Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2001)

An Experimental Derivation Of An Expansibility Factor For The V-Cone And Wafer-Cone Meters
Author(s): R. J. W. Peters, m. R. H. Reader-Harris, D. G. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
The V-Cone meter is a differential pressure device that has been developed and tested since 1985 and is now well understood and accepted as a viable flow measurement device. It is widely used in many industrial applications to measure a variety of fluids over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The choice of the V-Cone can be based on the relatively short upstream lengths required and the ease of operation over a wide turndown ratio relative to an orifice plate.
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Document ID: 5F0284B4

An Ultrasonic Meter For Stratified Wet Gas Service
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent tests of ultrasonic meters in wet gas service have shown that the most consistent connection between internal parameters of a 4-path SeniorSonic meter and LVF (Liquid Volume Fraction) is seen in mist flow. However, it has proved difficult to achieve this flow regime in practice. Mist flow is seen at high gas velocities and high pressure, and is found only at the edge of the operating envelope of all available wet gas test facilities. The most common flow regime encountered during testing has been stratified.
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Document ID: F580D2EC

An Ultrasonic Meter For Stratified Wet Gas Service
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent tests of ultrasonic meters in wet gas service have shown that the most consistent connection between internal parameters of a 4-path SeniorSonic meter and LVF (Liquid Volume Fraction) is seen in mist flow. However, it has proved difficult to achieve this flow regime in practice. Mist flow is seen at high gas velocities and high pressure, and is found only at the edge of the operating envelope of all available wet gas test facilities. The most common flow regime encountered during testing has been stratified.
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Document ID: 5DDBEDFA

Conversion Of Multiphase Meter Flowrates
Author(s): Kristian Krejbjerg, Niels Lindeloff
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines the principles behind conversion of multiphase meter flowrates from meter conditions to standard conditions. It is described how the configuration of the topside separation process should be taken into account in the calculations. It is furthermore discussed how compositional variations due to fluctuations in GOR can be accounted for. This technology can also be used for online calibration of the meter.
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Document ID: AF9D3F64

Paper 12: Experience With Installation Of Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters Under Severe Conditions
Author(s): Harald Denstad, Skule E. Smrgrav
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic gas flow meters, primarily of the multipath kind, have gained a large portion of the world market for custody transfer metering since the technology was introduced in the early 1990s. Over the last 4-6 years numerous papers have described the features of ultrasonic meters, highlighted their advantages over more traditional metering technologies such as orifice and turbines, and presented operational experiences.
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Document ID: 894D88FB

Field Experience With Multipath Usms
Author(s): Ali Niazi, Peter Hutchinson
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent times Advantica Technologies Ltd, in close collaboration with Transco and Ultrasonic Meter manufacturers, have carried out short and long term studies and experiments on multipath ultrasonic meters1. The aims of these exercises were to identify installation effects on the meters and to gain a better understanding and confidence of their performance against other metering systems. As part of this work, examination of the effect of noise generation by three of the most popular pressure regulators used by Transco at metering stations was studied. Long-term performance of one of the multipath ultrasonic meters was also undertaken as part of the same.
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Document ID: 6952A58E

Presentation Of The Handbook Of Water Fraction Metering
Author(s): Eivind O. Dahl, Ronny A. Albrechtsen, Christian Michelsen, Erik Malde
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased availability of Water Fraction Meters (WFM) for continuous measurement represents a new challenge. It is of utmost importance to acquire reliable data for fiscal measurements. The uncertainty of the water fraction measurement is a fundamental aspect of the total crude oil measurement and it is essential in assessing the quality aspects of the production. It is also of great importance to be able to continuously monitor and analyse the water content of the crude oil during the optimisation process for both operation and transportation.
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Document ID: 2560510F

Implementation And Operational Experience Of A Multiphase Meter
Author(s): Rosalind Rowe, Bob Elsinger, Allister Hutton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents experience gained in the use of a Fluenta multiphase meter (MPM) on Anasuria. Initially verification was achieved by comparison with the first stage separator and testing by difference. Following the introduction of a new third party field, Cook, separator constraints prevented the use of testing by difference and an alternative method of verification was required. The paper goes through the lessons learnt in developing an MPM for use on a platform and explains how reservoir management is achieved using the MPM, geochemical fingerprinting and allocation metering. In addition, an operational example of using the meter for well monitoring is described.
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Document ID: 0943DC9F

Status And Trends In Technology And Applications
Author(s): Eivind Dykesteen
Abstract/Introduction:
Well, the best trend is possibly seen from the programme of this years workshop: Out of 5 papers in the Multiphase Metering section of the workshop, three papers are reporting on experiences from implementation or operation of multiphase meters, two are presenting methods for improving the performance or better understand the data from multiphase meters, but no papers are presenting completely new technology.
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Document ID: 9DE22224

On-Line Comparison Of The Speed Of Sound At Four Dutch Metering Stations Equipped With Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters.
Author(s): Henk Jan Panneman
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic gas flow meters are increasingly used for the fiscal flow measurement of natural gas. Advantages of ultrasonic gas flow meters are their rangeability, low pressure drop and the possibility of carrying out bi-directional measurements. Another advantage is the ability to measure the speed of sound of gas flowing through the ultrasonic flow meter. By comparing the speed of sound measured using the ultrasonic flow meter with the speed of sound calculated from gas properties, one can check the performance of the ultrasonic gas flow meter periodically or continuously.
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Document ID: 59C8D2BD

Multiphase Meter System
Author(s): Jean Paul Couput
Abstract/Introduction:
From 91 to 96, TotalFinaElf supported and tested multiphase meter prototypes. These were qualified on onshore fields.. Since 1997 multiphase meters are considered by projects and installed for direct multiphase flows both for well metering and field metering . Several multiphase meters are now in operation in TotalFinaElf operated units both on onshore & offshore locations This technology is also subsea deployed in high water depths development
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Document ID: FF9D153D

Optimisation Of Flow Measurements In A Pulsating Flow Experiences- From Field Measurements
Author(s): Van Bokhorst, M.C.A.M. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
Analyses of unsteady flow in pipe systems are normally applied in case periodic pulsations are to be expected as a result of well known sources like reciprocating compressors or other positive displacement machinery. The API 618 Standard for reciprocating compressors recommends such a pulsation and mechanical response analysis to prevent unacceptable vibration levels and cyclic stresses in the piping and connected instrumentation. However the impact of pulsating flow on flowmeter accuracy is not considered and criteria for allowable pulsations at flowmeters in relation to metering errors are not specified in the present edition of the standard.
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Document ID: D1FAC9EA

19th North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop October 2001 Flow Testing An Ultrasonic Meter Outside Its Performance Envelope Another Real World System
Author(s): Gordon J. Stobie, Klaus J Zanker, Colin Brown, Winsor Letton
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1998/99 Phillips Petroleum Co UK Ltd decided to exploit the Jade reserves in the Central North Sea via a Normally Unattended Installation (NUI) located some 17 km NW of the existing Judy platform. The Jade NUI facilities would have no processing capability, and multiphase products would flow from Jade to Judy via a 16-inch subsea pipeline. Jade products would be metered as multiphase flows at each of the 4 production wellheads used to develop the field. The products would be processed on Judy via an HP Separator. Following separation, the products would be metered at HP Separator conditions (approx 40BarG and 110 degrees Celsius).
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Document ID: AE9B9BA6

Temperature Changes Across Orifice Meters
Author(s): Ali Niazi, Sahan Thalayasingam
Abstract/Introduction:
When a real gas flows through an orifice plate, an irrecoverable pressure loss occurs downsteam due to the expansion of the gas, which results in a temperature drop. Knowledge of the density of the gas at upstream conditions is necessary for accurate calculation of flow rate. If density is measured, a density cell is normally installed at a tapping downstream of the orifice-plate meter, as shown in Figure 1 below. Densitometers incorporate their own temperature sensor but if density is calculated from the gas composition, a temperature sensor is installed in a downstream thermowell. The measurement is made some 8D downstream of the orifice plate in order to avoid flow disturbances.
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Document ID: 5CB2F3FD

Test Results Of A New Design Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter
Author(s): Detlef Vieth, Geeuwke De Boer, Anton Buijen Van Weelden,
Abstract/Introduction:
These days, ultrasonic gas flow meters are readily accepted for custody transfer measurement. Successful application of these kind of meters in turn drives the technology, resulting in new design concepts being implemented. As part of various new designs aiming to improve meter performance and the economics of fabrication, Instromet have developed a new meter featuring - among other characteristics - a reduced bore. In addition, a special variant was designed for wet gas measurement.
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Document ID: 4CB56CA2

19th North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop 2001 Utilization Of An Inline Rotary Separator As A Wet Gas Meter
Author(s): V. C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
Chevron Petroleum Technology Company evaluated the performance of an inline rotary separator in 2000 and during the evaluation tests, we discovered that the inline rotary separator could also be used as a wet gas meter to measure gas and liquid flow rates. The inline rotary separator, IRIS , is a commercial gas-liquid separation device manufactured by Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies, LLC. It is a compact, high quality, separation device that can be used in wellhead or pipeline applications.
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Document ID: 655316FB

Wet Gas Metering With Venturi Meters In The Upstream Area : Further Results For The Correction Factor.
Author(s): J. Boko, J.P. Couput, J. Escande, P. Gajan, A. Strzelecki
Abstract/Introduction:
Since a few years now, the need for accurate and reliable on line metering of wet gas is arising for fiscal and allocation purposes when different partners share subsea or topside installations. TOTALFINAELF, Gaz de France and ONERA have been collaborating on that topic for 4 years. Basic researches were performed on a Venturi meter in order to improve the knowledge of the flow phenomena which take place between the upstream and downstream taps. This paper described the analysis of results obtained at atmospheric pressure which point out the influence of the flow patterns on the metering accuracy. From these results a first law is deduced which takes into account the size of the droplets and the distribution of the liquid phase between mist and annular.
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Document ID: 4C387421

What Is The Uncertainty Of Your Quality Measurement System?
Author(s): Mark A. Jiskoot
Abstract/Introduction:
The various standards applicable to sampling, density and on-line water content measurement have been developed concurrently with, and in some cases as a result of, the development of the North Sea. While sampling systems have always been a feature of the metering process, many metering systems installed on older platforms have been modified to incorporate density or water-in-oil monitors (OWD or On-line Water in petroleum Devices) or both. Integrated systems are now also titled QMS or Quality Measurement Systems. The designs used often fall outside the accuracy they are supposed to attain and shortcomings are generally overlooked because in some cases it is hard to confirm compliance. This paper will outline some of the key requirements and frequently discovered deficiencies.
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Document ID: B69ED83F


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