Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (2000)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Theory And Operation Of A Dual-Rotor Turbine Meter
Author(s): Bill Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The theory and operating principle is presented explaining how a dual-rotor turbine meter can operate as both a conventional flow meter and as a prover that measures the accuracy of the meter while under actual operating conditions. The proving principle is based on the wellknown transfer proving method where the upstream rotor serves as the test meter and the down stream rotor serves as the transfer standard. The theory of operation is supported with te operate independen prover can precisely from changes in m effects producing sw Accuracy SPGT rate.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0CA23E50

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): George Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments will also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8CEE5B13

Introduction To Electronic Data Interchange Edi() In Scada And Measurement
Author(s): Kevin R. Stanley
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Data Interchange or EDI, sounds like a complex concept, but in reality it is simply a documented standard method of exchanging common business documents in electronic form. Two companies, known as trading partners, trade data in an agreed upon standard format. One company extracts proprietary information, transforms it into the standard format, and sends it to the other party who then transforms the standard formatted information into its own proprietary format for incorporation into its computer systems
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AC073251

Diagnostic Indicators And Field Verification Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Kevin L. Warner Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
New for the sake of new and old for the sake of familiarity may in either case promote the waste of resources. It has now been a number of years since deregulation and the move to open sales, transportation and hubs has resulted in fierce competition. Operational cost savings, where practical, are a necessary part of success and indeed, survival. Technician is an overly generalized and many times unappreciated title. Technicians are the field professionals that really make systems for control, compression, dehydration, odorization, and measurement a success or bad venture and highly influence a gas companys prosperity This document focuses on a highly proven before release new technology that offers great savings to gas companies and provides some new challenges to the field professional. Ultrasonic meters are easy to learn and they add some new dimension and value to the users measurement experience. Gas ultrasonic meters, (USMs), are here to stay.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3A11D760

Complete Energy Metering System Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Charles W. Derr And Charles F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas volume and energy metering stations using gas chromatography and ultrasonic metering are beconimg a mainstream field operation and a new challenge to metering personnel. They are easy to adapt to while adding a new dimension of value to the field professional. Technicians will invariably be the link to the success of any changing technology that would survive and thrive in the real pipeline environment. Meter stations must be maintainable and provable. The system and requirements will be examined from that perspective.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8198435A

A Beginners Overview Of Advancements In Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
The communications revolution has accelerated in recent years, so it is no wonder why advancements in measurement technology and SCADA systems have become standard conversation in the gas industry. Accurate, readily available gas flow data and control capabilities are critical to many gas production, transportation and storage sites. Data in the gas industry relates to profit and accountability to customers. The complexity of a remote flow computer, transmitter or process controller linked to the usability and data handling of a SCADA environment makes instantaneous information and historical retrieval a reality.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D5FDEAFC

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ron L. Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F8008F65

Electronic Communication In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces common interfaces used in gas measurement for electronic data communication. In recent years, the electronic data communication in gas measurement has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, it is very important to communicate gas measurement data timely, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketer, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas industry moves gas from well head to the burner tip, several kind of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CF1765A8

Innovations In Monitoring & Reporting Odorant Detection Levels
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays business environment requires the natural gas industry to perform many critical functions such as measurement, gas control, and odorization. Accurate measurement is a complex process involving a variety of equipment, procedures and people. The result is an accurate accounting of gas bought and sold. Gas Control is also a complex process that requires a sophisticated communications network and experienced personnel, resulting in a reliable supply of natural gas for transportation or distribution. However, the odorization program is the most difficult and most important of any function performed by the natural gas industry. The result is a safe public.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7315771C

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 75070B8C

Lpg Plants And Plant Operations
Author(s): Robert C. Dean
Abstract/Introduction:
Propane-air production plants (LPG plants) have been used to provide supplemental and base load gas supplies for over 40 years. LPG plants are normally used by local distribution companies in a peakshaving role to supplement pipeline gas supplies during periods of peak demand. LPG plants are also used in industrial applications to provide an alternative base load gas supply when interruptible gas supply contracts are enforced. In addition, LPG plants can also be used to provide base load gas supplies in areas where natural gas pipelines are not in close proximity to the load.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4E7F7FD3

What, Why And How - The Basics Of Underground Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D418D101

District Pressure Control For The Next Millennium - Benefits Of Automation
Author(s): Stephanie Law Tony Hranicka
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas distribution companies are responsible for operating their system within a safe pressure range. Regulator setpoints are normally fixed for anywhere between 3 and 12 months at a time. In areas where there are extreme seasonal temperature variations, regulator setpoints are often adjusted more frequently to correspond to the changes in demand. These setpoints are determined by evaluating the system demand during peak load. The regulator must be set high enough to maintain system pressure during cold weather periods and peak time of day. Figure 1 shows a typical gas distribution network or grid. Multiple district regulators (DR) are supplying gas to end users signified by circles. The diamonds represent the systems low-pressure point (LPP), extremity point, or sometimes called an end point. This point is where the pressure is always the lowest due to location or piping restrictions. The district regulator is set at a pressure high enough to maintain a minimum operating pressure at the low point during the anticipated peak load which is expected to occur for only a few hours on the coldest day of the year.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EEF6A894

Sonic Nozzle Proving
Author(s): Jim Albert
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meter proving is a fundamentally simple process, involving only five things: 1. Control 2. Index reading 3. Volume measurement 4. Computation 5. Reporting pass some air through a meter how much air does the meter say it was? how much air was it really? find the ratio between the two volumes save the results This is all very evident when you prove manually using a bell. You operate the bell controls by hand you read the meter index and the bell scale by eye, the computation is basically dividing the scale reading by two cubic feet, and you write the results on a card.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D028B0C9

Basic Electronics For Field Service In The Gas Industry
Author(s): James P. Reinmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Lets face it, electronics are now a part of every facet in our lives. The Gas Utilities are recently coming of age, installing more devices every day. Customers demand it. Downsized organizations rely on it. Timely consumption and pressure information are quickly becoming crucial to our everyday operations. This paper is targeted at those of us tasked with installing and maintaining electronic devices for Natural Gas delivery, especially for those new to this field. I will begin with the basic tenants of electricity, followed by an inventory of the equipment and some applications, and round out the discussion with some tools and techniques of the trade. I intend to provide you with a basic understanding of how your Gas Company electronics works, and some idea and suggestions to try when they dont work
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3F4BC1CD

Characteristics Of Rotary Meter Performance
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5399FD9F

Minimizing The Effects Of Pulsation Induced Gage Line Error
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B7253C54

Self-Operated Regulators Selection, Installation, And Operation
Author(s): Joe Mullner
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 40FA2C39

Fundamentals Of Vortex Flowmeters
Author(s): Dennis Ciccarelli
Abstract/Introduction:
The phenomena of vortex shedding has been investigated in modern times by several notable people. Herman Von Helmholtz (1821-1894) V. Strouhal, who in 1878 published a comprehensive study of vortex shedding bluff bodies and Theodore von Karman (1881- 1963), who received a patent for a vortex shedding flowmeter. As you will see this phenomena surrounds us in or every day life. The principle is fairly straight forward putting it commercial use is less so.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8D0242C2

Real World Test Results: What A Meter Database Says About Rotary & Turbine Meters
Author(s): David J. Firth
Abstract/Introduction:
When I became the manager of group to which the Columbia Meter Shop reports, the manager whom I replaced left some items in my new office. One of these presents was a framed picture of a rotary meter given to him when he became manager. This is the cash register of the company, he told me. The manager of measurement and regulation should have a picture of the cash register of the company in his office. Although I cant say that a gas meter picture lends much to the decor of my office, my predecessor had a valid point. The large volume gas meter is a vital part of the company revenue stream. If not properly maintained, company revenues can suffer and the company can be placed at an undesirable level of legal liability.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 20AF4D92

Field Communications For Ldc Pressure Monitoring
Author(s): Michael Marsters Matthew Pawloski
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7F45C9E6

Proper Sizing, Installation And Operation Of Submerged Motor LNG Pumps
Author(s): Henry A. Smith III
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to give LNG plant owners some important guidelines to follow when writing a specification for new LNG pumps. In addition there are suggestions for proper installation and the operation of the pumps
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1F5F793D

Meter Sampling And Meter Management
Author(s): Dave Greer
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays economy utilities need to reduce their co order to remain competitive. Rate increases are a out-of-the-question in the current business cli Saving operating costs has become a more realisti to impact the bottom line. Meter Sampling and eff Meter Management can produce big savings. A pro approach to maintaining the accuracy of your meter ulation and managing this asset can be very import is estimated that 20% of a utilitys expenses in meters and measurement operations
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D81F3632

Installation Challenges Resolved With Gas Flow Conditioners
Author(s): James E. Gallagher Michael P. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
The full cost of ownership of any measurement facility consists of the initial capital, commissioning, training, spare parts, maintenance and calibration costs for the lifetime of the equipment. The full cost is several times the initial capital investment and should be the deciding factor in equipment selection. The technical selection - accuracy, repeatability, drift, ease of calibration as well as reliability indirectly affects the cost of ownership.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2B7C83B6

Automated Tracking Of Meter Information For Field, Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Deborah A. Dewitt Jim Mccracken
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies today must operate at a faster pace than ever before. With deregulation and increased competition, a company must be able to respond quickly to customer requests with quality answers and products at a minimal cost. To achieve this, an infrastructure allowing employees hands-on access to a variety of information must be in place - with information thats up-to-date and accurate. Systems must improve a workers productivity, make data widely available to onthe- job employees, be flexible to change, assure data validity and support a streamlined work flow process. They must fit into the everyday workplace of the employee and not be a burden or added task
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 59DBFAC3

Chemistry Of Heat Transfer Fluids
Author(s): Ken Schreurs & Lori Mulneix
Abstract/Introduction:
Heat transfer has always been an integral part of the natural gas transmission industry. The compression of natural gas generates a tremendous amount of heat. Conversely, the decompression for distribution requires a tremendous amount of heat. Heat transfer ensures that these processes proceed smoothly and trouble-free
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AE95B334

Utilization Of The Below Grade Ball Valve Regulator For Large Volume Regulator Stations Requiring Reduced Noise Levels
Author(s): Michael P. Hogan Mike Racine
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, there has been growing concern within the natural gas industry regarding the effect natural gas regulating stations have on their surrounding environments. In an effort to cut down on excessive noise and pollution, many gas distribution and transmission companies have begun utilizing equipment which reduces the impact on the surrounding environment. The below grade ball valve regulator is a prime example of this environment- friendly equipment. Because of its high capacity, control capabilities, rangeability, and dependability, the below grade ball valve regulator has become the preferred method for controlling gas flow through natural gas regulating stations. It remains the primary choice for high volume regulations throughout the gas industry. Its long term reliability warrants further consideration for the direct burial of the ball valve regulator as a method of, not only maintaining superior flow characteristics, but also of greatly reducing any noise created in the station facilities.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0A4004FC

Pre-Fabricated Rotary Meter Sets For Use In Distribution Measurement
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver Ron Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an overview of pre-fabricated rotary meter sets. My goal is to provide information you can use to evaluate the benefits of pre-fabricated sets, evaluate potential vendors, and evaluate potential design ideas. The use of pre-fabricated rotary meter sets in the North American gas industry is increasing. As our industry continues to change I think youll see an increasing need for this cost saving concept. First, lets briefly discuss some of the industry trends generating interest in this idea.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B8806C08

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Richard J. Golomb Brian Lunger
Abstract/Introduction:
Grove Valve & Regulator designed and manufactured the first expandable tube type, Flexible Element regulator during the 1940s. The original regulator was of the end entry design and was used by the United States Navy during World War II. In the late 1940s and early 1950s the natural gas pipeline industry started using the Flexible Element Regulator. The Flexible Element Regulator soon became the most widely used regulator in the natural gas, and liquid pipeline industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3872CAAA

Fundamentals Of Self Averaging Pitot Tubes
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Check measurement of volumetric flow in natural gas pipelines is essential for system pipeline monitoring and control. Although the custody of natural gas is not transferred at a check meter, the calculated flow rate through the meter must be reliable and repeatable while remaining cost effective.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6417C66D

LNG Tank Integrity And LNG Level Measurement
Author(s): Christian S. Hosford
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the need for accurate level measurement in LNG Tanks in terms of tank integrity and inventory management, and the benefits of various types of level gauging devices in terms of: Ease of retrofitting on existing LNG tanks Accuracy of level measurement Ability to measure density Two common types of LNG tanks are addressed, the large flat bottom, double wall tank, and the small, horizontal double walled, vacuum insulated tanks.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0841EA77

Overview Of A Scada Remote Terminal Installation
Author(s): James F. Titus
Abstract/Introduction:
The field portion of a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) System consists of: RTU (remote terminal unit) Means of communication between RTU and master computer Power for the RTU Devices used to allow the RTU to monitor and control the field equipment
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2F38A458

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Bob Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator is a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. Our consideration today will be with the gas regulator, specifically the pilot controlled regulator, in matching the supply of gas moving through it with the demand downstream. Regulators operate on the following equation SUPPLY DEMAND. The regulator solves this equation by maintaining the outlet pressure at the set point. Too much supply causes an increase in downstream pressure while too little supply results in a decrease in downstream pressure. Graphically, the ideal regulator would operate as follows:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 094AF922

Moisture And Corrosion Protection For Sensitive Electronic Equipment In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Keith A. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6BB97AE2

Fundamentals Of Instrumentation
Author(s): John G. Stephens
Abstract/Introduction:
Instruments are used in the Natural Gas Industry 24/7 to help us to measure a valuable commodity, which cannot be easily transported, seen, or remain in a definable shape. Instrumentation typically is used to assist other devices such as meters to measure and record the consumption of natural gas and perform a variety of other functions. A meter can be considered an instrument however for the purposes of this paper, they will be considered a primary measuring element, which is addressed with other papers. There are also instruments used to test or verify the integrity of other instruments
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E6CF7E35

Statistical Analysis Of Chart Integration To Reduce Errors In Management
Author(s): Greg Hicks
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement is essential in todays natural gas industry. Significant chances to instrumentation in the measurement of natural gas has undoubtedly improved the accuracy of the measuring device. Technological advances to computer systems and chart processing equipment have revolutionized the gas measurement industry. All of these innovations improve accuracy of measurement to a certain degree, however, the element of errors in measurement is not and will not be eliminated. Measurement departments/companies must take responsibility of reducing these errors as much as possible with any means available. Chart integration data is a tool which can be used to decrease errors
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 21EE0573

Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Tanks For LNG Storage
Author(s): Thomas D. High & Kenneth L. Paul
Abstract/Introduction:
Vacuum insulated cryogenic tanks are being used in increasing numbers to receive liquefied natural gas (LNG) from road transports, store the LNG until needed and supply liquid to a vaporizer to feed a distribution pipeline or industrial process. The major advantage to these shop-fabricated vessels is that the LNG can be stored at a pressure high enough to feed directly into the vaporizer and then to the gas line without the use of pumps.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7178966F

Instrumentation For Water Vapor Determination In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
With todays focus on gas quality, an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas is of great importance. This paper will discuss several different sensor technologies available to perform these tasks. This paper will also address key issues in assembling a proper sampling system to provide a representative gas sample to the sensing device
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7162E6C3

Diaphragm Meter Design And Operation
Author(s): Jim Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm meter is a positive displacement instrument which is used to measure the volume of gas that passes through it. This is accomplished through the known volume that is displaced for each stroke of the diaphragm. The diaphragm also provides the seal between the measuring chambers of the device. As such the diaphragm meter has proven to be an accurate and reliable means of measurement of gas for many years. This is especially true at low flow rates because of its positive displacement characteristics. This paper includes a basic review of the function and design of the positive displacement meter as well as an explanation of the operation of the diaphragm meter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A95D844C

Ground Free Surge Protection
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Ground is so often used in the context of surge protection that it is difficult to imagine a surge protection device that does not require earth ground. Well, there are some applications where secondary-type surge protection devices do not require earth grounding
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D351FC59

Combining Intrinsic Safety With Surge Protection For The Gas And Pipe Line Industry
Author(s): Donald R. Long And Lee Ann Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas and Pipe Line Industry face a rather unique combination of problems. First, many of the areas in and around pumping, transfer, and storage areas are classified, or considered hazardous areas, that must, according to the National Electric Code, be assessed for explosion-proofing. This may be in the form of intrinsic safety, explosion proof, purging or non-incendive. The second problem facing the industry is the physical exposure of much of the electronic control and measuring systems, communications,and power subsystems. Each of these have their own sensitive, high-performance, solid state microcircuitry subject to potentially devastating lightning and electrical surges
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 81EF1878

Electrical Installations And Intrinsic Safety In Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Winfried Winni() Faulring
Abstract/Introduction:
When installing electrical circuits in hazardous locations, some form of explosion protection must be used. In the United States and Canada the traditional method has been to install these systems in explosionproof enclosures and sealed conduit. Since this type of protection can be expensive to install and maintain, many users have turned toward intrinsic safety as the preferred explosion protection method
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: ADB79B96

Odor Fade - Possible Causes And Remedies
Author(s): Michael J. Usher
Abstract/Introduction:
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the chemistry of Gas Odorants and to discuss the various ways in which pipeline conditions and gas quality can contribute to odor fade. Possible methods of overcoming this problem are considered.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 116E9A18

The Effects Of Proper Inspection And Maintenance Of Rotary And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Joe Leo
Abstract/Introduction:
Before even considering the installation of a rotary in the field, a certain amount of preparation and investigation should take place. The preparation required in order to properly install rotary meters is most important. The following concerns should be addressed when considering the installation of rotary meters:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EA41B6C5

Storage Well Corrosion
Author(s): Mary S. Friend
Abstract/Introduction:
Storage wells tend to be long lived, and are subject to a maximum pressure every year. Gas passes through the pipelines both into and out of the wells during the course of a year. Storage wells are a vertical extension of the pipeline. Many storage wells are old production wells that have been converted to storage. Due to the long life of storage wells as well as the gas passage, corrosion is an ever-present concern. Well completions, fluids, and gas chemistry can cause corrosion in storage wells. Corrosion in storage wells can cause leaks, resulting in the loss of storage gas, loss of deliverability, and possibly property damage. The corrosion problems require time, effort, and money to repair. A few simple procedures can monitor and reduce the corrosion problems, and add efficiency to the wells.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 777C8B07

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon liquids, entrained in natural gas, have been the source of many sampling problems. The primary problem is lack of agreement in the natural gas industry on the fundamental issue of should entrained liquid be included or excluded from sample gas. Standard practices issued by industry organizations are generally more applicable to natural gas that is free of liquid. The current standard practices provide minimum guidance in dealing with entrained liquids. Most of the current research in this field relates to techniques for sampling rich gas sources that contain no liquid.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C8DBD842

Measuring Natural Gas With Coriolis Meters
Abstract/Introduction:
CORIOLIS MEASUREMENT OF The use of Coriolis technology fo grown steadily since it was fir decades ago. Whether for liq Coriolis metering offers unique tages including: Large turndown ratio of 100 No flow conditioning requir irregular flow profile Direct mass measurement ture corrections to derive m Values easily converted to desired High accuracy - 0.10% fo Non-intrusive - minimum p problems virtually eliminated No moving parts - minimu perform when needed
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8017629D

Chart Problems: Causes & Solutions
Author(s): P. Dane Carder
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to advances in technology and the need for more accurate measurement, office personnel must become more knowledgeable and efficient than ever. This cannot be accomplished, however, if office personnel have never been exposed to the whys and hows of field operations. The main thrust of this class will be for this familiarization of different types of chart problems along with their current interpretation
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FB184F37

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): John R. Anderson Curtis Bagby
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on system stability
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 938AC267

Fundamentals Of Electronic Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Greg Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics is now playing a part in about every aspect of gas measurement and control. Just a few years ago, chart recorders and mechanical correctors were found on nearly every gas metering point. Electronic equipment was normally only found in large stations where remote monitoring and control was required
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FEC80CC9

Accessing Gas Measurement Data Using Structured Query Language
Author(s): Rich Walz And Danny Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Measurement business requires the storage and retrieval of vast amounts of data. Volume data, analysis data and meter information must be entered, retrieved, and updated. It also has to be related to each other in specific ways to be useful to us. Additionally, much of the gas measurement data we have to manage is date effective. Analysis data for a gas stream, for example, can change from day to day or hour to hour. To report the energy content of a package of gas, we need to relate it to the gas analysis information that was current as of the time period we are reporting on
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EA22540C

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): John T. Kabay
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the time people become engaged in controlling or preventing corrosion by appointment rather than as a final step in a process of formal education. The following basic information is designed to be helpful to that segment of such a group entering the Corrosion Control Field without the benefit of any extensive training in the basic sciences related to corrosion, but who may be called upon from time to time to take at least the first steps in anticipating or determining areas of active corrosion, either on their own or with fellow employees.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AC1DADEC

Fundamentals Of Pressure Reducing Regulators
Author(s): Tin T. Truong
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many applications in the gas industry today that require the use of a pressure- reducing regulator. In the theater of natural gas operations, one can find these simple mechanical devices being used anywhere from a well head to the burner tip. This presentation will cover the basic elements of a pressure-reducing regulator and also explains the operating principles of the two most common types: self-operated and pilot-operated regulators.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C47DAAAB

Freeze Protection For Instrumentation Controls, Controllers, Control Valves, And Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality and its accurate determination will assist in the prevention of the problems associated with freezing and hydrates in gas service. Measurement is only accurate under ideal conditions. In order for this condition to occur, contaminants must be removed from the meter run and pipeline. One of the contaminants that must be addressed is liquid in the meter run. According to data from Southwest Research Institute, one inch of liquid in a meter run can cause measurement errors in excess of 5%. These liquids may be water or liquid hydrocarbons. These same liquids, coupled with flowing temperature, ambient temperature, or pressure, will cause ice or hydrates to form
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 34E86FF0

Decommissioning Of Odorant Facilities And Disposal Of Odorant Materials Via Two Phase Thermal Oxidation
Author(s): Jan Strmen And Damian Rodriguez
Abstract/Introduction:
Issues of safety, liability and environment associated with handling, storage and disposal of odorant waste are becoming very important for operations of natural gas industry. This paper is intended to provide information on technologies, equipment and procedures involved in decommissioning of odorant facilities and thermal treatment of odorant wastes which meets most stringent requirements of Gas Industry. Capable of treating wastes such as soils, drums, debris, rags and equipment contaminated with odorant, system used by Material Resource Recovery Inc. has the ability to treat odorant tanks up to a length of 26 feet
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C8D193C7

Gas Detection In The Natural Gas Transmission And Petroleum Products Pipeline Industries
Abstract/Introduction:
Uses reference and active beads as part of its detection principal. The reference bead is encapsulated by inert material preventing outside air from contacting metals impregnated within the bead. A thin wire supplies current to the reference bead and the reference voltage stays constant even in the face of changes in air temperature, relative humidity concentrations, and atmospheric pressure. The output wire from the reference bead feeds one half of a wheatstone bridge circuit. The active bead is not encapsulated and is exposed to contact from ambient/outside air
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5AA295FD

From Meter Pen To Volume Statement
Author(s): Steve Sly Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Demonstration of the chart processing cycle beginning at the chart change and working step by step through the process and concluding with a volume report. For decades, the gas meter chart has been the document used to transact billions of dollars in commerce each year. Even in this age of electronics and computers, the paper chart is an important piece of paper to everyone directly and indirectly involved in the natural gas industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 53AB0390

Basic Pressure And Flow Control
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A90F890E

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): James Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
How do we measure a colorless, almost odorless gas which makes an ideal fuel for heating, cooking and other energy processes? Our first difficulty would be the fact that the gas is flowing continuously in a closed conduit, a pipeline, at high or low pressure and either high or low velocity. To that degree, there are different types of meters which may be used. There is the turbine, or displacement, or orifice, or the latest - the ultrasonic. This paper will concentrate on the orifice meter. The orifice meter is by far the most common and widely used form of gas measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 16AE659B

Fundamentals Of LNG Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course August 2000
Author(s): Mike Dysel
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to outline the key physical and chemical properties of LNG and to show how these properties determine basic handling and safety requirements. A brief discussion of the comparison of LNG to other vehicle fuels is also included. The concepts are treated in broad overview fashion. This paper assumes that the reader does not have considerable prior knowledge of LNG properties
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3740F2C9

Rotary & Turbine Meter Installation Uncertainty
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of natural gas is more than a number recorded in a route book by a meter reader. Underlying the volume recorded within a customers bill are the reputations of the meter manufacturers who want to sell a quality product, the operation engineers who want to specify the right meter for the right job, and the field personnel who install, operate and maintain the equipment from the cradle to the grave. When these reputations are coupled with the customeris desire to pay for the correct volume of natural gas consumed, the quality of all links within the measurement system chain is the key to a low cost and low uncertainty meter
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F0494D67

Electronic Corrector Installation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of natural gas at custody transfer meters is critical for both revenue and customer satisfaction. Advances in computer technology have made it possible to replace compensated meter indexes and chart recorders with sophisticated electronics that are often reliable and repeatable while remaining cost effective
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 65CCD726

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro Dale Moats
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-214-952-9435.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 78A17D2F

Troubleshooting Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Field
Author(s): Dave Shepler
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of you who have, or will have, experience in troubleshooting diaphragm meters, know it can be very frustrating at times trying to figure out the problems that can be encountered in the field. This presentation will hopefully address most of those problems and provide some solutions
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5F75F713

Pid Control - Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID. In this paper we will go over the practical aspects of using and tuning mechanical, pneumatic, and electronic controllers.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 76EB1507

A Comprehensive Training Program For Field And Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): A. S. Buddy Harris, Jr., David J. Carroll
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper training of our employees is critical to the safety of our employees, the safety of the public, and the success of our companies. A typical measurement technician may be responsible for ensuring the accuracy of meters that measure millions of dollars worth of gas each month. With the changes in technology that the industry is experiencing, training of both field and office personnel has become a new challenge.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 03D6AB9F

Overpressure Protection
Author(s): David C. Hiatt & Donald E. Holtman
Abstract/Introduction:
In a gas distribution system, each piece of pipe must be protected against overpressure or exceeding the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus allowable build-up. This includes all feeder line, distribution mains and all service lines
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9E3E7AA2

Plunger Lift: Applications, Operations And Its Effect On Measurement Systems
Author(s): Stan Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
The growing popularity of plunger-lift as a a serious production technique is testimony to the effectiveness of this often-misunderstood process. Once rarely considered, plunger lift is now being used by prudent operators all over the world. The need for continued education and information for production operators continues to grow. Even though the basic applications remain the same, the parameters are changing. Thousands of wells that would never have been considered as candidates previously can now be operated effectively and efficiently
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F5AC6CF3

Theory And Application Of The Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Howard E. Brumbaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a well-established method to obtain composition measurements in a gas or vaporized liquid/solid mixture. It physically separates, identifies, and quantifies mixture components in an injected sample. The laboratory gas chromatograph (GC), in use for many years, requires an operator to take a proper sample, fill a syringe, and inject the sample into the GC analyzer. It can perform many different types of analysis on a wide range of products. A lab technician can change out detectors, columns, and other parts to make the lab GC fit the specific application. Lab applications usually change more frequently than process applications
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8F4133F2

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles to measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large volume measurement and thus fewer applications
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9D7FBE65


Copyright © 2017