: E0628111

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains Class Number 2380
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement can be assured by continuous monitoring to determine if systems, equipment and procedures are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts. This paper discusses control charts and other charts which may be used to monitor operating systems.
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Document ID: 65CE5134

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement Class Number LM-2410
Author(s): Gary Rothrock
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will explore the role of viscosity in the hydrocarbon industry, its effects, why and where it is measured, and the methods of achieving those measurements online. The fact that laboratory measurement of viscosity is so prevalent in process control tells us two things: 1. Viscosity is a vital measurement. 2. There are no other parameters that can be used as indicators for viscosity.
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Document ID: 38A337B7

Operational Experience With Custody Transfer Liquid Ultrasonic Meters Class #2420
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
For years the petroleum industry has search for the perfect volumetric measurement instrument. The industry has progressed from using barrels to high speed mechanical devices for measuring petroleum. In the 1990s, several new technologies made their way in to the measurement arena. One of these technologies was the Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM). In order to determine the UFMs capabilities, durability, and performance, several companies were asked to perform tests in conjunction with a national standards writing organization. The goals were to collect data to determine if the UFMs could be used for custody transfer applications and to draft a standard for the petroleum industry. In this paper we will review,
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Document ID: 377A640D

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control Class 3020
Author(s): Larry A. Quick
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers are microprocessor controlled CPUs specifically designed to measure and regulate the transfer of a fluid from one point to another. They are an essential part of electronic fluid flow measurement, and are usually installed in various remote locations throughout the production, transmission and distribution segments of the gas industry. The function of a flow computer is fourfold collect measurement data, calculate and store measurement data, transmit stored measurement data to a host system, and execute control requirements. In addition to measurement data, the event log, audit trail and alarm information is also collected, stored, and subsequently transmitted to a host system. All these flow computer functions are controlled by on-board firmware, sometimes in conjunction with inputs from the host system. It is this on-board firmware, and associated host software, that allows the user to maximize the flow computer% versatility and efficiency.
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Document ID: 4D808A95

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software Class # 3030
Author(s): Howard m. Sheets
Abstract/Introduction:
Laptops, handhelds, palmtops and PDAs are becoming common in the Natural Gas Industry to perform a variety of portable computer functions. Applying these different technologies to fit a given task is sometimes not immediately apparent. Portable Computers do make the field users job easier to perform, if time is taken to assure that they are selected to fit the application. Emphasis in this paper will be on mobile computing as it relates to the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 6682B70F

Basic Electronics For Field Technician Class 3060
Author(s): Dale Gary
Abstract/Introduction:
The title says it all. This paper is written with the idea of presenting basic electronic principles and how to apply these to common applications.
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Document ID: F5328A8F

Basic Scada Systems EM-3070
Author(s): Rick Kroeker
Abstract/Introduction:
A SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is typical made up of many distributed remote microprocessors that are communicated to (supervised) by a central computer system most commonly referred to as a host. Supervisory control implies that the remote unit performs the local control function with the host performing the supervisory control function such as writing the setpoint to the controller. Not only does the host system send supervisory commands to the remote units but also it usually collects data (data acquisition) from the units. This data can be used for many purposes including feedback to the system operator, trending, alarming and accounting.
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Document ID: 05DCB535

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data Class Em 3080
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
As the world has evolved to the information age, the natural gas industry has experienced a sense of urgency in the accuracy and timeliness of delivery of gas measurement data. From wellheads and pipeline interconnects, to city gate stations and industrial gas users, the data must be delivered promptly and accurately. Since most natural gas company organizations have several functional groups that are dependent on the gas measurement data, systems must be in place that acquire the data and transport it back to a central computer to be verified, edited, and made available to all groups that need it.
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Document ID: 0F21813B

Communication To Measurement Equipment At Gas Distribution Locations Class 3090
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
The Change Business changes demand changes in doing business. One of the last great holdouts has been gas measurement. Ever since the days before this generation, meter indexes were read and charts were changed for a measurement process to begin. This process has been going on for so long that nearly everyone recognizes the utility meter reader. But now, a business change is taking place that is causing us to do business differently. Over the last five years the sight of a familiar meter reader around a meter setting is slowly diminishing. Little antennas are popping up all around gas facilities. A new gas company icon may soon become the communication technician.
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Document ID: 1F0DAE0C

Computer Application In Liquid Measurement Class 3100
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in computer and electronic technology are made every day. Forty years ago vacuum tube instruments were used when high-speed readout was required. Electromechanical counters that could go as fast as forty counts per second were just becoming reliable, but only if the circuit designer knew how to interface them to a pulse transmitter. Virtually all positive displacement meters had local mechanical readouts, and temperature compensation was done by liquid filled bellows driving wheel and disk integrators with planetary gear drives. Remote monitoring and control of metering stations required huge rooms full of clattering racks of relays - and the associated maintenance headaches, and rows of push buttons, counters, indicator lights and annunciator windows.
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Document ID: F291B397

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement Class EM3110
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The decision on whether to invest in electronic gas measurement (EGM) equipment is one facing a majority of energy-related organizations. This is especially true for those companies that have been in business for several years and still utilize older technology in the form of chart recorders to record and archive flow information on paper. These decisions can be made based on an analysis of the financial impact to the company. Some of the impact is based on tangible costs savings while the remainder is based on intangible value that will be realized by a number of different functional groups within the typical energy organization.
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Document ID: 72F7EF96

Effects Of Cathodic Protection & Induced Signals On Pipeline Measurement Class 3120
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe that is buried under ground or water has a tendency to have external corrosion. Corrosion is where the strength of metal pipe is effectively reduced due to the metal molecules combining with other molecules to form a third substance. An example of this is the iron in steel pipe combining with oxygen to form iron oxide or rust.
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Document ID: 9E570B0A

Implementation Of A Scada System Class 3130
Author(s): Roland Rollins
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory control and data acquisition is relatively new in the production phase of the oil and gas industry. With the advent of flow computers in the late 70s, remote data acquisition began to creep into the oil patch. By contrast, new flow computer installations are now most likely tied into communication systems at the initial installation. Measurement staff commonly discuss auxiliary monitoring requirements with production foreman before choosing (sizing) the flow computer model. What is still uncommon is assigning control features, especially automatic, to flow computers, PLCs, and RTUs to field installations.
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Document ID: 6CC3EC42

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer Class 3140
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow computers have become state of the art technology in todays challenges concerning gas custody transfers. They have been around since the mid-1960s though at that time were neither highly trusted nor significantly reliable. Choices were limited and electronic failures were commonplace.
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Document ID: 9822615D

Real Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement 3150
Author(s): Randy R. Page
Abstract/Introduction:
In the volatile world of natural gas pricing, energy rate billing and deregulation, one thing is certain: accurate, timely and easily distributed measurement data are worth much more today than in the past. Advances in measurement technology, data communications and e-business (Internet) are making reality out of what many gas producers thought was merely a dream only a few years agothe electronic gas field.
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Document ID: E8313B45

Temperature And Pressure Transducers Class 3160
Author(s): Eric Wickberg
Abstract/Introduction:
over the past three decades, pressure and temperature transmitters have continuously improved from simple process variable generators to increasingly sophisticated microprocessor-based field transmitters. This continuous improvement has resulted in upgraded device capabilities, including improved device repeatability, stability, reliability, and diagnostics - to name a few. More importantly these device feature improvements have allowed users to change existing plant instrument standards to reduce field device time and effort expenditures. In short, todays better pressure and temperature transmitters have enabled New Best Practices for field device selection, installation, and maintenance.
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Document ID: 1260C521

Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers Class 3170
Author(s): Jeff Goetzman
Abstract/Introduction:
The increasing demand for Natural Gas has caused this fuel to increase in price significantly over the recent years. It is becoming increasing important for companies competing in a more competitive market place to measure the gas they purchase and sell as accurately as possible. One of the most important aspects of the measurement process is the testing, maintenance and operation of Electronic Flow Computers.
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Document ID: BBF4552D

Theory Of Ultrasonic Flow Measurement--Gases And Liquids Class 3175
Author(s): Herb Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow measurement systems (UFMs) are being applied with increasing frequency to hydrocarbon flow measurements. Most of these UFM s are transit time (also called time-of-flight) systems--they measure the transit time of ultrasonic energy pulses traveling with and against the direction of flow. This paper will outline the principles of three kinds of transit time UFMs:
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Document ID: 72975059

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices Em 3180
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: 457E38E9

Calibration Of Liquid Provers Class #4020
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover volume must be accurately determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method.
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Document ID: 78CBB392

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving In Custody Transfer Class 4030
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant improvements in prover technologies have occurred in recent years. Microprocessors and computers are used to automate the control, measurement, calculation, data collection and report generation during and after the liquid proving process. All of this can be done either locally or remotely by automating the prover system.
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Document ID: F6A43B19

Design, Calibration And Operation Of Field Standard Test Measures Class # 4040
Author(s): Richard C. Jordan
Abstract/Introduction:
A field standard test measure is a graduated neck volumetric container, fabricated to stringent design criteria to deliver a specific volume of liquid when drained. To identify its true volume value, it is calibrated by an official agency such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The primary purpose of a field standard test measure is to provide a standardized volume, used for the calibration of displacement and tank provers, when calibrated by the water draw method.
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Document ID: 8C61E676

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers Class Number 4050
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to 0.02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: EDCB8EC6

Calibration Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters Gm - 4055
Author(s): William Johansen, Joel Clancy .
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultra-sonic flowmeters are currently being put into service in large numbers. When used in custody transfer applications, ultrasonic flowmeter calibration is required. There is currently no standard covering the calibration of ultra-sonic flowmeters, although AGA Report No. 9 is used as a guide. The process of calibrating an ultra-sonic meter will be discussed as well as the calculation of a flow weighted mean error (FWME) and a calibration factor in accordance with AGA Report No. 9.
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Document ID: F1331929

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers Class # 406
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters for provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced with proving meters with different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: 86F127A3

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Provers 4060
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
Buying or selling doesnt necessarily have to involve meters, but realistically, its highly probable that every barrel of liquid our companies process, whether raw crude or refined product, will pass through a meter or a series of meters somewhere between the well and the marketplace. Metering continues to provide the most consistent and accurate method of measurement.
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Document ID: FA96A000

On-Site Gas Meter Proving Class CT-4070
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow rate measurement errors at field meter stations can result from the installation configuration, the calibration of the meter at conditions other than the actual operating conditions, or the degradation of meter performance over time. The best method for eliminating these or other sources of error is with in-situ (on-site) calibration of the meter. That is, the measurement accuracy of the field meter station should be verified under actual operating conditions by comparing to a master meter or prover. Field provers have been developed for operation at high line pressures and flow rates. For purposes of this discussion, a high gas flow rate is any flow greater than 3,000 actual cubic feet per hour or (85 m3/h) at pressures to 1,440 psig (10 MPa).
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Document ID: A5D2C2C0

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional() Class #4090
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
(The purpose of proving a meter is to determine its meter factor, which is defined as A number obtained by dividing the actual volume of liquid that passes through a meter by the volume indicated by the meter).
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Document ID: 14E46D49

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques Class 4095
Author(s): Terry Houghton
Abstract/Introduction:
To fully appreciate the importance of proper meter proving techniques, you must understand the impact that proving has on the bottom line of your company. Metering systems are the Cash Registers of your operation. Inaccuracies introduced through incorrect meter proving factors can cost you short term, by giving a customer credit for pumping volumes not actually received into your system. Long term costs result from not giving the customer credit for all the volumes received into your system and thus losing that customer. At the end of each accounting period it is preferable to conclude with a ZERO balance on the products measured into and out of your system. If not zero, then you must fall between an acceptable range of parameters to ensure fairness to the customer and continued profability for yourselves. That puts the burden for accuracy, square on the shoulders of those that maintain and calibrate the measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 7BD20FDF

Operation & Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches Class #4100
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In many parts of the petroleum industry, sphere provers are used to dynamically calibrate volumetric meters. In order to accomplish this, sphere provers are required to be accurate and repeatable. This accuracy and repeatability is largely dependent on performance of the prover sphere detector. Any operational or design problems associated with the prover detector will affect the provers performance. This paper will review critical parts of a prover sphere detector that must be checked in order to obtain accuracy reliability and repeatability. The areas that will be covered are:
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Document ID: 41D35016

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers 4110
Author(s): Patrick J. Rowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first part of this paper will give information on the types and basic operations of small volume provers. Due to recent changes in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Standards, Chapter 4.3, many more provers will fall under this title. Second, to relate the authors experiences with small volume provers. This includes research, purchase, operation and troubleshooting of the units Sun PipeLine Co. has in operation.
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Document ID: B2E5ADF8

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters Class 4130
Author(s): Mark K. Vandiver
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter proving is a physical test used to determine the accuracy and performance of a liquid meter. By placing a liquid meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known or base volume in such a way that all the liquid measured by the meter is also measured by the prover. The liquid measured by the meter is compared to the known prover volume. This correction is the meter factor.
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Document ID: 6F95C681

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Brad D. Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow meter has long been established as the industry cash register. With the high cost of producing and the reduced selling price of products, the accuracy of the meter becomes increasingly important to ensure profitability. To this end regular proving of the meter is essential. Liquid meter proving is carried out by placing a Meter Prover in series with the meter under test the prover having a calibrated base volume. Proving of the meter is by comparing the quantity recorded by the meter with the calibrated quantity displaced by the prov
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Document ID: 91147259

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement Class # 4150
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of working tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of new requirements to ensure the instruments and equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions of tractability, verification, and certification.
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Document ID: E5F96EF5

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing Class # CT-4160
Author(s): Scott Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has seen many changes lately. Producers and pipeline companies have seen, downsizing and reorganization through mergers and acquisitions, and the influx of electronic gas measurement, and real time data acquisition. These changes would lead one to believe that the need for witnessing and field-testing of natural gas measurement equipment would become a thing of the past. This is quite the contrary. The advances in technology in the last decade have put a computer and cellular phone at everyones fingertips literally and increased the need for electricity, thus the need for natural gas to generate this electricity. With the increased the demand for natural gas, the logistics involved in acquiring it, and the profit differential between these two, the need for witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing is more important than ever.
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Document ID: 34A43E24

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph 5020
Author(s): David Anders
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early eighties it has become common in the United States, and elsewhere in the world, for natural gas to be bought and sold based on the amount of energy delivered. The quantity of energy delivered is calculated by multiplying the gas volume per unit time by the heating value (BTU) per unit volume.
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Document ID: 4271715F

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Gas Chromatograph Class Number 5030
Author(s): Robert Quattlebaum
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph has become the instrument of choice for physical property measurements in natural gas. For portable, on-line and laboratory applications, chromatography is the preferred method.
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Document ID: 8C902769

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Robert L. Bob Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
To select, install and maintain a gas chromatograph system can be a daunting task. Many decisions must be made: Expected product composition and analytical components of interest must be identified. The best method of sample introduction needs to be considered. From a vast assortment of column configurations, the most suitable combination must be selected. Choices must be made between various types of detectors. The most effective integration, calculation and reporting systems are needed. After proper selection and installation, it is hoped that the system will perform well with minimum maintenance and troubleshooting.
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Document ID: E42029A1

Chromatograph Maintenance And Trouble-Shooting Class Number 5050
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs (GCs) are among the most complex instrument systems in a meter station. Yet they require less maintenance than most instruments. Modern chromatograph controllers are equipped with remote diagnostics and computer-based chromatograms to aid users in deciding when and why maintenance is required. The information below is presented to aid the user in troubleshooting chromatograph problems by viewing both diagnostic messages and chromatograms.
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Document ID: 0E08A12C

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer Class Number 5070
Author(s): L. C. Arrambide
Abstract/Introduction:
New technology on crude oil sampling of liquid hydrocarbons continues to improve the process for custody transfer measurements, (one example is on-line water devices). These improvements coupled with old technology, which has been used for decades, are a major factor in the quality and quantity of good measurement techniques that effect custody transfer measurement. Due to the price of crude in todays market, scrutiny from concerned oil companies and refineries has put more emphasis on the proper process of crude oil sampling for the determination of water and sediment in crude oil.
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Document ID: FCE16476

Crude Quality - What Is Involved And Why Is Quality Important Class # 5080
Author(s): Aaron L. Dillard
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude Quality, whats involved and why its important, is a major issue in the petroleum industry today. A Crude Quality Oversight program is designed to monitor the ongoing quality of a crude supply by measuring certain key properties which directly correlate to quality, value and performance. There are many benefits to this type of monitoring program. It: keeps suppliers honest allows ongoing valuation of individual crude streams, used in trading crudes for refinery supply supports refinery operations & optimization efforts identifies possible contamination sou rces supports regulatory compliance efforts
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Document ID: 6928119A

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas Class # 5090
Author(s): David Haydt
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfcle and other sulfur bearing compounds exist naturally in many natural gas fields throughout the wodd. It is generally necessary to remove these sulfur bearing compounds from the gas in order to preserve public safety, reduce corrosion in pipelines, meet contractual agreements and to control odor in the gas. Thus the determination of hydrogen sulfide and total sulfur in natural gas is critical to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 4F1BB169

Determination Of Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Gas Class Number 5100
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The water vapor dew point temperature (moisture content) and hydrocarbon dew point temperature are two of many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also many different instrument types available to measure the moisture content. In this paper, we will discuss the measurement methods and we present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: 59742FA0

Devices For Water Vapor & Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Gas Class Number 5110
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of water vapor content in natural gas is one of several key factors in determining the ultimate quality of natural gas. With todays cutbacks in personnel and the loss of experienced measurement technicians, an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas has become extremely important. This paper will review the different sensor technologies in use today and also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sampling system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: A26D47D9

Devices For Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Gas Class # 5110
Author(s): Lawrence Drobnitch
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content, and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
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Document ID: 88BEFFCE

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography Class Number 5130
Author(s): Kenneth E. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
As the Natural Gas Industry strives to become more efficient and meet customer demands, we find that the old ways of doing business cannot be raised to todays standards of performance. One of these areas is in the way we buy and sell Natural Gas. The days of custody transfer based strictly on volume are quickly coming to a close. More and more often, Natural Gas is bought and sold in terms of total heating volume (Hv). Total heatinq volume is the energy measurement standard of the Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 057802B8

Energy Measurement Using On-Line Chromatographs Class 5150
Author(s): Don W. Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
Most natural gas custody transfer contracts today use MMBTU 2 rather than MCF as the accounting units of gas transfer. A BTU is the acronym for British Thermal Unit. One BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (SI)) 3. The higher the BTU value, the more energy can be obtained from burning the gas. It doesnt take as many cubic feet of gas to heat the hot water tank if the gas is 1090 BTU instead of 940 BTU per SCF. The BTU, then, is the measure of the actual amount of heat energy contained in a cubic foot ( CF ) of this natural gas. An MMBTU 2 is calculated by:
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Document ID: F04C56F7

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment & Water In Crude Oil Class 5160
Author(s): Peter W Kosawicz.
Abstract/Introduction:
Sediment and water (S&W) are components that occur naturally in crude oil. In the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) vocabulary section, sediment and water is defined as A matedal coexisting with, yet foreign to, petroleum liquid, that requires a separate measurement for reasons that include sales accounting. This foreign material includes free water and sediment and emulsified or suspended material and sediment. The quantity of suspended material present is determined by analytically testing a sample of petroleum liquid (see free water).
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Document ID: 8B4D433D

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography Class # 5170
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
!NTROD, UCTION Gas chromatography is a process to separate individual molecular components of a gas mixture. A sample of gas is distributed between two phases to separate the individual components using a chromatographic system. The chromatographic system consists of the following components: detector, oven, column set, and valve. Static and stationary are the two phases in a chromatographic system. The static phase refers to the carder gas used in the system. The stationary phase refers to the column system contents.
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Document ID: 9B3653BC

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas Class Number 5190
Author(s): Randy Underwood
Abstract/Introduction:
Components of the Heat Quantity of Gas The heat quantity of gas is the item desired by the purchaser. It is the product of the heating value and the gas volume. Since many contracts are based on the heating quantity of the gas, the effects of water vapor in the gas should be thoroughly understood.
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Document ID: 75A614B4

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling Class # 5200
Author(s): Garrett Lalli
Abstract/Introduction:
Identifying the individual hydrocarbons in a light liquid hydrocarbon stream is essential to determining the dollar value of the product being purchased or sold. Light liquid hydrocarbon sampling systems, and the sampling techniques employed, are crucial in identifying the composition of a liquid phase gas stream.
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Document ID: 12CA116A

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Lpg() Class #5210
Author(s): Doug Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is defined as Butane, propane, and other light ends (q.v.) separated from natural gasoline or crude oil by fractionation or other processes. At atmospheric pressure, liquefied petroleum gases revert to the gaseous state (Illustrated Petroleum Reference Dictionary). LPG is defined as A product of petroleum gases principally propane and butane, it must be stored under pressure to keep it in a liquid state it is often stored in metal cylinders (bottled gas) and used for fuel for tractors, trucks, and buses, and as a domestic cooking or heating fuel in rural areas (Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms).
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Document ID: 68F60F9A

Natural Gas Sampling Uncertaintiesand Economics 5230
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The precise measurement of natural gas is a subject of continuing study and discussion. The impact of the precise measurement of gas quality and composition is often considered to only effect the thermal value of the measured quantity of gas. This idea, however, is far from accurate. The precise measurement of natural gas flow rates (quantity) is dependent upon the precise measurement of the composition of the natural gas product stream (quality). These measurements of quantities and thermal values are considered in terms of acceptable levels of measurement uncertainty. In other words, a level of variance exists around the point of absolute accuracy which is considered acceptable to those who are party to the transfer of the product from the custody of one to another. Thus, the term custody transfer quality measurement implies that the determined quantity and total energy content of the product exchanged between parties are within these levels of acceptable variance, or uncertainty, from the absolute point of accuracy, or zero uncertainty.
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Document ID: 1EED6BA9

On-Line Water Measurement Of Liquid Petroleum Eq 5235
Author(s): Steve Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of an On-line Detector is to provide accurate, real time determination of water in a flowing hydrocarbon stream. Devices which can meet the strict accuracy and performance demands of todays oil industry serve a vital role in streamlining custody transfer and process control applications.
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Document ID: FC54923F

Product Quality Assurance For Pipeline Transportation Class Number 5240
Author(s): Theresa A. Gustafson
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum products must meet various safety, performance, and regulatory requirements at downstream locations such as product terminals and retail outlets. Safety requirements such as flash point and conductivity insure that the product can be handled safely throughout the supply chain and can perform safely in the intended application. Performance requirements such as octane, cetane, distillation, thermal stability, etc. insure that products function properly and do not cause equipment damage. These specifications also protect the product value for all parties in involved in fuel purchasing transactions. Regulatory requirements such as sulfur, vapor pressure, benzene content, oxygen content, etc. insure compliance with federal, state, and local clean air laws. Maintaining product quality can be defined as the having the ability to insure that all of the above requirements are met throughout the supply chain.
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Document ID: 84557B6F

Proving Tests For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems Class # 5250
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment, installation and operational procedures that produce a representative sample of shipments. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system, including the analysis of the sample. This paper is about the testing, proving, and certification of automatic sampling systems in crude oil and other hydrocarbon service. This test, in various forms, is also applicable for petroleum products as well as blending systems.
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Document ID: E248A529

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids Class 5260
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Ineffective sample conditioning is the most common source of error in the analysis of natural gas. Recent developments in hardware now make it possible to overcome several common sources of sample conditioning problems. The hardware first separates liquid, if present, from sample gas and returns it to the pipeline. It then regulates the pressure to lower the hydrocarbon dew point. Both operations are conducted at the prevailing pressure and temperature of the pipeline to prevent gas phase distortion, which would otherwise occur. The hardware is easy to install and maintain and can be applied to sample conditioning for all types of on line natural gas analyzers.
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Document ID: 951BCDC9

Shipboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer Eq 5270
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
New technology continually gives opportunities for achieving higher confidence in measurement of hydrocarbons. It is now possible to detect water concentrations on-line in real time. This can be especially beneficial if any intervention is desired whenever there is a short term limit of allowable water. Short term limits can sometimes be imposed by the receiving pipeline. To prevent damage to a refinery process Unit, short term limits are also sometimes required (e.g. during periods of low inventories causing the need for tight-line receipts. However, automatic in-line samplers are most often used for custody transfer purposes whenever metering systems are used. Large pipeline systems, except in the rare absence of flow meters, use automatic in-line samplers almost exclusively. The value of using automatic in-line samplers for custody transfer is widely accepted. However, manual sampling is also extensively used in certain instances. In marginal production leases where oil changes custody by tank measurement only is an example of this practice. A more dramatic example of this practice involves the movement of crude oil from producing load ports to discharge ports by marine tanker vessels. Although many load ports and disports (discharge ports) are now using in-line automatic samplers, there still remain many locations that do not. This paper will discuss the merits of using portable in-line automatic samplers on-board marine tanker vessels.
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Document ID: FB47D4A6

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling Class MS5280
Author(s): Brad Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
We sample natural gas for reasons such as plant or gathering system balance and to determine its quality for custody transfer application, many contracts are written in such a manner to account for the quality of the gas.
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Document ID: EF086063

Update On Gas Sampling Research Class # 5300
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past seven years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and will be published in 2001.
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Document ID: CC1484F4

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas Class # 53.10
Author(s): Brad Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery.
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Document ID: 290614FA

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability 6010
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 259FCDEA

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines Class 6020
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it. This paper will discuss the following topics: 1. History 2. Definitions/terminology 3. Why surge occurs 4. Problems from inadequate surge protection 5. Controlling Surges
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Document ID: 3603F7B8

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators Class 6030
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
FUNCTION OFA REGULATOR A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: DA29D749

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators 6050
Author(s): Carol Branstetter
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 338FD2DA

Gas Service Regulators Installation, Selection And Operation 6060
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them on homes, factories, commercial buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. A closer look at these regulators and their operation will allow insight on how they work.
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Document ID: 50F593A0

High Pressure Regulators Class 6070
Author(s): John m. Kruse, John Gorham
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: 126646A3

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators Class 6080
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
FUNCTION OF A REGULATOR A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: B470A713

Overpressure Protection Methods Class 6090
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure.
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Document ID: 7AAFF594

Prevention Of Freezing In Measurement And Regulating Equipment 6100
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the functionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems
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Document ID: 08061CBA

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids 8110
Author(s): Carol Branstetter
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve sizing and selection in todays industrial world is essential to operating at a costeffective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valve will not pass the required flow, while a valve that is oversized will be more costly and can cause instability throughout the entire control loop.
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Document ID: 5D7EAAFF

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measurement And Regulator Stations Class # 6120
Author(s): Tracy D. Peebles
Abstract/Introduction:
The effect of turbulence on measurement and regulator stations can cause erroneous measurement as well as pipe fatigue, noise levels that are not healthy for the human ear, and a host of other undesirable elements.
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Document ID: 47DC8935

Liquid Allocation Measurement Class #7010
Author(s): Raymond Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
An allocation meter is one whose purpose is to determine which portion of the royalty meters volume is attributable to a particular lease, well, or measurement point. Some allocation points fall under federal guidelines, while others fall under other regulatory bodies. Individual contractual agreements must meet and will often exceed regulatory guidelines. Therefore, certain accuracy and procedural standards are set. These standards are intended to treat all producers uniformly, to be fair to the small producer as well as the larger ones.
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Document ID: ECB43B16

The April 2000 Revision To AGA-3/API 14.3 On Orifice Meter Tubes Class # 7020
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
The April 2000 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard includes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditioner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard.
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Document ID: CA56522A

Audit Of Electronic Gas Measurement 7030
Author(s): Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
With rapid advances in the world of gas measurement, how is one supposed keep up with it? What is the best equipment to use for electronically recording and transmitting measurement data? With these rapid changes come some of the following questions: What Standards apply, and does the metering equipment reporting your volumes and energy comply with those standards? Is the amount of energy being reported correctly? Are you sure your company is receiving the correct amount of revenue due or being properly invoiced for the amount of Natural Gas being metered? How are those volumes supposed to be calculated anyway? Questions, questions, questions.
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Document ID: 0F0270AA

Auditing Liquid Measurement Class Number 7050
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective audit of liquid hydrocarbon measurement is dependent upon a solid understanding of the measurement process combined with the application of sound internal auditing principles. The quality of liquid measurement activities is contingent upon (1) the reliability of the measurement equipment and instrumentation used (2) the specific procedures and practices followed in performing the measurement activities (3) the adequacy of training and proper performance of the measurement technician and (4) the proper documentation of transactions based on a measured value. All four components must be taken into consideration when auditing liquid measurement. In addition, to ensure the efficiency of the audit process, auditors must identify those areas which present the greatest dsk to the organization to achieving its goals, and concentrate audit effort on those areas.
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Document ID: 3C6C7488

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement Class 7060
Author(s): Raddy S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: BA5A74D2

Electronic Chart Scanning & Related Equipment Class 7070
Author(s): Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
ANALYZING THE CHART Analyzing the chart is a thought process. Looking at the chart that came in from the field to look for abrupt changes in the flow pattern, different patterns, high Os, low Os, meter clock changes, orifice plate changes and etc. To do a thorough and efficient job, the chart analyzer has to go research past records, meter reports, and notes from the field, in order to properly analyze the chart. Some of the problems the analyzer has to research and the pattern changes can be attributed to the items listed below.
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Document ID: 8EE8EF97

Measurement Information Management Systems Class 7100
Author(s): John E. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronic flow computer is revolutionizing flow measurement for gas pipeline and transmission companies. Chart recorders are being displaced by low cost, miniature field computers which analyze and record the flowing conditions in a gas stream hundreds of times a second, compute the volume and integrate the values into a total volume which can be summarized by the minute, hour, day or month. No matter what the primary measuring device happens to be, it can be connected to a flow computer and its information transmitted back to a host system for archival, recalculation and reporting purposes. Many flow computers handle multiple runs, or meters, so the efficiencies and the economics of flow computers are made even more attractive. And there is less windshield time for operators and technicians because data can be collected electronically and transmitted back to the host via radio, satellite or land line.
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Document ID: 7F14EF73

Overview Of API Copm() - Measurement Activities
Author(s): API Staff
Abstract/Introduction:
I. APIBACKGROUND The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during the First World War. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because industry competitors could now work together toward mutual objectives, using API as the forum, without violating U.S. antitrust laws.
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Document ID: 7D30D351

Review Of API/ANSI 2530 (AGA#3) As 7130
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is one of the oldest deices for fluid measurement. The device began to be used for gas measurement in the early twentieth century. As the use increased, the characteristics of orifice meters have been researched more than any other type of measurement device. The latest phase of the research was done during the 1980s and 1990s. During the winter of 2000/2001, natural gas prices reached an all time high in the United States. Most of the gas custody transfer was by orifice meter
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Document ID: BEDF05CF

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially in the oil and gas industries. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifice for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice fiowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and internationally Ref 1-7. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors.
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Document ID: 01213E4E

API Coriolis Standard For Mass Measurement Of Crude Oil Class Number 7160
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last decade, meter manufacturers have developed technology utilizing the Codolis force: an apparent force that results from earths rotation, deflecting moving objects or flowing streams to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. The Coriolis force allows a meter to directly measure mass, dynamically.
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Document ID: D015D227

Development Of Orifice Meter Standard Past(, Present, And Future) Class # 8030
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
A standard is something that is established by an authority, social practice, custom, or by general consent of a group of people to set an example or develop an acceptable model. Flow measurement standards are often established by regulatory agencies, users, manufacturers, and/or a group of knowledgeable people. Measurement Standards are established to provide a uniformity of installation, operation, and secondary instrumentation that will improve metering efficiency, measurement repeatability and accuracy, and ensure equity between all parties concerned, especially for custody transfer application.
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Document ID: 6E6712B0

Dot Qualification - Measurement & Control Technicians Class 8040
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of Congressional legislation, the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safety proposed the Pipeline Safety: Qualification of Pipeline Personnel - 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195 rule. The pipeline industry worked closely with DOT to have the rule be structured as a performance based rule. The rule places the compliance responsibility on the Operator. The rule became law in October 1999.
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Document ID: 313EC8BB

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dr. Darin L. George
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 99654BAF

Instrument Calibration Using Pneumatic Dead Weight Tester Class Number 8060
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using pneumatic and hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 4611FA6D

Interface Detection In Liquid Pipelines Class No. 8065
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
Many petroleum pipelines are used to transport multiple liquids. These liquids are often pumped in series through the pipeline. For example, a tender of gasoline may follow a tender of diesel fuel. During a typical delivery, the diesel fuel is collected in a storage tank at the end of the line. As the trailing gasoline approaches the end of the line, it is necessary to identify when valves must be shifted so the gasoline can be diverted to another storage tank and avoid contaminating the diesel fuel storage tank. In this scenario, it becomes clear that a device for detecting the interface must be able to rapidly sense a difference between the two liquids and provide an output signal.
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Document ID: 5B28090F

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail MS8070
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Compressed Gas Industry has a responsibility to provide an LPG-Propane product intended for domestic use that has been ododzed to detectable levels. In addition to this responsibility, the industry is also responsible for insuring that the documentation proving correct odorization is accurate.
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Document ID: E77B71A2

Dimensional Tolerances Of Orifice Meter Tubes Class Number 8100
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Fundamental to good orifice measurement are correct design, precise fabrication, and proper maintenance. An orifice meter tube that is not fabricated and maintained to geometric tolerances specified in the standard is considered outside measurement accuracy tolerances and may cause a measurement bias. The verification of orifice meter tube dimensional tolerances is essential to the confirmation of an orifice meters precision.
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Document ID: 0155B149

Multiphase Flow Measurement Class 8110
Author(s): John S. Lievois
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last 20 years, a number of multiphase flow measurement techniques have been developed for metering oil/water/gas comingled streams. The available techniques can be characterized as those that operate inline or with partial separation. The inline variety typically consists of several meters or measurements and a central computer to interpret the signals and calculate individual phase flow rates. Techniques that employ some element of separation typically use a compact, continuous mode gas-liquid separator with subsequent metering on the gas rich and liquid rich flow streams. This paper will review some of the more common techniques being used with a focus on the application of GLCCs (gas liquid cylindrical cyclones) in multiphase flow measurement.
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Document ID: 546878A5

Natrural Gas Odor Level Testing, Instruments And Applications Class Number MS8120
Author(s): John E. Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
On March 18, 1938, a natural gas explosion involving unododzed gas destroyed New London, TX High School, killing over 200 people. Almost immediately thereafter the Texas Railroad Commission implemented regulations regarding odorization and odorant level testing.
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Document ID: CD928769

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for quality measurement has increased dramatically in the past several years. Deregulation of market pricing structures, open access markets, increased exploration and drilling costs, fierce competition, and new regulatory requirements have all influenced todays approach to quality measurement methodologies. In fact, the terminology has evolved from gas volume measurement to total energy measurement. Today not only is the volume of gas a consideration, but also the quantity of energy the gas produces. Our industry has moved from the MMCF to the MMBTU.
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Document ID: EA07442C

The Effects Of Additives On Metering In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Joe Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays refined fuels are formulated through a recipe of chemical blending and complex processing. Blends that make-up todays fuels & chemicals introduce new problems that challenge product quality and performance. Refined products can be altered or degrade prior use by secondary forces such as environment and handling. A wide range of performance and handling problems are resolved by the use of chemical additives blended with fuels. Additives to fuel products are often included in the refining processes that address these problems. Fuels may require additional blending of additives separate from the refining process. The effect these additives have on liquid metering is variable based on their composition and concentration. Pipeline and terminal metering systems must adjust to the varying properties the additives introduce to the liquid. This paper highlights the effects common fuel additives have on liquid metering systems.
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Document ID: 171F3A05

The Role Of Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement Class 8170
Author(s): Sie Ling Chiang
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past decades, the oil and gas inspection & enforcement program of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)has been the subject of investigations and studies by the Interiors Office of Inspector General (OIG), the United States General Accounting Office (GAO), Congressional Committees and special Commissions as well as BLMs internal evaluations. Although BLM have been making improvements along the way, BLM cannot say with a high level of confidence that it can ensure roduction accountability
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Document ID: F940A5AA

About Ishm 2001
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 7FE617BB


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