Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2001)

Opc Benefits Users And Manufacturers Of Scada Equipment
Author(s): Irvin Schwartzenburg
Abstract/Introduction:
As microprocessors have proliferated in manufacturing plants and in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) applications, so too have the integration headaches. The challenge of making application software that readily communicates with digital plant-floor and field devices-as in the case of systems- has replaced network connectivity, operating system, and other more superficial open systems concepts as the most pressing need of SCADA system manufacturers. Business systems need to communicate with SCADA systems and maintenance management systems, and information requirements may change at any time.
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Document ID: A1DFD709

Fluidic Oscillation Measurement : An Introduction To The Technology And A Summary Of Field Test Results
Author(s): Chuck Brunson
Abstract/Introduction:
The scientific community has known about Fluidic Oscillation as a measurement technology for many years. Recent advances in this technology now make this a highly robust, costeffective solution to metering needs. This paper will discuss the advances and benefits. Based on Bernoullis Theory - A slow moving high pressure gas becomes fast moving low pressure gas at the nozzle exit forming a jet of gas. The jet, once formed can be controlled by the Coanda effect using an obstacle in the flow that is designed to optimize the performance of the meter. Controlling the jet path enables formation of feedback nodes of pressure on either side of the jet. This provides a predictable oscillation of the jet. The metrology of the meter is only related to the mechanical design of the oscillation chamber and flow tranquilizer. The jet oscillations are detected using a thermo-resistive sensing device, which provides the data to the electronic index.
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Document ID: 968EE099

Natural Gas Sampling Problems And Solutions
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Ineffective sample conditioning is the most common source of error in the analysis of natural gas. Recent developments in hardware now make it possible to overcome several common sources of sample conditioning problems. The hardware first separates liquid, if present, from sample gas and returns it to the pipeline. It then regulates the pressure to lower the hydrocarbon dew point. Both operations are conducted at the prevailing pressure and temperature of the pipeline to prevent gas phase distortion, which would otherwise occur. The hardware is easy to install and maintain and can be applied to sample conditioning for all types of on line natural gas analyzers.
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Document ID: 5A515C67

American Gas Storage Survey 1994-2000 Status Report
Author(s): Christopher B. Mcgill
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association (AGA) has reported estimates of working gas in underground storage for over seven years, beginning December 31, 1993. Working gas volumes have been estimated covering three large regions of the United States with relatively few changes to the methodology for collecting, aggregating and generating regional numbers. The resulting consistent data set has become a standard for evaluating weekly changes in underground storage inventories. In order to instruct users of the working gas estimates about the methodologies and survey results, AGA has written several issue briefs and fact sheets that document the methods employed for data collection, security and creation of estimates. A description of the methodology used to develop the weekly estimates of working gas in storage for the American Gas Storage Survey (AGSS), Issue Brief 2000-01, American Gas Storage Survey Procedures and Methodology, is located online at www.aga.org under Stats and Studies. Hard copy of the methodology report can be obtained by calling (202) 824-7126.
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Document ID: 348131EA

New Hampshires Bare Steel Replacement Program: An Example Of Utility And Regulatory Cooperation
Author(s): Paul Lashoto
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Utilities is a small local distribution company operating in Maine and New Hampshire. Although owned by a significantly larger parent company, Massachusetts-based Bay State Gas, Northerns regulatory environment is localized. That is, the Maine Public Utilities Commission is concerned with Northerns facilities and customers in the state of Maine and the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NH PUC) is focussed on facilities and customers in New Hampshire. The New Hampshire operation is small by any standard. To put it into perspective, at year end 1999 the Company operated just 16,738 services and 426 miles of main. At year end 1999 there were 23,622 meters spread between 23 cities and towns. However, problems that are small in absolute numbers can be large in relative terms, creating serious problems for company management. (Note: All figures in this paper are taken from annual reports submitted to NH PUC and US DOT by Northerns New Hampshire operation.)
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Document ID: CEA8E862

Sample Conditioning And Contaminant Removal For Water Vapor Content Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Brad Massey, Sr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry experiences numerous operational problems associated with high water vapor content in the natural gas stream. As a result several problems are experienced such as, equipment freezes, dilution of physical properties reducing heating value, volume measurement interference, and pipeline corrosion. Contracts and Tariffs usually limit the amount of water vapor content allowed at the custody transfer point. For these and other reasons, accurate Water Vapor Dewpoint measurements are critical measurements for all companies involved in natural gas production, gathering, transmission and delivery. The industry continues to experience problems in obtaining accurate water vapor dewpoint measurements, primarily due to interference problems associated with contaminants and poor sampling techniques. Various types of analytical equipment are being used to determine Water Vapor Dewpoint Measurements. All are susceptible to contaminate interference or poor sampling techniques being utilized. Utilizing the correct type of sample conditioning devices or improving sampling techniques will provide much more reliable results regardless of the equipment being utilized.
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Document ID: FD3BA4ED

Attenuation Of Ultrasonic Noise In 2 Abs Pipe Fittings
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
A series of tests were conducted where ultrasonic sound (50 kHz) was transmitted through 2 ABS plastic pipe, elbows, and tees. The ultrasonic sound attenuation of these various piping configurations was measured to evaluate their effectiveness for isolating ultrasonic meters from interfering ultrasonic noise. After discovering that three capped tees only provided 9 dB of attenuation, a simple muffler design was tested. When installed with a tee, a simple glass-pack muffler provided over 28 dB of ultrasonic noise attenuation.
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Document ID: 501FE374

Determination Of Calorific Value By Correlative Techniques
Author(s): Dan Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to acquaint you with a new technology for determining the calorific value (CV) of a natural gas. A product using this new approach can be referred to as a correlative device, because it measures certain physical properties of the gas and correlates them with the CV of the gas. Within this general product classification, particular emphasis will be placed on the GQS- 1000, a correlative gas quality sensor being introduced by Invensys Metering Systems. Correlative technology offers near real time and economical determination of CV. These two inherent features are part of an overall product offering that promises a simple, cost-effective instrument for determining CV that can be widely deployed.
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Document ID: 86994DAC

Compatibility Of Interior Surface Finish And Squeezability Of Pe Pipe
Author(s): Howard V. L. Patrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of safety concerns associated with gas leakage axially along the pipe interior after squeeze-off, numerous tests using 2 in. ips SDR- 11 PE pipe are performed. This investigation is initiated in an attempt to correlate pipe interior texture with leakage airflow rate. The leakage airflow rate is measured after the pipe is squeezed until both gap-stops are in contact, using double round bar jaws mounted in a hydraulic actuated squeeze tool. A surface texture measuring system is used to measure the surface interior of the same pipe samples that are used in the squeeze-off tests. Leakage airflow rate is correlated with interior pipe surface texture in an attempt to determine the squeezability of 2 inches ips SDR-11 PE pipe. This investigation determined that axial leakage airflow rate along the pipe interior and through the squeezed region, increases with increasing surface roughness and waviness for high density resin pipe. It is also determined that neither roughness nor waviness has any appreciable effect on leakage airflow rate for medium density resin pipe.
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Document ID: D7F7BB8F

Field Application And Experience Of Ultrasonic Measurement At Three Natural Gas Storage Pools
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney, John E. Paugh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses actual field experience based upon the design, operation, and troubleshooting of ultrasonic measurement on three natural gas storage pools located in the northeastern United States. The purpose is to highlight the results and challenges of using ultrasonic measurement at storage facilities and to report actual operating data along with the lessons learned. Accurate and repeatable gas measurement at natural gas storage facilities is essential for inventory accounting. Uncertainty in storage gas measurement may not readily appear in short term daily receipts and delivery accounting. However, long term effects of measurement uncertainty may result in storage write-offs, unnecessary capital improvements at a storage facility, or system abandonment.
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Document ID: F722775D

Risk Based Assessment Of Storage Well Rehabilitation
Author(s): Paul Amick, Sean Terchek
Abstract/Introduction:
The post-Order 636 environment has resulted in an increased focus on and awareness of underground gas storage. Storage operators are seeing an increased customer emphasis on storage reliability and flexibility as new markets arise. Storage assets must be effectively maintained and managed to assure the integrity and performance of the facilities in order to meet present and future storage obligations. Columbias storage business management strategy includes monitoring and maintaining two key parameters - reservoir and mechanical integrity. Monitoring reservoir integrity involves the application of standardized engineering methods, such as monitoring foreign well activity and annual gas volume verification. What has been missing is a standardized method for evaluating mechanical integrity. Columbias Condition Assessment Program (CAP) is intended to provide a consistent means of monitoring and assessing mechanical condition, thus optimizing asset integrity management.
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Document ID: 562E167F

Surge Protection Assures Reliable Operation At Remote Gas Pipeline Stations
Author(s): Matt Esmacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Many natural gas companies are always looking for ways to protect equipment at their remote distribution sites from damage by natural causes, such as lightning. That is why Washington Gas invested in surge protection to safeguard the equipment and reduce associated maintenance expenses. As a result of this investment, there have been no surge related equipment failures at these sites, and the company has significantly reduced maintenance expenses.
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Document ID: CE09AB21

Development Of A Variable Length Pe Repair Fitting
Author(s): Keith W. Vanderlee, Yannis Savidis
Abstract/Introduction:
Currently, the repair of wall damage to PE pipe typically involves several excavations as well as interruption to system flow. This practice can be costly and cause customer inconvenience. In response, a repair fitting is being developed that will reinforce a variable length of damaged wall area on PE pipe without cutting out and replacing the area, or interrupting system flow. This paper describes the technology, the developmental steps, and the potential applications.
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Document ID: F5C63B65

Service Rehabilitation Methods - New Live Techniques
Author(s): Greg Konwinski,
Abstract/Introduction:
New methods of performing traditional jobs on gas services involve reducing the installation time and the amount of paving and landscape repair. Live techniques are done without shutting off service at the tee connection at the main. The work is done toward the house, preferably at the meter set, and under live pressure. All the installation steps of a live technique are done in a controlled no-blow environment. Live service insertion methods are available and new methods continue to be developed. The RENU method for low-pressure services (inches water column pressure) was introduced in 1996. Since then a design of a new system has been developed for higher-pressure distribution services, up to 60 psig. The HP RENU method is now available for trial on -inch and 1-inch steel service lines.
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Document ID: 7C6E7942

Effects Of Orifice Plates Installed Backwards And Meter Tube Roughness On Discharge Coefficients
Author(s): Darin L. George, Ph.D., Paul J. Lanasa, Gerald L. Morrison, Thomas B. Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents new results of experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies on operational effects that influence orifice meter accuracy. The effects on the orifice discharge coefficient of (1) orifice meter bore thickness, (2) backwardfacing orifice plates, (3) pressure differentials less than 25 inches of water column, (4) roughened meter tube surfaces, and (5) the use of isolating flow conditioners to counteract the effects of meter tube roughness will be discussed.
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Document ID: C1A650AF

Hydrostatic Testing For Integrity Assessment And Management Current Status Of Asme Activity
Author(s): Pat Vaughan
Abstract/Introduction:
The author grew up in a small town in central Iowa and is currently living in Houston, TX. He has lived and worked in the gas pipeline industry in central and western Iowa and southwest Kansas. A 1974 graduate of Iowa State University with a bachelors degree in Aerospace Engineering, he has accumulated over 30 years work experience with Northern Natural Gas Company and Enron in operations and maintenance, engineering, and code compliance. Work experience has been in mainline transmission pipeline and compression, underground storage, and gas gathering.
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Document ID: 352AADA5

Grouted Teetm - For Hot Tap Connections
Author(s): D.Q. Vu
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline intervention scenarios such as repair, valve bypass/replacement, removal of blockages and branch connections are performed frequently on both onshore and subsea pipelines. Hot tapping presents the attraction of being able to intervene into an existing pipeline under pressure at any location and at will. Since 1997, Advantica has been developing the Grouted TeeTM connection technique for both onshore and subsea applications. Hot tapping process using the Grouted TeeTM Connection is simple and surface preparation is less critical compared to current methods (i.e. welding or bolt-on-mechanical fittings). Grouted TeeTM Connection does not require any welding (i.e. hot works) and offers zero disruption to production during installation making it suitable for diverless intervention for subsea pipelines. . The savings in eliminating any lost production alone can be millions of pounds per day. This paper describes the development of the onshore Grouted TeeTM in detail. It also illustrates the installation methodology for subsea pipelines, making diverless pipeline intervention in deepwater a reality.
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Document ID: A14E3222

Guided Piercing Tools, Turning Into Reality- Part II
Author(s): George Ragula
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to ever increasing costs in the areas of excavation, restoration, permitting, and traffic control combined with more stringent paving requirements imposed by the local jurisdictions having authority, the emphasis on trenchless technology has become increasingly important. Trenchless technology has been identified by the gas industry as a major area of focus from a new technology development perspective. Piercing tools (one type of trenchless technology) have been commercially available for many years now. Conventional piercing tools have been routinely used by distribution field crews with great success but have been limited to short distances (40 feet maximum). Performance was further restricted by soil type, water table interference and underground obstacles - primarily rocks. It is not uncommon to lose such tools in areas inaccessible to excavation (i.e. under roads).
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Document ID: 081F8B61

Inert Gas Applications In Natural Gas Storage: Studies In The Michigan Stray Sandstone
Author(s): Stephen F. Nowaczewski
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past decade, there has been a market drive for competitive storage services at competitive costs. One of the major costs associated with storage is that of base gas. In 1986, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) began research efforts to demonstrate inert gas technology applications in natural gas storage, and in the early 1990s ANR Pipeline systematically reviewed the storage fields it operated to determine likely economic applications of the technology. The Austin field, a natural reservoir in the Michigan Formation Stray Sandstone, was selected as the best candidate for an initial application: 2 Bcf of base gas would be produced from a discrete part of the field and replaced by 2 Bcf of nitrogen. The project at Austin is now underway, with over one-half of the targeted base gas produced, and nitrogen injection is slated to begin in 2002. In addition, ANR Pipeline also has studied the use of nitrogen as a pressure enhancement production tool in the Croton field, a small Michigan Stray Sandstone reservoir that ANR is abandoning from storage service. This paper discusses the screening studies for candidate reservoir selection, the study and planning processes for the Austin project, the implementation at Austin, and the study and implementation of the technology at Croton.
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Document ID: F89BAD3F

Megabin 3D Versus Conventional 3D Methods With Examples From The Michigan Basin
Author(s): Norm Cooper,Jim Egden
Abstract/Introduction:
Two 3D programs were recorded in close proximity in Lambton County of the Michigan Basin by Union Gas Limited. The objectives were to image Silurian pinnacle reefs in a cost effective manner. One 3D employed conventional orthogonal techniques while the other employed the MegaBin method.
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Document ID: 26E230E4

Direct Assessment At Keyspan Energy
Author(s): David B. Berger
Abstract/Introduction:
KeySpan Energy is the owner and operator of a high-pressure gas transmission main from the Long Beach Gate Station (where ownership of the gas passes from Williams Transco Pipeline to KeySpan Energy) to the Stewart Avenue Gate Station. The pipeline is a 30 X52 steel main that was installed in the early 1960s. The main was pigged for about 10 of 12 miles and Direct Assessment was done on both the remaining 2 miles and all of the anomalies shown by the high resolution MFL pig.
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Document ID: 47FD041C

Advanced Applications For Gas Quality Measurement Using Parallel Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs are extensively used in the lab for analysis of collected samples and in the field for continuous analysis of Natural Gas to determine the energy content and relative density of Natural Gas. Gas chromatographs (GC) are not typically used for analysis of other gas quality properties. There are several new applications utilizing recent developments in Parallel Chromatography that expand the use of GCs in Natural Gas Quality Measurements.
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Document ID: 6AF280FD

Portable Btu Analyser - A Hand Held Energy Meter
Author(s): Paul Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been considerable interest in the Natural Gas Industry for a compact low cost BTU analyser that can be easily used to take downstream measurements in the field. Conventional BTU measurements use either a Gas Chromatograph to analyse each component and hence calculate BTU or use a thermal method such as a water bath heater to measure the actual heat content of the gas.
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Document ID: DFB23D57

Corrosion Control And Leak Survey Metrics
Author(s): Susan m. Palena
Abstract/Introduction:
All utilities are investigating new technologies and methods to increase efficiencies in an era where time is money, and we must do more with less. This paper will explore what utilities are doing to increase productivity and efficiencies in the corrosion control and leak survey areas.
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Document ID: 2B92A243

Comparison Of Astm And ISO Gas Pipe Standards
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper compares the requirements for gas piping materials and products in the ASTM standard with the ISO standard. Because the most widely used gas piping material is polyethylene, this paper offers a comparison of the two standards for this material only. Although the ASTM gas pipe standard is older, there are several more requirements in the ISO standard. During the past few years, more requirements have been added to the ASTM standard so that it is closer to the ISO standard. There are still additional areas where the ISO standard is more stringent, which this paper will address.
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Document ID: A67F2EFD

Hub & Spoke Expansion Of LNG Markets Hub & Spoke Expansion Of LNG Markets Strategic Planning
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 2CEC1138

AGA Right-Of-Way Survey Results
Author(s): Glyn Hazelden
Abstract/Introduction:
In 2000, AGA surveyed members as to their experiences on Right of Way (RoW) issues, with the intent that results could be shared, and members could learn from each others experiences. Glyn Hazelden of Hazelden Group tabulated responses and created a database to be accessed on the AGA website.
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Document ID: E7968C96

Re-Calibration Of A 3-Year Old, Dirty, Ultrasonic Meter
Author(s): John W. Stuart, Rick Wilsack
Abstract/Introduction:
In the summer of 1997, Pacific Gas and Electric Company installed two 16 five-path ultrasonic gas meters. After three years of operation, it was discovered that a layer of compressor oil and dirt had accumulated on the meters interior walls and ultrasonic transducer faces. One of the meters along with its upstream spool piece were taken to a flow calibration lab where it tested 1.4% fast. After cleaning and other work, the meters basic calibration returned to within 0.3% of its original calibration which had been done at a different lab.
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Document ID: 0A4AD4E6

A Model For Estimation Of The Ultrasonic Acoustic Noise Level Emitted By Pressure Regulating Valves And Its Influence On Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Marcel J.M., Vermeulen, Geeuwke De Boer, Jim Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last decade the applications of ultrasonic flowmeters (UFM) for custody transfer, allocation metering and check metering has considerably increased. The benefits of using UFMs are generally acknowledged and the number of applications is continuously growing. Consequently, UFMs are also being installed in pressure regulating stations where, in the vicinity of the UFM, a valve may be present. Due to the pressure cut accross the pressure-regulating valve the dissipated energy is partly converted into acoustic noise. The acoustic noise extends as well in the audible range as in the ultrasonic range. The ultrasonic noise (US-noise) can interfere with the ultrasonic signal (US-pulse) transmitted by the UFM. If the US-noise level is higher than the level of the US-pulse, the signal gets lost and no flow measurement will be possible. In this report a practical model will be presented that determines the specific operating conditions for which an UFM, in the vicinity of a regulating valve, can operate safely. This model is based on research and experience over a number of years and has proven its usefulness.
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Document ID: BCC897C0

Impact Of Measurement Uncertainty On Ultrasonic Meter Speed Of Sound Calculations
Author(s): Jonathan Kinneyjohn Paugh, William Polashenski, Michael Adewumi
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses the effects of uncertainties on ultrasonic measurement. Specifically, it attempts to quantify the impact of uncertainties in physical properties (pressure, temperature, etc.), natural gas composition (hydrocarbons, diluents, etc.), and ultrasonic meter configuration (path length, pipe diameter, etc.), on measured and calculated speed of sound. The impact of measurement uncertainties on the assessment of ultrasonic meter performance is analyzed as relevant to the AGA9 Report on ultrasonic metering. The analysis is based on a combination of model and actual field data. The model is a production software utilized by the natural gas industry. The actual field data is obtained from an operating natural gas storage pool with ultrasonic measurement operating over a wide range of pressures and temperatures.
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Document ID: BF166D13

Gas Quality Specifications And Interchangeability For End Use Applications
Author(s): Rosemarie A. Halchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
The safe and efficient utilization of natural gas necessitates some restrictions on natural gas composition and allowable variations in gas quality. End use and safety issues, with emphasis on residential and small commercial applications, are discussed for sulfur compounds, inerts, lower explosive limits, and system liquids. The interchangeability of different gas supplies in conventional appliances is reviewed in detail, and the ramifications of interchangeability calculations to the operations of a gas utility are presented. New research is needed to provide data for todays appliances and to evaluate current interchangeability limits
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Document ID: 571EB0E3

Safety Shutdown Systems In Natural Gas Processes: A Standards Based Approach
Author(s): James A. Edmiston
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the ANSI/ISA S84.01 standard and its application to processes in the gas industry. ISA S84.01 is a national consensus standard for the application of safety instrumented systems. The standard represents good engineering and management practices for safety control systems throughout a processes life cycle. AGAs mission statement includes promoting operational excellence in the safe, reliable, and cost effective delivery of natural gas. This paper focuses on the safe aspect of the mission. A significant body of data supports the position that focusing on safety systems leads to a better understanding of the processes, simplification of the processes, improved maintenance and record keeping, and other benefits which improve reliability and ultimately reduce costs.
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Document ID: BA028AC4

Overview Of Pipeline Gas Quality And Contract Clauses
Author(s): Jeffrey m. Dowdell
Abstract/Introduction:
The first edition of AGA Report No. 4A was dated August 1971. By the 1990s, technology had changed so much and deregulation had so revolutionized the business environment that the Transmission Measurement Committee felt compelled to overhaul this document. The effort to revise the document has resulted in a new report that follows somewhat the original organization of the 1971 report, but incorporates recent technology and terminology with updated contract language.
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Document ID: 7B59E6EC

New Technology In Rotary Meters
Author(s): Wayand Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
The traditional rotary meter design was that of the Lobed Impeller Configuration. The original manufacturer in the United States was Roots. This design can be found in Canada, The United Kingdom, Germany and France. The individual capacity ratings and maximum design pressures may vary. Internally, these meters resemble each other because they are all Lobed Impeller Configurations. More importantly, all these meters have one significant design characteristic in common - their meter body, within which the impeller turn is the measurement chamber. The clearance between the impellers and the meter body / measurement chamber determines the amount of leakage across the impellers and, thus, affects the accuracy and rangeability of these meters. Any force applied to the body, as a result of pipe stress, will tend to distort the dimensions of the measurement chamber, which will often lead to meters stopping and meter bearing damage, thus shutting off gas flow to customers. Because of this problem, rotary meters were virtually banned from critical installations (city gate and hospitals).
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Document ID: 1E3177A5

Environmental Responsibilities
Author(s): Rusty Cunningham
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 809351A4

Alabama Gas Corporation Revamps Its Pinson Liquefier
Author(s): Bruce Painter, Javid H. Talib, Randal J. Winkler, Brian C. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
Alabama Gas Corporation has operated its liquefied natural gas facility in Pinson, Alabama since 1965. The facility provides Peakshaving capacity to Alabama Gas Corporations distribution system, which now serves close to 473,000 customers in north and central Alabama. Being one of the oldest facilities of its kind in the United States, it has provided reliable service for many years, but has reached the point where system requirements, technology advancements, efficiency, and maintenance requirements necessitated a change in the facility. Alabama Gas Corporation is now in the final phases of construction on a replacement LNG production facility, designed and constructed by Black and Veatch Pritchard Inc., which will increase liquefaction capacity from 3.6 MMSCFD (million standard cubic feet per day) to 12 MMSCFD. This paper will discuss the development of this project, from initial inception to current status.
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Document ID: 4DA41048

Applications Of Handheld Computers Pdas() To The Gas Distribution Business
Author(s): John A. Kinast
Abstract/Introduction:
The current series of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) represent a serious alternative to laptop computers or custom equipment for automating the various tasks of natural gas utilities in the field. They can automate data collection and transfer, shortening transit time for quicker handling. They aid the staff with pop-up lists to minimize text entry and ensure accurate spelling. When coupled with other equipment, they bring computing power and memory to equipment in the field. The Gas Technology Institute has completed a number of projects involving their application, demonstrating the capabilities of these units when targeted to utility tasks. This paper summarizes the results of those projects
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Document ID: 9FC251AB

Ultrasonic Meter Diagnostics And Condition Monitoring
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters offer unprecedented accuracy, repeatability and reliability for natural gas measurement in the correct application. These devices have unique outputs that enable remote condition monitoring. Integrating these diagnostic outputs and setting reasonable alarm limits is, however, ill defined and most manufacturers, including Instromet, have suggested that relative, or baseline comparisons be employed to alert operators to a change in the meters operating state. But what parameter comparisons should be made? What levels of change in these parameters should be considered significant, and what remedial actions do their variance imply? Following is and explanation of what these outputs mean and suggested guidelines for establishing these limits. The information presented here is based on the authors current knowledge, culled from personal experience and the operational experiences of others. This information is by no means exhaustive since operators and manufacturers alike continue to learn more about gas ultrasonic meter application in field operating environments daily. Naturally, the parameters suggested for monitoring and their interpretation are specific to Instromet ultrasonic meters, but the general approach to monitoring operational performance is similar for most gas ultrasonic meters.
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Document ID: C303F349

Latest National Association Of Corrosion Engineers Nace() Standard Recommended Practices And Technical Reports Related To Pipeline Integrity
Author(s): Lee Reynolds
Abstract/Introduction:
An initiative to develop pipeline integrity safety regulations for natural gas transmission pipelines is todays current focus. Although the concept of pipeline integrity is not new to the natural gas industry, events occurring within the 1990s spurred efforts by the public, Congress, and others to require enhancement to pipeline safety not seen since the enactment of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968. To chart a course to address these efforts, the Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) sponsored a Public Meeting in November of 1999 (Docket No. RSPA-99-6355). The purpose of this meeting was to determine the extent to which operators (natural gas and liquids) used integrity management programs, to explore effective ways to promote their development by all operators, and to discuss how OPS could confirm the adequacy of operator- developed programs.
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Document ID: A8810412

Smart Pigging As An Integrity Tool: Applications And Limitations
Author(s): Bryce W. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 72117CC8

Development Of A Thermoacoustic Natural Gas Liquefier - Update
Author(s): John J. Wollan, Gregory W. Swift
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.
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Document ID: 1EFC4822

Solid State Electronic Energy Measurement: Emerging Technologies Worth Knowing About
Author(s): Daniel A. Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of promising techniques are under development with the common goal of providing low cost real or near real time energy content determining devices for use in natural gas measurement applications. These technologies address the growing demand for point of use determination of Btu and other gas properties in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace.
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Document ID: 6A66516F

Gti Plastic Pipe Technologies Save Time And Improve Reliability
Author(s): Dennis Jarnecke
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6D7BF316

The Revised API Natural Gas Sampling Standard - A Review Of Changes And Additions
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past seven years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and will be published in 2001. The 2001 revision of Chapter 14.1 of the API MPMS provides guidance for obtaining representative samples of natural gas through spot, composite, and continuous sampling methods. It focuses on the practical application of thermodynamic principles that, if ignored, can cause a gas sample to become distorted, resulting in a biased gas analysis. If a biased analysis is used to calculate the heating value or other properties of the sampled gas, errors in excess of 10 percent may occur. This article draws on the information in the revised Chapter 14.1 and presents an overview of three common causes of gas sample distortion: (1) sample distortion due to equipment and processes that cause the sample gas temperature to drop below the hydrocarbon dew point temperature, (2) sample distortion caused by dirty or contaminated sampling systems and (3) sample distortion caused by sampling system components fabricated from materials known to affect the integrity of a natural gas sample. Recommendations for avoiding gas sample distortion according to the revised Chapter 14.1 are presented.
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Document ID: ECA07D48

Reducing Cost To Serve New Residential Customers
Author(s): Jerome H. Kostro
Abstract/Introduction:
Reducing the cost of serving new residential customers is of great interest to distribution utility managers, due to the annual number of installations and their unit costs. This paper, based on industry input, examines the issues that may lead to excessive costs being incurred as well as ideas for appropriate cost reduction.
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Document ID: FCE63FCD

Auto-Adjust Turbine Gas Meter Design Improvements And Installation Sensitivity
Author(s): Dennis R. Montag
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to present information regarding the latest design innovations to enhance the long-term performance of the Invensys Auto- Adjust Turbo-Meter. In addition, I will present information gained from extensive testing of the Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter in installation configurations that tend to induce measurement inaccuracy in flow meters. As I was preparing the material for this paper I came to realize that 2001 is the twentieth anniversary for the Auto-Adjust Turbo-Meter. The first meters were shipped in April 1981 from Rockwell Internationals DuBois facility. The excitement we experienced at that time has only been reinforced over the past two decades as the Auto-Adjust meter continues to provide unparalleled performance using the self-correcting and self-diagnostic capabilities.
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Document ID: 8394F2FB

The Dot Plastic Pipe The Dot Plastic Pipe Data Collection & Sharing Data Collection & Sharing Program Program
Author(s): Anita Romero
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: C7CB0485

Decommissioning Of Odorant Tanks And Equipment
Author(s): Jan Strmen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry is going through a period of rapid change which among other things, affects the way odorant delivery is controlled and monitored. The need for exact and well documented odorant delivery is resulting in the integration of new odorization systems and the subsequent retiring of old systems. The challenge that gas companies face in removing and disposing of the abandoned equipment is the focus of this presentation. We will discuss the experience and knowledge that we have acquired over the last four years working on the decommissioning and removal of odorant contaminated equipment. Without the close, friendly and professional cooperation of Natural Gas Companies, we would not have the expertise and knowledge that we have today.
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Document ID: 3F35B06D

Meter Station Uncertainty - Determination And Influence
Author(s): Paul J. La Nasa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents methods for determining the uncertainty of both differential and positive metering stations. It takes into account the type of meter, number of meters in parallel, type of secondary instruments, and the determination of physical properties. The paper then relates this information to potential influence on system balance
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Document ID: 705740F4

Gis-Driven Business Benefits
Author(s): Thomas Coolidge
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: D75A6EEE

Development Of An In-Situ Meter Verification Device
Author(s): John Wilson, Willem Van Der Wal, G. H. Lohuis
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the natural gas industry, lost and unaccounted for gas is increasingly becoming an area of concern. According to a GTI survey, the volume of gas in this area equates to approximately 200,000,000 (US) of lost revenue. Inaccurate meters have been the primary contributor to this loss. This inaccuracy could result in utilities overpaying suppliers and customers underpaying utilities. Gastec, a Research & Development Company in the Netherlands, has developed the In-Situ Meter Verification device (ISMV) that evaluates existing meter accuracy without having to remove the meter from operation, thus allowing for adjustments that reflect accurate flow volumes. Gastec is working with Nicor Technologies and GTI to bring this technology to North America. The ISMV is a twopiece portable device that consists of gas detection equipment and a computer to collect and analyze the results. The ISMV process can measure inferential meters at locations ranging from city gates to customer delivery points. Upon completion of the test, the records of each meter are electronically stored for any future meter evaluations, customer records, or inquiries such as code compliance.
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Document ID: 875AAFEA

Field Testing Of An Ultrasonic Meter At Extreme Installation Conditions
Author(s): Lars Farestvedt
Abstract/Introduction:
The FMC Kongsberg MPU 1200 - Multipath Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter was originally designed for the offshore environment of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Due to the compactness required for offshore applications, the meter was designed to handle installations where severe ultrasonic noise and severe flow profile disturbances are present. The MPU 1200 has been through a number of tests with ultrasonic noise and disturbed flow profile. Two of these tests are discussed in this paper. As the paper shows, the MPU 1200 can be installed in installations with severe noise and flow disturbances, though not necessarily recommended at installations as severe as what has been tested here.
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Document ID: 75223A1D

Pipeline Integrity For Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines
Author(s): Paul Gustilo
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: A6224666

Gas Pipeline Integrity Management
Author(s): Mike Israni
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: EDA0BE36

Integrity Management Panel Railroad Commission Of Texas
Author(s): Mary L. Mcdaniel
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: A756735B

Gas Deregulation In New York An Ldcs Perspective
Author(s): Thomas Amerige
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 3E91AD8B


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