Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2001)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: 2A8A2BE2

Fundamentals Of Coriolis Meters For( Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom Obanion
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with an installed base or more than 350,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 20,000 units on gas around the world, groups including the AGA, API, Measurement Canada, German PTB, and Dutch NMi are all involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology.
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Document ID: 4847AD9A

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Don W. Griffies
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Industry is utilizing electronic devices in many different and diverse areas. One of the areas that has seen a rapidly growing usage of Electronics is Gas Measurement. Thus many Gas Measurement Technicians have been forced to take on the responsibility of installing and operating Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices with little or no background in Electronics. It is hoped, therefore, that this paper will supply a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short-changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those who have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 642E17E7

Fundamentals Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an outline of the operating principal and application of ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. Basic principles and underlying equations are discussed as are considerations for applying ultrasonic flow meter technology to station design, installation and operation. These applications are illustrated based on operating experience with the Instromet 3 path and 5-path Q.Sonic custody transfer flow meter, however, many of these issues may be generalized to devices manufactured by others.
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Document ID: BB46DDA0

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know: Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. There are approximately 112 known elements. Examples: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Atom - the smallest unit in which an element can exist. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Compounds - pure substances consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Examples: water and methane. Molecule - the smallest unit in which a compound can exist or the normal form in which an element exists. Example: One molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. One molecule of nitrogen consists of two atoms of nitrogen. Mixture - combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance maintains its own composition and properties. Examples: natural gas, gasoline, and air.
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Document ID: 4A131CE4

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important thing in taking a sample is where and how it is taken. A sample can be taken as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph.
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Document ID: 04977573

Techniques Of Composite Sampling
Author(s): Wes Partain
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is sampled to balance plant or gathering systems and to determine its quality for custody transfer applications. Many contracts are written in such a manner to account for the quality of the gas. The quality of the gas is determined by the energy contained in it, which is measured in British Thermal Units or BTUs. A gas chromatograph is typically used to identify individual components of the sample and their quantity, thus determining quality of the sample taken. How the sample was obtained, transported and analyzed is crucial to the accuracy required for custody transfer of this product.
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Document ID: C34C011D

Operations Of On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
On-line Chromatography has at least two definitions today. The most common is that the Chromatograph, commonly known as a GC, is on-line when it extracts a sample from a continuously flowing line, injects this sample and analyzes it for composition, and then perhaps calculates BTU, SG, Relative Density, and/or Wobbe index or other parameters. This data is used on site or at a remote location to calculate volumes for custody transfer of the natural gas. This is the definition that will be used in this paper. The other definition of on-line is that the Chromatograph data is fed or downloaded to a flow computer(s) or RTU(s) on the flowing stream that was analyzed at the measurement site. This definition is illustrated in picture, Fig. 1 and the diagram in Fig. 2, seen below. Most gas composition analysis data, however, can be applied to more flow measurement sites than just the one where the gas is extracted from the flowing stream. This is because the gas stream will not change in composition unless there is another source of gas or there is drastic change in temperature or pressure. Some companies use what they call Zoning to assign a particular composition or BTU to a set of flow computers. With either definition, the gas analysis information must be applied to the gas volume somewhere to produce the energy amount that the meter station is flowing.
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Document ID: 3CAC3EC2

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Ronald C. Geib
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standard gases are essential to quantitative analytical measurements in petrochemical processes, natural gas, environmental compliance, and health and safety programs. The calibration gas standard establishes a known analyzer response to a certified chemical component concentration which enables the conversion of sample responses to a concentration with a determinable accuracy. In consideration of the criticality of calibration standard gases to valid measurements in chemical processes and monitoring programs, the objective of this paper will be to provide an in-depth review of how calibration standard gases are manufactured, certified, and properly maintained.
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Document ID: 489CEFB4

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity / Relative Density Of Gas
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean. Specific Gravity is formally defined as the ratio of gas density to air density when both are at standard conditions of 0 Degree C and 760 mm. Over the years the definition evolved to become the ratio of gas density to air density at the same temperature and pressure, Relative to each other. Hence, the term Relative Density. This is the most commonly used definition today. The fixed or Specific requirement of temperature and pressure, (0 degree C and 760 mm), had been removed over the years.
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Document ID: 8854F506

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): D. Marshall Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is found in many natural gas fields throughout the world. Measurement and the determination of the concentration of H2S is critical for many reasons. From Personal Safety to Corrosion Control and eventually to Contractual Obligation, the measurement of H2S is a critical in the Pipeline Industry. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement, Measurement Techniques, Calibration, and other Sulfur measurements that maybe required by the Pipeline Industry.
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Document ID: 380CF462

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Bill Buckley
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose to this paper is to discuss the fundamental components used in orifice measurement
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Document ID: 65A03FE6

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): David Hailey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement, as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is industry acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: BA99D935

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As this gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas. Many researchers have studied the effect of entrained liquids on orifice measurement. The existing literature can provide much information about orifice flowmeter errors. This information can be used to determine the course of future orifice plate research efforts. This paper will discuss four test programs that were conducted to examine the effects of entrained liquids on orifice meter performance. The results of these programs will be discussed as well as some simple flow models. The flow models will be used to explain why research into this area has been so difficult. The flow models are not intended as a guide for measurement correction.
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Document ID: 55C9DC63

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael P. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
The full cost of ownership consists of the initial capital, commissioning, training, spare parts, maintenance and calibration costs for the lifetime of the equipment. The full cost is several times the initial capital investment and should be the deciding factor in equipment selection. The technical selection - accuracy, repeatability, drift, ease of calibration as well as reliability indirectly affects the cost of ownership. Proper installation and application of flowmeters are two of the most significant parameters in the measurement chain. These parameters influence the factors mentioned above and are neglected in most assessments. The misapplication of any device brings the wrath of field personnel on the operating companys engineering staff, as it should! More effort is required by the user community to match their expectations with reality. The selection, installation, operation and maintenance of quality equipment, if properly performed, are almost never discussed by operating personnel. The role of flow conditioning is to ensure that the real world environment closely resembles the laboratory environment for proper performance of inferential flowmeters.
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Document ID: 58CE2BC7

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography, Gas Quality & Troubleshooting
Author(s): Larry Ewing
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of the quality of natural gas requires a variety of instrumentation, only one of which is the gas chromatograph. Contractual requirements frequently define the energy content, relative density, and moisture content of the gas being sold. The sale of natural gas is performed on the basis of the heating value per unit volume of the gas. For these reasons, the industry uses instruments to monitor the quality of the gas at the point of sale or at strategic locations along a pipeline. The following instruments are commonly found in the field and in the laboratory: Gas Chromatographs Moisture Analyzers Gravitometers Hydrogen Sulfide Monitors Others
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Document ID: 50EEB5C1

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Ineffective sample conditioning is the most common source of error in the analysis of natural gas. Recent developments in hardware now make it possible to overcome several common sources of sample conditioning problems. The hardware first separates liquid, if present, from sample gas and returns it to the pipeline. It then regulates the pressure to lower the hydrocarbon dew point. Both operations are conducted at the prevailing pressure and temperature of the pipeline to prevent gas phase distortion, which would otherwise occur. The hardware is easy to install and maintain and can be applied to sample conditioning for all types of on line natural gas analyzers.
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Document ID: 90C3518C

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality has always been an important issue, but within the last year it has become a critical issue for many pipeline companies. With the current energy crunch causing problems throughout the world, and gas prices at historical high levels, anyone who can sink a well and start pumping natural gas is doing so. Unfortunately, gas quality has taken a back seat to the urgency of fulfilling key quality issues. One of the key quality factors is moisture content. This paper will review the different sensor technologies in use today and also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sampling system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: 3ED7C836

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy markets and the environment of FERC Order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: 769413B8

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement & Control Facility
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects. The strategy presented involves performing through preliminary engineering, performing final design and procurement, qualification of installers, construction, testing, commissioning and finally, training and documentation.
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Document ID: CF664C26

Local And Wide Area Networking Of Gas Flow Computer
Author(s): King Poon
Abstract/Introduction:
Communication has been around ever since man developed language and hand signs to exchange and share ideas. Smoke signals were used in the ancient world to send information from one place to another. In fact, a smoke signal is one form of wireless digital communication. The advances in modern communication, network and computer technology has led to the growth of electronic forms of communication. Electronic data can be transferred between workstations in the same office and sometimes even between offices in different cities.
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Document ID: 05B4D504

Field Testing By Transfer Proving An Explanation Of The Techniques And Procedures
Author(s): Ruben P. Sanchez, Jr., Larry Wunderlick
Abstract/Introduction:
Aristotle once said, Science begins and ends with Measurement. Without question, measurement is a function that truly influences the economics of the gas industry. This is true because the revenue of the industry, for the most part, is determined by the registration from meters. This is why it is said that meters are the Cash Registers of the business. Therefore, it is essential for service companies such as Reliant Energy to prove or test each meter. Transfer Proving is a portable method of meter performance testing. The methods to prove meters must continually be improved to assure accuracy of revenue at the lowest feasible maintenance costs.
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Document ID: AA152648

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Micheal Bealer
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device. The orifice meter body, tube and orifice plate are considered the primary measuring device. This primary device is equipped with pressure taps that allow for the hook-up of a secondary device to sense the output signal of the primary orifice meter. The secondary device is some type of recorder or datalogger that allows for the recording of the events (i.e. signal levels and changes) that are created in the primary device.
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Document ID: 1FA29A47

Periodic Inspections Of District Regulator & Relief Valves
Author(s): Jerry Bowins
Abstract/Introduction:
protection devices are essential in complying with Federal and State Regulations. In order to understand the functions of a District Regulator, we must start with the City Gate Station. Some pipeline people call City Gates, Town Border Stations. City Gate Stations are where distribution companies purchase natural gas from the pipeline. The gas is measured and odorized here. Measuring devices are usually installed by pipeline companies. Odorizers are installed by distribution companies.
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Document ID: F6352C3C

Remote Meter Reading Methods( Of Retrieving Data By Use Of Remote Devices)
Author(s): John Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote devices for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) have many common characteristics but vary depending on what kind of communication system is in place. A partial list of communication systems that current technology supports includes the following: Telephone dial-inbound Telephone dial-outbound Cellular Mobile radio Fixed network radio Pager systems Power line carrier Cable Satellite Hybrid
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Document ID: 2FBF495B

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): Edwin H. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
The detection of natural gas leakage has long been a concern to the natural gas industry, but never more so than today. Increased public awareness of safety and huge increases in the cost of product liability litigation has resulted in a greater focus on gas odorization. While it must be recognized that no odorant will be 100% effective in warning of the presence of natural gas, basic knowledge about the properties and characteristics of odorants used for natural gas and an understanding about some of the potential problems in the odorization of such gas can be extremely helpful for those involved in the gas odorization process.
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Document ID: 141E015E

Application Of Telemetering In Natural Gas Distribution
Author(s): Chuck Allmon
Abstract/Introduction:
A SCADA system takes its name from the term Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. This is a very broad concept which has found applications in virtually every industry. In this short paper I will explain the basic components of a typical SCADA system as found in a large natural gas distribution system. I will then provide some useful guidelines which my department has developed, through experience, for the installation and operation of our SCADA system.
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Document ID: 6DC3FDBA

Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS.
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Document ID: 52C298DE

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters.
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Document ID: A38EEFD9

On-Site Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
With the present day volatility in the price of natural gas, there is continued emphasis by gas producers, transporters, and distributors on accurate gas measurement at custody transfer points. Accurate metering ensures that both the buyer and seller are treated fairly and equitably in each transaction. Some of the other benefits of accurate measurement include better line balance and minimization of lost and unaccounted for gas volumes, more secure deliverability, fewer custody transfer disputes, and optimization of metering equipment maintenance.
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Document ID: 63A884A5

Telemetry Via Internet For Ldcs
Author(s): Joe Cusimano
Abstract/Introduction:
Commercial Telemetry & Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are rapidly embracing Internet and Intranet technologies to remain competitive. These developing technologies offer many opportunities and challenges for the Natural Gas industry. As a technology, issues such as security, performance, availability, reliability and methods will be discussed. The presentation will demonstrate hands-on techniques.
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Document ID: CDAE57C7

Gti Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Technology Institute (formerly the Gas Research Institute) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization (RD&C) program aimed at improving natural gas metering performance in the field. This paper summarizes some of the recent accomplishments of the research program at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Metering Research Facility (MRF), a high-accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs. The MRF, located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, supports a variety of GTI-sponsored research and third-party test and calibration activities. Major research initiatives currently being funded by GTI include ultrasonic, turbine, and Coriolis flow meter research gas sampling methods research and development of a new energy flow rate meter concept. Through its portfolio of projects addressing priority research needs, the GTI natural gas measurement program provides significant benefits to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 70C86D17

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA- 3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: EE2EBC07

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers.
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Document ID: F86B17E7

A Review Of The Revisions To API 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period 1993 through 1999 Part 2 of ANSI 2530/API MPMS 14.3/AGA Report No 3 underwent revision. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the highlights of this revision.
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Document ID: A1A40456

Report On API 21.1 Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
In September of 1993 API published a new section of the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards titled Chapter 21 Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems, Section 1 Electronic Gas Measurement. This report provides an overview of the API 21.1 document with the intent of serving as a primer and something of an introduction to the publication. The 21.1 standard was developed by representatives from the American Petroleum Institute (API), American Gas Association (AGA) and Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies with input from equipment manufacturers and others. The 21.1 standard represents the first API publication in the field of electronic metering systems.
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Document ID: 957609D5

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few. Semiconductor technology is also prevalent in field mounted instrumentation and electronic measurement devices. Unfortunately, a tradeoff to the increased performance is the susceptibility of these semiconductor devices to voltage and current transient events. The minimum results are unreliable instrumentation readings and operation, with periodic failures. The worst case result is a completely destroyed measurement device.
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Document ID: 94F9DFEF

An Overview And Update Of AGA 9
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association has published (June, 1998) a recommended practice Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters. This paper reviews some of the key contents of A.G.A.-9 including recommended meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. An update for the committee work in progress for year 2001 and beyond is integrally included. The paper addresses some of the most commonly asked questions by new users of the document. A.G.A.-9 was drafted by the A.G.A. Transmission Measurement Committee (TMC) which incorporated many of the recommendations in the GERG Technical Monograph 8 (1995) and certain related OIML recommendations. After two years of technical discussions, balloting, and revisions, the document represents the consensus of several dozen metering experts in the US and Canada. They represent a crosssection of senior measurement personnel in the natural gas industry. The ISO/TC 30 standard currently being written for ultrasonic meters has mostly adapted A.G.A.-9 information and is adding various additional pieces of operating practice information, precautions and recommendations. A much larger data base now exists for performance and calibration history of USMs, including additional test data for piping, flow conditioners and valve interaction.
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Document ID: 36934501

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering( Primary And Secondary Elements)
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results. Proper use normally requires the steady flows for which orifices were intended and for which the orifice coefficients were developed. In actual field installations, flow is often not steady but subject to the periodic changes in pressure and velocity that are referred to as pulsation. Pulsation can be caused by compressors, pressure regulators, control valves, fluctuating loads, or by flow-induced phenomena within the piping. It is known and well recognized that pulsation causes errors in orifice meter results. In fact, A.G.A. Report No. 3 on Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, which is also API 14.3 and ANSI/ API 2530, clearly states that: Reliable measurements of gas flow with an orifice cannot be obtained when appreciable pulsation . . . are present at the measurement point.
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Document ID: 79FE2E6F

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
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Document ID: 24B2F294

Update On Gas Sampling Research
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past seven years, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Minerals Management Service (MMS), have co-sponsored an extensive natural gas sampling methods research program at the GTI Metering Research Facility (MRF), located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The results of this research provided a basis for the revision of Chapter 14.1 (i.e., Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer) of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). The revision is complete and will be published in 2001. The API Chapter 14.1 Working Group, a research steering committee consisting of natural gas sampling experts from major oil and gas companies, provided input that helped focus the project on improving current field practices. The research identified several causes of natural gas sample distortion, as well as techniques for avoiding gas sample distortion. The research data illustrated how errors in calculated gas properties, such as heating value and density, can occur as a result of poor sampling technique.
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Document ID: 7BCDF4C4

Training Field Measurement Personnel
Author(s): A. S. Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 52E89B64

Understanding The Different Standards That Govern Measurement
Author(s): Jon Noxon
Abstract/Introduction:
Suppose you just bought a new bulb at the supermarket to replace one that burned out in your favorite desk lamp. Youve removed the old one, and have just started to screw in the new lamp, when you suddenly discover that the threads and diameter of the bulb do not match the old socket. Such a scenario could very well be the case if it were not for those marvelous standards, some so pervasive that we need never give them a moments thought. Certainly you did not have to consult a light bulb standard the last time you purchased a 60-watt light bulb. You knew, without even thinking about it, that any brand of 60-watt bulb on the grocers shelves would fit your desk lamp back home. Since there are standards for light bulb bases (as well as the shape of the bulb and other important characteristics), life is easier for both the consumers (who dont have to worry about the bulb fitting their lamp socket) and the manufacturers of light bulbs (who dont have to independently develop designs for key elements of their products).
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Document ID: FC8FC6CE

A New Perspective On Measurement
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
Everything we do must have business relevance or must add value. This is true not only for measurement process, but for every process we are involved in. One must constantly question our action and not fall in the trap of thats the way we have always done it. This paper provides a new perspective on measurement in light of changing business environment, competition, and technology. We have heard words such as Measurement is the cash register, Measurement is a necessary evil, Measurement is an inexact science, etc., and there may be some truth in them. We recognize that new technology and a new business environment have complicated our lives, yet our overall view remains very narrowly and technically focused. Measurement gurus talk about the technical defensibility of what we do without taking responsibility for its economic impact. We revise technical documents, and we get carried way with the best accuracy at any cost. We apply the latest and greatest supercompressibility calculations to six decimal places to calculate a few MCF of gas flow through an oversized meter run that has not been checked in a long time. The bottom line is: We cannot see the forest for the trees.
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Document ID: 352C56D5

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Peter Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary gas meters have been in use for over sixty years in the natural gas distribution industry. Over the years the construction has switched from heavy cast iron bodies to lighter, high strength aluminum. Advances in manufacturing techniques such as CNC machining centers have enhanced the measurement performance of the rotary meter. Traditionally rotary meters are installed in applications requiring a flow capacity of 1,000 to 23,000 cfh.
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Document ID: 1B2BD305

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom R. Cheney
Abstract/Introduction:
There isnt any one who isnt impacted by the continuous growth and changes in the world of technology. In todays world, we accept computers and the functions they perform without question. In fact, we place our hardearned dollars and in some cases our very lives in their care without a second thought. Computers and electronic technologies have greatly impacted the way those who work in the oil and gas industry and how they do their daily business. A good example of how these changes have impacted this business is the use of electronic gas measurement devices often called (EFMs).
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Document ID: 0CA361E0

Electronic Transducers & Transmitters New( Trends In Measuring Natural Gas Flow Rates)
Author(s): John Schnake
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, the flow of natural gas has been measured by a combination of pressure transducers, smart transmitters, and flow computers. In the earliest types of natural gas flow measurement, transducers and transmitters were connected to flow computers to calculate natural gas flow rates. In terms of the real measurements, these transducers and transmitters served as the heart of flow computers. They still do in newer, smarter forms. The pressure transducer is basically a sensor that converts one form of energy, pressure or mechanical, to an electrical form of energy. These early transducers provided a low-level analog input, which limited the amount of information available to the flow computer or control system.
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Document ID: C623A178

Low-Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Rick Heuer, Charles Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter the second decade of use of Low Power Flow Computers (LPFCs), we do so with significantly different hardware, software, economics and motivating forces. These differences are worthy of close examination, as they ultimately will affect all of us in this industry. In order to focus on the majority of applications for LPFCs, we will limit this discussion to those operating on battery only or batteries with recharging systems. We will particularly focus on the stand-alone flow computing RTUs and their measurement and control functions. Remote communication, data gathering, data concentration, editing, automatic billing and remote gas system control are of such importance in this era of low gas prices as to be a virtual requirement for staying efficient enough to be competitive. These considerations significantly effect the selection criteria of LPFC hardware, software, telemetry and gas control schemes.
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Document ID: 4A6A0EA9

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices.
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Document ID: CED642AB

D.O.T. Requirements For The Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) is a department of the U.S. Federal Government which oversees all issues regarding transportation within the United States of America and U.S. Territories. Its influence around the world is great and widely respected, but its jurisdiction and power of enforcement is limited to the USA and its territories. As regards this paper, we will discuss the D.O.T. and its involvement surrounding sample cylinders for the hydrocarbon industry and the rules regarding the movement of these cylinders from point to point in the United States.
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Document ID: 67F13753

Field Experience With Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): David L. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators in the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. Readings appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration readings or methods, and terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, stability and traceability have become common. Technicians began using correction factors to achieve standard conditions. These correction calculations presented challenges to technicians when performing their calibrations. They began to see the effects of temperature on their test instruments and how temperature affects the accuracy of the gas measurement. More recently, the wide spread use of digital field devices has continued to change the technicians world as new tools became necessary to configure and maintain field instrumentation.
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Document ID: 103B4245

Terminology Used In Instrument Accuracy
Author(s): Rick Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief explanation and discussion of many key terms used in describing instrument accuracy. The terms included within this discussion are most commonly used for defining performance standards with primary sensing elements typically used in the measurement of flow, level, pressure and temperature instruments. Many of the terms used may apply to controllers, recorders and final control elements. However, the focus provided herein is the primary measurement device. The typical devices include transmitters (differential pressure and temperature) and flow meters (e.g. magnetic, vortex, turbine, variable area and positive displacement).
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Document ID: 0DF74088

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies goals for a greener image raises the standards of operations even higher, the demands placed on accurate hydrocarbon measurement with minimal maintenance, space and weight requirements becomes increasingly greater. These financial, governmental and technical challenges coupled with normally high flow rates and therefore wide flow range requirements, have enhanced the development and application of new technology such as ultrasonic gas and liquid meters, multiphase flow meters, microwave and near infared (NIR) water cut analyzers, coriolis flow meters for oil and gas and compact orifice meter tubes utilizing isolating flow conditioners and liquid meter provers. This paper will attempt to provide guidelines in selecting, installing and operating this equipment to ensure cost effective designs and reliable operation with a high degree of accuracy. Since the authors background is primarily in project design, emphasis will be placed on the decision process of selecting, installing and commissioning metering equipment.
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Document ID: 88C428BD

Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Gerry Browne
Abstract/Introduction:
A common requirement for gas transmission pipeline systems is to provide a pipeline control system to remotely monitor and operate the pipeline from a central location. This paper presents an overview of the main components of a pipeline control system: 1. Field Instruments, Analyzers and Actuators 2. Controllers 3. Telecommunications 4. SCADA systems 5. Advanced Pipeline Applications SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. A Supervisory Control system is a system that has the ability and intelligence to perform controls with minimal supervision and a Data Acquisition system has the ability to gather data. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric and water transmission and distribution industries where facilities are spread out over a large area.
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Document ID: B88A8276

Questions To Ask To Understand The Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Jesus Ramos
Abstract/Introduction:
After a decade of deliberation between government and the pipeline industry, the action of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requiring qualification for individuals performing covered tasks on a pipeline facility is a reality. The synergistic efforts of the members of the Regulation Negotiation Committee resulted in the authoring of an acceptable proposed rule, Qualification of Pipeline Personnel. New Subparts to 192 and 195 are requiring pipeline operators to write a qualification program which identifies covered tasks, establishes evaluation methods, execute the evaluations to qualify individuals, preserve individual qualification, and maintain records of these activities.
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Document ID: 26582F20

Fundamental Principles Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles to measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large volume measurement and thus fewer applications.
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Document ID: 5EC772FD

Traceability Of Test Instruments
Author(s): Leo J. Buckon
Abstract/Introduction:
Is a measurement being made good and is it as good as the measurement that was made yesterday, a week ago, or a year ago? The question of what is good measurement is asked all the time. This paper reviews what constitutes a good measurement. In addition it discusses the means that have been established to give the individual doing the measurement confidence that it is a good measurement. First, it discusses test instrument selection. The paper looks at characteristics of a test instrument such as accuracy and repeatability. It discusses the effect of temperature on accuracy and how traceability is important to the ultimate goal of making a good measurement. Second, it looks at the measurement process and the factors that influence the collection of data for measurement assurance. Finally, it reviews both National and International Standards for maintaining documented traceability.
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Document ID: 32D6B16F

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): David Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group will read the chart, apply information supplied by the field, calculate the amount of gas delivered, and generate and deliver volume statements to the customer. It must be recognized that the office group can not calculate volumes until it receives the charts and other required data from the field, and that the volumes are only as accurate as the data received.
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Document ID: 0E5F3784

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges. A good EGM data editing software package should provide a suite of tools to facilitate accurate, timely data processing. It should do this in a structured, feature rich, well designed environment utilizing a graphical user interface (GUI). The program should include functions to do the following: import the data recognize, review, and correct anomolies report export and provide advanced ad hoc query capabilities. Other considerations should include the developers commitment, resources, and long term strategy, vis-a-vis electronic gas measurement, as well as industrys overall acceptance of the package.
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Document ID: 0EEE27C8

Computer Applications In Chart Processing
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, chart recorders have started to give way to electronic gas meters at many locations. However, chart recorders are still being used at many sites and will continue to be used for the foreseeable future. The advances in computer processing that made electronic meters economical can also be used to enhance the reliability and economics of chart measurement. There are advantages to each. By properly utilizing computer technology and software, chart measurement can be made faster, more accurate, and more reliable. There are several steps involved in the chart measurement process. We will examine each of these with regards to how a properly designed computer system and software could be used to enhance that function.
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Document ID: 9CF8DA2A

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbon fluids, with an overall measurement accuracy that is acceptable to all involved parties, is a goal most gas measurement organizations strive to meet. The achievement of overall measurement accuracy can be visualized by using an image of a steel chain. One side of the chain is fastened to the true quantity that passes through a measurement point. The other side of the chain is fastened to the observed quantity passing through the measurement point. If all of the links of this theoretical chain are strong, the observed reading will be held very close to the actual reading. If there are weak links in the chain, a difference in the true reading and observed reading will be experienced.
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Document ID: 45E83B5C

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Keith B. Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective training program makes a significant impact on the bottom line of an organization. Volumes are relative to every purchase and sale of gas. Therefore, accurate volume measurements play either a direct or indirect role in the profitability of all the organizations in our industry. An effective training program is one of the best ways to promote accurate measurements and ensure the optimal use of human resources.
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Document ID: 82CB76B9

Cellular Digital Packet Data Technology For Scada And Telemetry Applications
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of Cellular Digital Packet Data technology (CDPD) came about after the build out of the cellular voice systems in the United States. The designers of those systems realized a part of that technology was not being used that could send short burst packets of data without interfering with the voice transmissions. The definition of CDPD would be: CDPD is a technology intended to provide packet data networking services to mobile hosts. The method used consists of radio channels typically used for Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) cellular service.
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Document ID: C221968B

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Stephen Easley
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays changing world of computers and data communications is an exciting time and is bringing major changes to the gas industry. Especially when evaluating whether to communicate with remote electronic gas measurement (EGM) devices and determining what communications media types will be installed.
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Document ID: D692EF5B

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integration
Author(s): Gary L. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMC Chart Integrator, Model 362, is a digital computer based system for translating orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data on integrated flow (chart extension), average pressure and flow time. It is designed to accommodate American/ Barton and Foxboro charts, as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Integrator can be fitted with pens for a third chart geometry if required. The operator places the Chart Integrator pens on the appropriate lines on the orifice chart while applying pressure to the foot control, the chart will begin to rotate. The rotation and motion of the pens simulate the action of the meter. At the end of the chart the Chart Integrator computes and prints the extension, pressure and flow time for that recording. The operator will then place the chart into the printer and the chart extension, average pressure, flow time and current date will be printed onto the back of the chart for validation. At chart validation the extension and the number of charts validated are recorded in the Chart Integrators memory as a batch total. This batch total can be printed and cleared upon demand by the operator at any time.
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Document ID: 76030B87

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
Contracts involving the sale, gathering, transportation, processing, storage, marketing, compression, and other services provided by the typical natural gas organization are crafted with contributions from several different functional groups and individuals. The expertise of these different groups and individuals is needed to put into writing an agreement that will allow an organization to invest capital in projects with known risk and expected rate of return and to carry on with the day-to-day business activities it was formed to do. This paper will discuss the various elements of typical natural gas contracts and the expertise called upon to draft these elements.
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Document ID: 675AB0E5

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety
Author(s): Linton T. Lipscomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material. To safely produce natural gas and natural gas products, a basic understanding of the hazards of the material itself and the processes required to bring it to market is essential. Lets start out with the hazards of natural gas as it is in its raw field gas state: 1. Flammable/Explosive 2. Hazardous Impurities a. Hydrogen Sulfide b. Benzene c. CO2 d. Liquid, Petroleum Gases (LPGs)
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Document ID: 7E5AEC50

The Gas Industry Standards Board An( Example Of A Public-Private Partnership)
Author(s): Cynthia Corcoran
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB) has been fortunate to develop public-private partnerships with several agencies, and these partnerships have contributed to GISBs credibility and its success. GISB strives to be responsive to the industry and government agencies through the efforts of its volunteers. Without the commitment of the members and interested industry participants, we would not have developed public-private partnerships that have evolved over the years to support GISB as an effective mechanism for setting industry standards.
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Document ID: 284C37B0

Chart Auditing
Author(s): Keith B. Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
The main reason for auditing natural gas charts is the economic benefit derived from it. Because audits require skilled manpower to be performed and administered, there are costs involved. However, audits are advantageous because their benefits generally outweigh their costs, many times significantly. One of the principal responsibilities of the management of any group organized for profit is risk assessment. Once goals have been established for the growth of the organization, contingency plans need to be developed which anticipate possible and probably obstacles to achieving the goals, the impact of likely scenarios, and the resources and methods required to overcome these obstacles. When company goals require the purchase or sale of certain amounts of gas, the accuracy of gas measurement becomes critical.
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Document ID: FEB858DC

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Kenneth W. Blackburn
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been stated that measurement is the cash register in the exchange of natural gas. The natural gas business is based on the buying and selling of this commodity. Measurement is responsible for balancing the input (buying) and output (selling). Errors, on either side of this equation, effect the balance the entire business is based upon. Add the fact that natural gas measurement can be extremely complicated, auditing not only becomes desirable, but necessary. As it implies, auditing an electronic gas meter (EGM) requires careful examination of large amounts of data in order to verify volumes and to verify the cash register. An experienced auditor is the most valuable tool in this process. In order to maintain the scope of this paper, a general knowledge of natural gas measurement and EGM fundamentals will be assumed.
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Document ID: 1EC6EF6D

Communication Between Office And Field Personnel
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in the measurement of gas with reductions in staff of up to 60%. Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. Today hourly processing with a daily closing schedule is knocking on the door. To meet these demands timely communication between the office and field employees is required. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased workloads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: A5C3CF4B

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): John m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure. The basic regulator could be an operator at a control valve watching a pressure gauge. The valve is manually opened to allow the line pressure to achieve the desired gauge setting. The operator then visually monitors the gauge and either opens the valve or closes it to maintain the desired pressure. The problem with this system is it would require full time operators for daily operation and continuous monitoring of the gauge. The regulator products on the market do not monitor the gauge. However, via monitoring the outlet pressure, they do automatically open and/or close the valve to control the outlet pressure at an established value. The manually operated regulator is still employed by gas companies to provide uninterrupted service during repairs or replacement of a regulator on a single feed system.
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Document ID: EFF0FC04

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, low gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data.
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Document ID: 20F5BFD4


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