Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (2000)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 2000 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement Em 3110
Author(s): Eric Estrada
Abstract/Introduction:
As Electronic Flow Meters (EFMs) have become more powerful and less expensive, many companies have begun dependent on EFMs for their gas gathering systems. However, there is always the challenge to justify the expense of replacing chart recorders on existing meters with EFMs. This paper will focus on providing the reader with a means to justify the replacement of chart recorders with EFMs.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 02B29CE3

Effects Of Cathodic Protection & Induced Signals On Pipeline Measurement Em 3120
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe that is buried under ground or water has a tendency to have external corrosion. Corrosion is where the strength of metal pipe is effectively reduced due to the metal molecules combining with other molecules to form a third substance. An example of this is the iron in steel pipe combining with oxygen to form iron oxide or rust.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F1E1DD17

Implementation Of A Scada System Em 3130
Author(s): Kurt Kufeld
Abstract/Introduction:
What is SCADA? Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is the supervision of multiple control systems and control structures with an overriding centralized computer system. The totality of that structure is a SCADA system.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CAD3EDF9

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer Em 3140
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas flow computers have become state of the art technology in todays challenges concerning gas custody transfers. They have been around since the mid-1960s though at that time were neither highly trusted nor significantly reliable. Choices were limited and electronic failures were commonplace.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F4E63989

Real-Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement Em 3150
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Real-Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement can be interpreted differently by companies and the types of operations performed within these companies. Gas Flow measurement can be accomplished using the On-Site Method, which utilizes AGA calculations in the flow computer, or the Off-Site Method, which applies AGA calculations to data collected on a Central Host Computer Station.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6DF387C4

Temperature And Pressure Transducers Em 3160
Author(s): Roland Rollins
Abstract/Introduction:
Understanding transducer specifications can sometimes be confusing. This paper breaks down transducer specifications into simple terms with examples to help clarify what is real versus marketing wordplay (specsmanship). Also covered are standard transducers/transmitters, and smart transmitters operation and calibration.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1293AD2F

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices Em 3180
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 63711417

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): S. Craig Blake
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the basic principle and procedures in designing a high-pressure regulation and measuring station. The principles and procedures discussed will be for any station design with an inlet pressure of over 60 psig. There are three considerations that need to be kept in mind when designing a station. First, is always safety. It is best on a new station design, to always exceed the government safety codes that are established by Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192 (CFR 192). This will eliminate any safety concerns. The second consideration is the purpose for the Station. What is the station being designed for? The design of the station should conform to all industry accepted standards for regulation and measurement. The last consideration is that of cost. Some stations have such low volumes that it is impossible to recover the cost in a twenty or thirty year period. In review of the cost this will cause the designer to simplify the material design of the station. By considering all of the above this will allow for a reliable, safe, and economical station design.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 44A602E8

Calibration Of Liquid PROVERSPRIVATE It 4020
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its base volume, in accordance with industry accepted practices, and traceable to recognized standards. Thus the base volume of a prover (BPV) might be determined in accordance with the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) of the Amercan Petroleum Institute (API), and be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The base volume of a prover (BPV) is its certified volume at standard conditions (e.g. 60 degrees F and 0 psig in U.S. Customary units, or 15 degrees C and 101.325 kPa in international, SI units).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6BFF5BC3

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide C02 has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience had been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data. Despite the fact that it has been many years since the first C02 projects were started, there still exists a large amount of uncertainty as to the correct method to determine volumetric flow rates in custody transfer application. These uncertainties can lead to excessively high measurement errors, especially in the pressure ranges typical of processing plant discharges, transportation pipelines, or at wellhead injection. At pressures typical of field gathering systems, or plant inlets, the effects of large concentrations of C02 will not effect the properties of gas to the extent that they will at higher pressures. With high concentrations of C02, however, the calculation methods could be affected. It is the purpose of this paper to detail some of the procedures developed both in the field and in the laboratory for the measurement of Carbon Dioxide.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4671F24C

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving In Custody Transfer Ct 4030
Author(s): John Naber
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the use of microprocessor technology became widespread in the 1970s, the functional capability of proving instruments has increased dramatically. Early proving instruments were merely counters that could be gated on and off by the detector switches mounted on a meter prover. Modern instruments still provide the basic counting function but have the capability to automate the entire process.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8C81857B

Compressibility Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Michael A. Adewumi
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of natural gas flow is central to the operation of the gas industry. In fact, the meter is said to be the cash register of the industry. What this means is that the gas industry takes accuracy in gas flow measurement very seriously. Although, traditionally the focus of the gas measurement technology has always been on volumetric flow rates reduced to certain standard conditions of pressure and temperature, however in recent years there is a move towards energy rate measurement. In any case, accuracy remains a salient goal of the industry and hence the gas measurement personnel are constantly searching for ways and means of improving accuracy. Each year, the industry and its research organizations devote significant resources to this endeavor.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3C7BBC80

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): James m. Doyle, Debbie Rampy
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation, competition, and increased share earnings. Do these terms sound familiar? Seems as though in todays market of the Oil and Gas Industry those terms are the basis companies must contend with. Companies must be firm and meet aggressive market strategies, or suffer the consequences. All industries have cash registers, and ours is no exception. Our measuring stations that measure our products are our cash register. These stations were designed ten, twenty, thirty even fifty years ago and are now are performing tasks they were not designed for. Therefore, changes must be made.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 36F2F772

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving Ct 4030
Author(s): Alan L. Mccartney, Kenneth D. Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
There are various types of meter proving systems used in the petroleum industry. These range from fixed to mobile systems of varying sizes from conventional pipe provers and compact ballistic provers to master-meter proving. Master-meter proving systems use a reference turbine meter in lieu of a calibrated prover pipe volume. These systems are described in detail in API MPMS Chapter 4. To understand the role of flow computers within metering and proving systems it helps to understand basic theory and practices.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1FD13096

Design, Calibration And Operation Of Field Standard Test Measures Ct 4040
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Atmospheric metal volumetric measures with a top neck and graduated scale, traceable to a recognized national calibration agency such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), are known as field standards. They are used for the purpose of calibrating liquid meter provers. NIST generally refers to hand held measures ( 10 gallons) which are drained overhead as test measures, and to stationary measures ( 10 gallons and 1500 gallons) which are drained by a bottom drain valve as provers. Since field standards are used in the waterdraw calibration of liquid meter provers (volumetric tank and displacement types), the American Petroleum Institute (API) has adopted the convention of referring to both types of standards as field standard test measures. For brevity, field standard test measures will be referred to as field standards or measures in this paper. Normal sensitivity measures are those typically used for provers larger than 15 gallons displaced volume. High sensitivity measures are those typically used for provers smaller than or equal to 15 gallons.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DDD8D87F

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers Ct 4050
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to 0.02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3F647A5A

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Prover Ct 4060
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters or provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced while proving meters with different types of proving equipment.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C867D61D

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness Ct 4080
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
Any custody transfer involves two or more parties, each of which has a vested interest in the quality and quantity determinations used to transfer ownership of a liquid hydrocarbon. In theory, there is always a buyer and seller in any custody transfer. Contractual agreements determine who is responsible for actually performing the measurements involved in the transfer of custody but all parties must share accountability. Therefore, all parties involved in a custody transfer will, at one time or another, assume the important role of the witness.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 75BE2621

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional() Ct 4090
Author(s): Drew S. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of a liquid flow prover is to provide a precise means for calibrating flow meters. Provers are most commonly used to calibrate turbine meters or positive displacement meters, although they may also be used with other types of meters. A prover provides a known standard for comparison to the meter output, and, in application, is used to establish factors for correction of the indicated volume of the meter being proved, thereby resulting in more precise measurement. The common types of provers include:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CCCAC46B

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CCDF2533

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques Ct 4095
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter proving is a process used to obtain a meter factor. The purpose of a meter factor is to correct a meters indicated volume to a number, which more closely represents the true volume that passed through the meter. A meter factor is essential to calculating the net standard volume which is the basis for all pipeline liquid custody transfers.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0BB4113A

Operation And Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches Ct 4100
Author(s): William R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to a known volume between detector switch that is displaced either by a sphere or a piston from the time that the first detector switch is activated until the second detector switch is activated. This volume between the detector switches is determined by a calibration procedure known as the Water Draw method. The detector switches are a very important part of establishing a meter factor.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5A5EB62E

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas - Transmission
Author(s): Cheryl Swonke
Abstract/Introduction:
Leakage and Unaccounted for Gas continues to be a critical component in the Natural Gas Industry. As the Natural Gas Industry continues to evolve and become more competitive, now more than ever before, natural gas pipelines must assure that leakage and unaccounted for gas is held to a minimum. Following is a discussion on what leakage and unaccounted for gas is how it is determined why it must be controlled and measures that can be taken to minimize it. The discussion to follow is from the perspective of an interstate natural gas transmission company, and may not encompass fully all of the individual issues for the industry as a whole.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0A19215E

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers Ct 4110
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will endeavor to relate actual experience with, and applications of, small volume provers. It is not submitted with any intent to dissuade or discourage the use of conventional ball provers. Furthermore, it must be stated that the small volume prover has not replaced the conventional prover ..... each has its own unique place within the industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 622B3FC8

Effect And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) now known as (GMRC) Gas Machinery Research Council a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991. Though originally produced for PCRC members only, these reports are now available to the industry for a nominal charge.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0437C51C

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters Ct 413
Author(s): Mark Vandiver
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter proving is a physical test used to determine the accuracy and performance of a liquid meter. By placing a liquid meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known or base volume in such a way that all the liquid measured by the meter is also measured by the prover. The liquid measured by the meter is compared to the known prover volume. This correction is the meter factor.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E7061F1D

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems Ct 4140
Author(s): Brad D. Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9EDF5863

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement Ct 4150
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett, Ph.D.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APrs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of working tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of new requirements to ensure the instruments and equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions of tractability, verification, and certification.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5B2520AE

Witnessing Orifice Gas Measurement And Field Testing Class Ct 4160
Author(s): Olen Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
The art of witnessing orifice gas measurement hasnt changed much over the years. The introduction of electronic meters has added some new elements to the job but basic orifice gas measurement is still done much the same as it always has been. This class will address and deal with the issues involved in performing the witness duties.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 30BDC1D4

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph Eq 5020
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
The data measured by the on-line gas chromatograph is used not only to furnish the heating value (BTU / Cu.Ft.), but also to correct the measured gas volumes by providing full compositional data as well as the gas relative density.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5CF6CE90

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Gas Chromatograph Eq 5O3O
Author(s): Robert Quattlebaum
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph has become the instrument of choice for physical property measurements in natural gas. For portable, on-line and laboratory applications, chromatography is the preferred method.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0CCA52A6

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint Eq 5040
Author(s): Robert L. Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
To select, install and maintain a gas chromatograph system can be a daunting task. Many decisions must be made: Expected product composition and analytical components of interest must be identified. The best method of sample introduction needs to be considered. From a vast assortment of column configurations, the most suitable combination must be selected. Choices must be made between various types of detectors. The most effective integration, calculation and reporting systems are needed. After proper selection and installation, it is hoped that the system will perform well with minimum maintenance and troubleshooting.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: ED5D7930

Chromatograph Maintenance And Trouble-Shooting Eq 5050
Author(s): Murray Fraser, Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatographs (GCs) are among the most complex instrument systems in a meter station. Yet they require less maintenance than most instruments. Modern chromatograph controllers are equipped with remote diagnostics and computerbased chromatograms to aid users in deciding when and why maintenance is required. The information below is presented to aid the user in troubleshooting chromatograph problems by viewing both diagnostic messages and chromatograms.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EC111279

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids Eq 5060
Author(s): Rick Baggett
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatographic analysis has become an integral part of the measurement process. Two methods of analysis most commonly employed in the gas industry today are GPA Standard 2177, Analysis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography, and GPA Standard 2186, Tentative Method for the Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containinq Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed GasChromatoaraDhv. This paper will provide an overview of GPA Standard 2177 and GPA Standard 2186.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 140A5FDC

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer Eq 5070
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidedly more important now than it has been in past years.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 55D4F832

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer Eq 5070
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss automatic sampling systems, their ability to obtain representative samples of shipments, and how to know when a sample is representative.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 89781A26

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer Eq 5070
Author(s): Joe E. Trice
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil sampling is a very important aspect in the operation of a custody transfer facility. Today, pipeline companies rely on automatic sampling systems to obtain a representative sample from the crude stream for the purpose of determining quality. Sediment and water (S&W) are non-merchantable components of crude parcels. Therefore, the ability to determine a representative sample of a crude stream is paramount in determining the net standard volume of the transfer. Failure to obtain representative samples of a crude shipment can result in economic losses (or gains) to the custody parties. For example, failure to account for 0.05% of the S&W for a 100,000 barrel transfer can cost 220,000 per year (assuming 12 per barrel).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5AE99264

Crude Quality - What Is Involved And Why Is Quality Imporant Eq 5080
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
In the oil patch, custody transfer measurement has always been defined as providing quantity and quality information used for the physical and fiscal documentation of a change of ownership or responsibility for a commodity.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D30B9BB0

Determination Of H2S And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas Eq 5090
Author(s): Marshall T. Schreve, Billy Mitchell
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide is measured in the natural gas industry for several reasons:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CDE07B98

Determination Of Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Gas Eq 5100
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
With todays focus on gas quality, an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas is of great importance. This paper will discuss several different sensor technologies available to perform these tasks. This paper will also address key issues in assembling a proper sampling system to provide a representative gas sample to the sensing device.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 552C6A8A

Devices For Water Vapor & Hydrocarbon Dew Point Determination Eq 511
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The water vapor dew point temperature (moisture content) and hydrocarbon dew point temperature are two of many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also many different instrument types available to measure the moisture content. In this paper, we will discuss the measurement methods and we present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 253E2022

Devices For Water Vapor And Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement In Gas Eq 5110
Author(s): Colleen Lauffer
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content, and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E1B6DF0F

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): William R. Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of abnormal conditions on orifice plate based flow measurement is a broad topic. The research on abnormal effects has typically focused on issues such as the effects of bent plates, plate eccentricity, dulled orifice bore leading edge, the presence of water and liquified hydrocarbons, and many other conditions found in pipeline orifice meters. Abnormal conditions may also describe conditions that are considered acceptable as they are within the guidelines specified by standards like ANSI/API 2530. ANSI/API 2530 is the standard that covers orifice plate based flow measurement of natural gas. It contains equations for calculating flow, specifications for the installation of orifice flow meters, and methods for gas sampling. This paper will discuss potential problems in four areas of orifice based flow measurement: calculation of discharge coefficients, calculation of expansion factors, flow conditioning, and gas sampling. Each of these topics is covered by the standard but a great deal of detail is left out of the standard. In many cases only a detailed knowledge of the history behind the standard allows flow measurement personnel to recognize when potential problems are arising.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A29858FC

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers Eq 5120
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 66F6A199

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas turbine meters (see fig. 1) were introduced in 1963, and since then have gained world wide acceptance in the industry as an accurate, extremely repeatable, reliable device. The gas turbine meter is easy to understand and maintain in the field, and is easy to interface with the new electronics available in the industry today.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 17B5786A

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography Eq 5130
Author(s): Kenneth E. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
As the Natural Gas Industry strives to become more efficient and meet customer demands, we find that the old ways of doing business cannot be raised to todays standards of performance. One of these areas is in the way we buy and sell Natural Gas. The days of custody transfer based strictly on volume are quickly coming to a close. More and more often, Natural Gas is bought and sold in terms of total heating volume (Hv). Total heatinq volume is the energy measurement standard of the Natural Gas Industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F1C500FD

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm meter is a positive displacement instrument which is used to measure the volume of gas that passes through it. This is accomplished through the known volume that is displaced for each stroke of the diaphragm. The diaphragm also provides the seal between the measuring chambers of the device. As such the diaphragm meter has proven to be an accurate and reliable means of measurement of gas for many years. This is especially true at low flow rates because of its positive displacement characteristics. This paper includes a brief history of diaphragm meters, an explanation of the operation of the diaphragm meter, a basic review of the function and design of the positive displacement meter, discusses meter ratings and capacity, and introduces temperature compensation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2C9B8D77

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Meters And Gas Chromatography The Technicians Perspective Eq 5140
Author(s): Charles W. Derr, Charles F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas volume and energy metering stations using gas chromatography and ultrasonic metering are becoming a mainstream field operation and a new challenge to metering personnel. They are easy to adapt to while adding a new dimension of value to the field professional. Technicians will invariably be the link to the success of any changing technology that would survive and thrive in the real pipeline environment. Meter stations must be maintainable and provable. The system and requirements will be examined from that perspective
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AD8E01FB

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatographs Eq 515
Author(s): Mark F. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1978, The Natural Gas Policy Act, was passed by Congress as a method of deregulating the gas industry. This act specified that natural gas was to be bought and sold based on energy content per cubic foot. This new standard combined volume measurement and gas heating value measurement to produce an energy measurement system for natural gas. As a result of this act, the On-Line Gas Chromatograph has become a vital element in accurate energy measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B4BB329C

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment & Water In Crude Oil Eq 5160
Author(s): Peter W. Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Sediment and water (S&W) are components that occur naturally in crude oil. In the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) vocabulary section, sediment and water is defined as A material coexisting with, yet foreign to, petroleum liquid, that requires a separate measurement for reasons that include sales accounting. This foreign material includes free water and sediment and emulsified or suspended material and sediment. The quantity of suspended material present is determined by analytically testing a sample of petroleum liquid (see free water).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 53D527ED

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography Eq 5170
Author(s): Charles Cook, Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a scientific method in which a gas sample is separated into its component parts for measurement. The gas chromatograph consists of subsystems that inject the sample, separate the sample, detect the components, integrate the peaks, and report the results. The method is commonly used in natural gas custody metering to provide the heating value (BTU) and the relative density of samples.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 31445996

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
was first offered to the gas industry in 1920 by the Roots-Connersville Blower Co. which was founded in 1854 in Connersville, IN. It was a development of the Roots type blower.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7526F1A7

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 52359F8D

Gas Measurement Laboratory Eq 5180
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
is the objective of a laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are recommended.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 99D2A694

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas Eq 5190
Author(s): Randy Underwood
Abstract/Introduction:
The heat quantity of gas is the item desired by the purchaser. It is the product of the heating value and the gas volume. Since many contracts are based on the heating quantity of the gas, the effects of water vapor in the gas should be thoroughly understood.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 522BB467

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-today gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 82B7B4E4

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 90BEA14A

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling Eq 5200
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 19E49BD4

Natural Gas Sampling Uncertainties And Economics Eq 5230
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The precise measurement of natural gas is a subject of continuing study and discussion. The impact of the precise measurement of gas quality and composition is often considered to only effect the thermal value of the measured quantity of gas. This idea, however, is far from accurate. The precise measurement of natural gas flow rates (quantity) is dependent upon the precise measurement of the composition of the natural gas product stream (quality). These measurements of quantities and thermal values are considered in terms of acceptable levels of measurement uncertainty. In other words, a level of vadance exists around the point of absolute accuracy which is considered acceptable to those who are party to the transfer of the product from the custody of one to another. Thus, the term custody transfer quality measurement implies that the determined quantity and total energy content of the product exchanged between parties are within these levels of acceptable variance, or uncertainty, from the absolute point of accuracy, or zero uncertainty.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 241CAF57

Product Quality Assurance For Pipeline Transportation Eq 5240
Author(s): Theresa A. Gustafson
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum products must meet various safety, performance, and regulatory requirements at downstream locations such as product terminals and retail outlets. Safety requirements such as flash point and conductivity insure that the product can be handled safely throughout the supply chain and can perform safely in the intended application. Performance requirements such as octane, cetane, distillation, thermal stability, etc. insure that products function properly and do not cause equipment damage. These specifications also protect the product value for all parties in involved in fuel purchasing transactions. Regulatory requirements such as sulfur, vapor pressure, benzene content, etc. insure compliance with federal and state clean air laws. Maintaining product quality can be defined as the having the ability to insure that all of the above requirements are met throughout the supply chain.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 161C1EF1

Proving Tests For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems Eq 52
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment, installation and operational procedures that produce a representative sample of shipments or batches. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system, including the analysis of the sample. This paper will deal with the testing, proving, and certification of automatic sampling systems in crude oil and other hydrocarbon service. This test, in various forms, is also applicable for petroleum products as well as blending system
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 37348DDC

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids Eq 5260
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux Prairieville, La
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids, entrained in natural gas, are the source of many problems in sample conditioning systems. The primary problem is that the impact of entrained liquid on the gas phase composition is often overlooked. Entrained liquid is generally removed only when it is likely to cause analyzer damage.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 59E32BD8

Shipboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer Eq 5270
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic in-line samplers are most often used for custody transfer whenever metering systems are used. Large pipeline systems, except in the rare absence of flow meters, use automatic in-line samplers almost exclusively. The value of using automatic in-line samplers for custody transfer is widely accepted. However, manual sampling is also extensively used in certain instances. In marginal production leases where oil changes custody by tank measurement only is an example of this practice. A more dramatic example of this practice involves the movement of crude oil from producing load ports to discharge ports by marine tanker vessels. Although many load ports and disports (discharge ports) are now using in-line automatic samplers, there still remain many locations that do not. This paper will discuss the merits of using portable in-line automatic samplers on-board marine tanker vessel.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 88FFAADB

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling Eq 5280
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite sample is gas collected in a sample container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during some specific period of time.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 909ABC45

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling Class Eq 5290
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
Why take a spot gas sample? The answer is apparent. In todays unregulated and competitive natural gas industry, accurate measurement is more important every day. Since the composition of natural gas directly affects volumes, reliable sample results are a necessity to ensure accurate volume calculations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1DA9EAB8

Update On Gas Sampling-Api 14.1 Research Presented( By Eric Kelner, Southwest Research) Eq 5300
Author(s): Kendricks A. Behring II
Abstract/Introduction:
The intrinsic value of natural gas (heating value), and the delivery rate (flow rate) both depend, in general, on the measured composition. Heating value is a composition-dependent gas property, and flow rate measured from orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, rotary, diaphragm, and other flow meters require composition-dependent gas properties like density, sound speed, isentropic exponent, viscosity, etc.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AD82BC68

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability Cr 6010
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 06DB5F13

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines Cr 6020
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8FCCF5D9

Fundamentals Of Pilot Regulators Class CR6030
Author(s): Keith D. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
With few exceptions, gas pressure regulators can be classified into either of the following two categories:
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2F76AFDD

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers Cr 6040
Author(s): Ted Geelhart
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, controllers are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently get for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance, it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1C2DABEB

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators Cr 6050
Author(s): Steven Grundmeier
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamental of the regulators operation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 24640B0D

Gas Service Regulators - Operation, Selection, And Installation
Author(s): Keith Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will concentrate on the proper selection, installation and operation of gas service regulators dealing primarily with spring-loaded regulators.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6582DED4

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators Cr 6
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is extremely important because a gas regulator is the most critical mechanism for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. A device that controls changeable pressure and flows is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, a pressure reducer, or regulator.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 74EFAB89

Over Pressure Protection Methods Cr 6090
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry uses many different types of pressure regulation equipment to control the flow of gas as it cascades from systems with higher pressure ratings to systems with lower pressure ratings. In the event this pressure control equipment fails, some form of over pressure protection is required to prevent the system with the lower pressure rating or lower MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure) from being over pressured.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4735FBD0

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment Cr 6100
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the functionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3E0F96F7

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Liquids And Gases Cr 6110
Author(s): Ted Geelhart
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper selection and sizing of control valves is essential in order to assure that you get the best control for your dollar. Oversized valves waist initial costs and will affect future operating performance. Undersized valves may prevent a process from passing the required amount of flow. This limitation may prevent the process from operating at full potential.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 36A0E349

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations Cr 612
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence in a liquid or gas piping system is almost never desirable. Unfortunately, turbulence is also almost never absent. So we must plan for it in order to minimize its effects on pipeline capacity, pressure drop, measurement error, noise, and piping vibration. Design engineers and field personnel alike are interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both favor maximum throughput with the least amount of noise. By the same token, both are concerned with finding the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs, or dew point instruments, and for a steady sense point for control.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C038EEC5

Liquid Allocation Measurement
Author(s): Raymond Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
An allocation meter is one whose purpose is to determine which portion of the royalty meters volume is attributable to a particular lease, well, or measurement point.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3BD5E168

Ansiiapi 2530 On Orifice Meter Primary Element
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
The 1999 revision to the API 14.3 part 2 Standard includes the results of considerable test work over the past few years. Numerous changes are noted, some of which will have major effects on users of orifice measurement. The most significant impact will be in the upstream length and flow conditioner areas. This paper will discuss most of the changes and go into some detail on the more important ones. Items not mentioned essentially remain as stated in the previous issue of the Standard.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 997E255B

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles Io measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large vohnne measureulent and thus fewer applications.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C5AEDE8C

Audit Of Electronic Gas Measurement As 7030
Author(s): Steve Baldwin
Abstract/Introduction:
As the world of gas measurement is rapidly changing, how is one supposed keep up with it?
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C25F0ADC

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems As 7040
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
To audit or not to audit, that is the question. If you believe that gas and liquid measurement is an exact science and not subject to mechanical and human error, then read no further. If on the other hand you agree that machines and people make mistakes it follows that you should have some system in place to protect yourself from these mistakes. The basic purpose of an audit is to insure that you are properly paid for the product you delivered.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 31BE1C87

Auditing Liquid Measurement As 7050
Author(s): Linda A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing liquid measurement requires combining a solid knowledge of the measurement process and related business activity with sound auditing techniques. In his 1996 ISHM paper Basic Measurement Uncertainty, Thomas Kegel states, A measurement process consists of the instrumentation, people and procedures that result in the determination of a numeric value for a variable.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C1D49601

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of natural gas by orifice meter with a chart recorder is one of the most common ways of measuring natural gas. Developed in the 1900s, It has become the industry standard for the measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 33FE918E

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurment
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, and positive displacement meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 08AFA561

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement As 7060
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EA2AC689

Electronic Chart Scanning & Related Equipment As 7070
Author(s): Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Analyzing the chart is a thought process. Looking at the chart that came in from the field to look for abrupt changes in the flow pattern, different patterns, high Os, low Os, meter clock changes, orifice plate changes and etc. To do a thorough and efficient job, the chart analyzer has to go research past records, meter reports, and notes from the field, in order to properly analyze the chart. Some of the problems the analyzer has to research and the pattern changes can be attributed to the items listed belo
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 028A0850

Manual Chart Calculations Using 1991 Revision Of A.G.A. #3 As 7090
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart volume calculation is the process of calculating units of quantity from data taken chart recordings and historical records.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 24253819

Measurement Information Management Systems Roundtable( Presentation & Discussion) As 7100
Author(s): Danny Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
In the old days, measurement was characterized by a paper-driven process that moved information from the field to multiple systems and users, including measurement, accounting, marketing and back to the field. Since then, gas measurement has come a long way from the days when mercury meters were used to capture measurement information.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 60F60279

Overview Of API Comp() Measurement Activities As 7120
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the API and its member companies were under considerable pressure from the Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). These Federal organizations were generally responsible for monitoring any measurement practices or systems that could effect Federal or Indian interests (other than the Osage tribe) and were actively involved in writing regulations, onshore orders and notices to leasees (NTLs) covering measurement systems and procedures. Primary interest centered around crude oil, natural gas and associated liquids. The BLM eventually took the position with the industry that the industry had to make a choice. It could write comprehensive standards covering all the common measurement systems and practices in use, or the BLM would institute a program to write them for us. It was our choice. The industry chose to write and/or update all the key standards needed to provide a comprehensive and current set of standards. Concurrently, the industry was generally improving the technology available to determine custody transfer quantities and implementing research programs to make existing technologies perform with less uncertainty. These two forces are still at work, but have already resulted in numerous new or substantially updated industry standards that significantly reduce measurement uncertainty and more adequately cover the technologies and practices in general use throughout the industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9F7CD192

Review Of Apiiansi 2530 (AGA#3) As 7130
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty Pe
Abstract/Introduction:
The revision of Specification and Installation Requirements Part 2 of the Orifice Meter Standard was promised when the first edition was published in 1991. Research was planned or in progress at the time of publication. The Gas Research Institute, the Mineral Management Service and the American Petroleum Institute provided funding. Researchers from Europe and North America contributed significantly to the development of this landmark document.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4BD6B053

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement As 714
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially in the oil and gas industries. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Ventud (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifice for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and internationally Ref 1-7. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7CBF03AD

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Pierre Trolin, Tim Patten
Abstract/Introduction:
Widely known for liquid and liquid-solid slurry measurement in the Chemical, Refining, and Food and Beverage industries, Coriolis meters are now being successfully applied to gas-phase measurement. Highly accurate, direct mass measurement over wide flow ranges has enabled many processes to now be better controlled. Principal gas applications for Coriolis meters include fiscal transfer of valuable process gases such as ethylene, oxygen, and hydrogen, utility gases such as natural gas, and reactor feed gases such as hydrogen, ethylene, ammonia, and chlorine. Coriolis meters offer improved measurement accuracy over wide turndowns and with less installed uncertainty due to swirl and flow profile effects.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A70CA8F8

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators Ms 802
Author(s): Roger Thomas Orrick, Mo
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure calibration is as important today as it has been for a very long time, but the way calibration is done and the equipment used to do it has changed drastically.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3321CC14

Development Of Orifice Meter Standard Past(, Present, And Future) Ms 8030
Author(s): Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
A standard is something that is established by an authority, social practice, custom, or by general consent of a group of people to set an example or develop an acceptable model. Flow measurement standards are often established by regulatory agencies, users, manufacturers, and/or a group of knowledgeable people. Measurement Standards are established to provide a uniformity of installation, operation, and secondary instrumentation that will improve metering efficiency, measurement repeatability and accuracy, and ensure equity between all parties concerned, especially for custody transfer application.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D0DEC9B1

Dot Qualification Training For Measurement Technicians Ms 8040
Author(s): Jay Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of Congressional legislation, the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safety proposed the Pipeline Safety: Qualification of Pipeline Personnel - 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195 rule. The rule as originally proposed was a training requirements based rule. The pipeline industry was able to have the rule modified to be a performance based rule instead. This rule became law October 28, 1999. The rule requires pipeline operators to develop and maintain a written qualification program for individuals performing covered tasks on pipeline facilities.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 48BBF473

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Dead Weight Tester Ms 8060
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 81173439

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail Ms 8070
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Compressed Gas Industry has a responsibility to provide an LPG-Propane product intended for domestic use that has been odorized to detectable levels. In addition to this responsibility, the industry is also responsible for insuring that the documentation proving correct odorization is accurate.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 90C77227

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
In orifice metering, a well designed and precisely fabricated meter tube is essential for reliable gas or liquid measurement. A primary metering element, consisting of an orifice plate and meter tube, must conform to the applicable measurement standard especially when used in fiscal (custody transfer) measurement applications. An orifice meter tube that is not fabricated to specified tolerances may produce results outside acceptable tolerances, often also causing a flow measurement bias.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4421B838

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing, In
Author(s): John E. Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
On March 18, 1938, a natural gas explosion involving unodorized gas destroyed New London, TX High School, killing over 200 people. Almost immediately thereafter the Texas Railroad Commission implemented regulations regarding odorization and odorant level testing.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D65A4E49

Odorization-Natural Gas Ms 8130
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper odorant monitoring is required to keep natural gas utilities under compliance with federal and state regulations. These monitoring requirements are generally handled through a combination of events including injection rate calculations, customer complaint calls, routine service personnel tests, odor concentration tests and chromatographic analysis. In the world today it is critical to have appropriate documentation to support proof that proper odorization of natural gas is occurring. This process will ultimately protect the public and hopefully keep us all from litigation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 0DC3072B

Program For Training A Measurement Technician Ms 8140
Author(s): A. S. Buddy Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CB157EA4

Status Of Multiphase Flow Measurement Research Ms 8150
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Research in multiphase measurement has been accelerating over the last few years. The reasons for this interest level are primarily economic in nature. It has been estimated that more than 50% of the worlds proven reserves of oil and gas are located in water depths greater than 1000 feet. These water depths demand innovative and economical developments, in order for projects to be viable. Some of the more promising methods for economical production in deep water include multiphase measurement, especially in conjunction with multiphase pumping. Subsea production, measurement and transportation to shore or an existing platform may allow more efficient and less costly processing, thus minimizing platform costs. It may be possible to eliminate separation equipment and test lines on some projects which will result in tremendous economic savings. This paper will explore the advantages of multiphase measurement, methods utilized for multiphase measurement to date, and projected future research.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FB9F7CBA

The Role Of The Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement Ms 8170
Author(s): Lonny R. Bagley
Abstract/Introduction:
The Director of the Bureau of Land Management is given the authority by 43 CFR Part 3160 Section 3164.1 to issue Onshore Oil and Gas Orders when necessary to implement and supplement the operating regulations. The purpose of these orders, is to establish requirements and minimum standards for the measurement of oil and gas by methods authorized in 43 CFR 3162.7-2,3 and to provide standard operating practices for the lease oil storage and handling facilities. Proper oil and gas measurement ensures that the Federal Government and Indian mineral owners receive the royalties due, as specified in the governing oil and gas leases. These orders are applicable to all Federal and Indian (except Osage) oil and gas leases and all wells and facilities on State or privately owned minerals land committed to a unit or communitization agreement that affects Federal or Indian interests.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1D0A5D8B

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other Ms 8180
Author(s): Melva J. Harris And David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Never in the gas pipeline industrys history has the need for accurate, clear and open communication between field and office measurement specialists been more important. Initially there was FERC Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in measurement with reductions in staff. A small measurement miscommunication between field technicians and office personnel can make a big splash on a companys bottom line.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: BB5418DC

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EE8F4475

Orifice Meter Gage Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more accurate gas flow measurements, industry is placing more emphasis on defining and avoiding adverse unsteady flow conditions. Interactions of pulsation energy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gage line tubing with close-coupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper focuses on gage line effects on gas flow measurement. The term gage lines as used in this paper refers to the pressure sensing lines connecting the orifice taps to the transmitter, including valve manifolds, branch connections, and transmitter gas passage volumes. The gage line systems can cause two distorting effects which can adversely effect measurement accuracy.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 1B8C731B

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of-natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery. The orifice meter was developed in the early 1900s. It has become the industry standard for measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F9EB5FD0

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments. Total energy measurement has become an integrated system of devices and people which must effectively communicate in a knowledgeable manner to obtain the goal of better overall measurement accuracy. The meter itself may only contribute 50% of the total measurement package depending on the application. Finally, as with any type of proposed capital investment that may improve revenues or reduce costs, a good financial analysis should be performed to insure a desirable rate of return for the companys expenditure in new plant.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 753767A6

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E748C149

The Developing Rold Of Dual Rotor Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Matthew J. Forcey
Abstract/Introduction:
The aging North American pipeline systems are posing new challenges for todays transmission, and utility companies. While billions of dollars worth of natural gas are moved through the domestic pipeline system each year, more than 50% of it is moved in pipelines that are 30 or more years old. These systems are now more susceptible to corrosion, wear, harsh flow profiles, and fluid in the gas stream. These in-line problems are a concern as most meter technologies are unable to measure accurately under conditions of harsh flow profile and contamination even a minor accuracy shift can result in millions of dollars in under and or over billings each year. These problems are exacerbated by a reduction in maintenance budgets at pipeline and utility companies that can allow excessive component wear to develop within meters and unstable meter or upstream conditions to go undetected. Todays gas measurement devices, therefore, must be able to maintain their accuracy despite harsh flow profiles, corrosion, and component wear, while performing selfdiagnostics to replace information formerly gathered by maintenance personnel.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 89E5F6A3

Thermometry In Measurement
Author(s): Joshua J. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
To determine reliable natural gas volumes, all variables must be measured correctly. Temperature is one of those variables. When temperature is measured incorrectly, it can have a pronounced affect on the bottom line.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 3287D652

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When material flowing in a pipe is made up of a mixture of fluid phases the term multiphase is used to classify this type of flow. Multiphase flow comprises a broad range of applications in different industries. Some examples include gas bubbles in flowing liquid, solid particles carried by a gas, and the flow of two immiscible liquids. Often a flowing stream of natural gas contains some level of hydrocarbon liquid and/or water. This is a form of multiphase flow often called wet gas. This paper is intended to introduce the reader to wet gas multiphase flow measurement. First, some basic terms and flow features are presented. Second, a simple analysis of wet gas flow through an orifice meter is discussed. Finally, the difficulty in predicting phase behavior of gas/condensate systems is described.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4BD2788B

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of density is required in many applications in the hydrocarbon industry for both mass and volume flow measurement, interface detection, quality control, and concentration measurement. Technology today offers density measurement from a densitometer as a single measurement device and from a Coriolis meter that will provide both density and flow measurement. This paper will discuss density terminology that differs by application, the factors that determine good density measurement, and will look at a variety of uses for a densitometer in the hydrocarbon industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D94AED71

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the liquid turbine meter principle dates back many decades, the axial flow turbine meters presently employed for liquid measurement are continuing to evolve. The axial flow turbine meter was first used for water flow measurement where there was an abundance of energy available for driving the rotor and normally where accuracy of measurement was not of prime importance. Reliability was of greater importance, so parts were made rugged and the rotor was designed more to be non-clogging than to be accurate. However, through the evolution of technology, the turbine meter has maintained reliability and ruggedness while attaining a high degree of accuracy. Today, the meters used for water flow have accuracies of 0.25% over ranges of 10 to 1 or more while maintaining the same high degree of reliability and ruggedness as did their predecessors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7CBF2156

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Steve Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Automated truck loading systems are used at bulk marketing storage facilities (terminals) to support distribution of liquid products from storage to vehicle. Terminals are downstream from the refinery and owned and operated by major oil or independent terminaling companies. Products are generally stored in fixed tanks and include refined gasoline and chemicals. The automated truck loading system includes the load rack products responsible for measurement and control of product loading together with a PC based terminal automation software application (TAS), to provide driver data validation, automated printout of bills of lading, and product inventory management.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 45DD6F6D

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Dynamic Measurement
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39B8DF86

Calculation Of Liquid Quantities By Static Methods
Author(s): Bob Dix
Abstract/Introduction:
All procedures are in conformance with the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 12 Section 1, Part 1. The procedures are intended to encourage a uniform approach to calculations where different parties using the same input data are able to reconcile quantities. With todays technology in computers and scientific calculators, it is necessary to specifically define the rules for calculating petroleum quantities. If there is no definition for the number of digits to be entered, the specific rule for rounding, truncating as well as the calculating sequence, then the parties involved in the transaction will arrive at different quantities. The calculation of A x B x C is not always the same as C x A x B and neither of these two may be equal toBxCxA.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 765CD5AF

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A6DBDF97

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck - Metering Versus Manual Gauging Lm 208
Author(s): Tommy Baker, Richard Ridgeway
Abstract/Introduction:
Normal procedures for custody transfer of oil from lease tanks requires the driver/gauger to manually gauge the producers storage tank to determine the volume of oil in the tank and the S&W content of the oil. This procedure requires the driver to climb to the top of the tank where exposure to H2S poisoning or injury from falling from the tank is an extreme risk. This paper will compare the manual method of tank gauging as described in API Chapter 18, Section 1 to the use of a measurement system that is mounted on the transport truck. The truck mounted measurement system relates to a system and a method for measuring crude oil, and more particularly to a system for accurately measuring oil as it is transferred from a lease storage tank to a transport vessel.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 00355518

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of Lact Units Lm 2090
Author(s): Ben Stubblefield
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to help familiarize the members of this class with basic design maintenance and operation of a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer or LACT. These units are designed to transfer lease oil from the tank battery to the pipeline unattended.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B7264BB0

Determination Of Net Oil For Well Performance Measurement Lm 2100
Author(s): Robin Dutton
Abstract/Introduction:
Although there are several techniques for measuring net oil and water cut from a producing oil well, each method has its particular requirements and limitations. Various technologies have been used in this application and their characteristics are briefly discussed. Coriolis meters have been used successfully in over 4000 sites to date. Their popularity indicates that their requirements and limitations are not overly restrictive, and that their applications as net oil computers are not too complicated for field personnel. This paper details the use of Coriolis meters in this application and explains how their requirements for well performance measurement can be met by using a new electronics platform.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: FBCDE12A

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): R. Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will examine the strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD Meters. It will also highlight the system and the parameters that must be considered before accurate meter selection can be made.Comparisons will be presented utilizing the six (6) most common PD Meter principals: (1) Oscillating Piston, (2) Sliding Vane, (3) Oval Gear, (4) Tri-Rotor, (5) Bi-Rotor, (6) Nutating Disc.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 25E33C64

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Don Lundberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Many a time did I stand beside such a pipe and exert myself to invent how to force these pipes to reveal the secret of their hidden action (Clemens Herschel 1898). In 250 B.C., Archimedes documented his principles of hydrodynamics and floatation. Newton also contributed to establishing the fundamental principles of classic hydrodynamics. In the 1700s, Leonard Euler developed the basic equations of fluid motion and formalized the equation we now call Bernoullis. Daniel Bernoulli recognized that if total energy were constant, a change in a medias velocity would result in an inverse change in pressure.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6E57BFEB

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement Lm 2130
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum properties effect both the quality and quantity of pipeline fluids. It is obvious that petroleum properties have a major impact on quality of the fluid moved in pipelines. These properties are measured to determine if the fluid is on specification and often affects the price of the fluid. Petroleum properties can also have a great effect on quantity measurement. Petroleum properties affect all types of measurement and measurement devices. This paper will discuss various petroleum properties and some of the affects on pipeline measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 28F53423

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks Lm 2150
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was studied to develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was system loss control. During the early 1990s, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began programs for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C253D70A

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - I Lm 2160
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter, Ph.D.
Abstract/Introduction:
If I were buying a barrel of oil from you, I would want the liquid to be as cold as possible. On the other hand, you, as the seller, would like the liquid to be as hot as practicable. Why? Because liquids expand with increased temperature and shrink with lower temperature. So, when I buy a barrel of cold oil, I actually get more oil for the price of one barrel, and when you sell a barrel of hot oil, you actually sell less oil for the price of one barrel.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 62101089

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement II Lm 2170
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of the quantities of oil which have been received, transferred, or dispatched through storage tanks are an integral part of todays custody transfer operations by Static Measurement Systems. The accurate measurement of these parcels of oil depends upon many factors, one in particular being the accurate calibration of the storage tanks involved. It is of the greatest importance that the calibration of any tank is carried out with the greatest attention to detail. Any errors made at the calibration stage cause errors in the final tables, errors that will always act in the same direction. These are called systematic errors.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DA541CA8

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters Lm 2190
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid turbine meter design has changed little from the original Potter design developed in the 1960s. Although originally designed for low - accuracy water flow measurement, its application into the aerospace industry called for higher accuracy and reliability as well as simplicity
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6F342D42

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks Lm 2200
Author(s): David L. Shurtz
Abstract/Introduction:
Gauging, testing, and running of lease tanks is all about Custody Transfer and static measurement. According to the American Petroleum Institute (API) custody transfer measurement provides quantity and quality information used for the physical and fiscal documentation of a change in ownership and/or a change in responsibilities for commodities. In this case we are dealing with lease tanks, which are usually tanks less than a 1000 barrels. Because of the expense of new technology for measurement, combined with the massive number of lease tanks and small volumes, custody transfer in this environment is still done manually using the same type gauging equipment that has been used for decades. It has improved in time through emphasis on training, education and expanded quality control from production to the end user. There is also emphasis on using quality equipment by utilizing APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards for verification of gauging equipment against certified test standards traceable to the National Institute of Standards (NIST).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 286123BE

Installation And Operation Of Liquid Densitometers Lm 2205
Author(s): Jim Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Density measurement of liquids is very important in the ever-increasing necessity for accuracy in pipelines, batch and leak detection. Density inputs are a must for custody transfer. This paper will discuss density measurement for different applications including installation and troubleshooting. Installation of densitometers is just as critical as the necessity of density measurement itself.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AF1B7B5B

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines Lm 2210
Author(s): John A. Luopa
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Nevertheless, current North American statistics indicate that fluid petroleum pipeline leaks occur at the rate of about one (1) leak per year per thousand miles of line.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AFD2740F

Liquid Measurement Station Design Lm 2230
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Measurement Stations are necessitated by agreements between petroleum buyers, sellers and transporters along with appropriate customs and or governmental authorities. These agreements outline how the fluid is to be measured and how the results will be traceable to recognized standards. In the case of common carrier pipelines, the pipeline is entrusted with the transport of their customers fluid, thus loss control by use of an accurate liquid measurement station is essential. In addition to meeting the requirements for measurement, stations must meet numerous safety and construction codes and standards, as the fluids are normally hazardous. Operation of the measurement station must be relatively simple, and a user friendly operator interface is highly desirable.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 16965C01

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems Lm 2240
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we will discuss the different types of measurement systems used at crude oil terminals. The requirements of these systems and why they are important.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5E762C24

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures Lm 2250
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the mass measurement of natural gas liquid mixtures. It includes information for turbine, P.D. and orifice metering systems as well as brief segments on Coriolis mass meters and scales. The basic equation and industry standards covering mass measurement will be addressed, as will some of the common operating, mechanical and procedural problems that often degrade the performance of these systems.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: AB08C880

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement Lm 2260
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
There are several types of flow meters that respond to the mass of the flowing fluid rather than volume, area, or velocity. Examples of mass flow meters are thermal mass meters, gyroscopic mass meters, angular momentum mass meters, and Coriolis mass meters. This paper will address only the Coriolis flow meter.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E9CDB777

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging Lm 2270
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C2A3283C

Measurementlosses By Shrinkage LM2280
Author(s): J. H. Harryjames
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 188BA7F9

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks Lm 2290
Author(s): Lonnie D. Galyean
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the types of tank gauging methods available. It will cover some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type and it will cover the methods selected by ARCO Pipe Line Company for use on sump tanks as well as large storage tanks in its Mid-Continent Operations group.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: ABA74D25

Measurement Of Large Volumes By Turbine Meter Lm 2300
Author(s): Harold E. Osborn
Abstract/Introduction:
Large turbine meters have been used successfully to measure large volumes of hydrocarbons, including high viscosity crude oils. Installation and maintenance cost make the turbine meter the ideal meter for large volume measurement requirements. Also on offshore platforms where available space and weight are primary considerations the turbine meter installation is the best choice. Experience has shown that turbine meters can be used for high viscosity crude oils where displacement meters were thought to be the only alternative for good custody transfer measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D7E29626

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels Lm 231
Author(s): Robert W. Goldstraw
Abstract/Introduction:
large quantity of petroleum is moved to, from and within the United States annually on board tank ships and barges. To be certain that as much of the petroleum as possible is accounted for during these marine custody transfers, most of these cargoes are measured both in the delivering and receiving shore tanks and on board the ship or barge at both the loading and the unloading ports.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 916298E5

New Ideas In Fluid Measurement Lm 2320
Author(s): Galen Caldon
Abstract/Introduction:
Each year as we attend ISHM, we look forward to hearing about advances in methodology and the experiences of other in the industry portrayed in technical presentations. This effort, by so many people, helps each of us to expand our understanding of the methodologies being employed and the success or failures of those using them.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A6E43158

Meters For Liquid Measurement Lm 2330
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
According to Webster dictionary, orifice is a mouth like aperture and meter is an instrument that measures. Therefore, orifice meter is a circular opening that measures. In early 1600s, Castelli and Tonicelli were first to state that the velocity through a hole in a tank varies as square root of water level above the hole. They also stated that the volume flow rate through the hole is proportional to the area of the opening. Almost another century later, in 1738, a Swiss physicist Daniel Bernoulli developed an equation defining relationship between the forces due to the line pressure, energy of the moving fluid, and the earths gravitational forces on the fluid. Bernoullis theorem has since been the basis for the flow equation of all head-type flow meters.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A5479C4B

Pycnometer Installation, Operation And Calibration Lm 2340
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
The term pycnometer refers to both glass and flowthrough pycnometers. Pycnometers are defined by the following criteria: They are vessels with a flow-through design that traps a representative sample of the test fluid at operating conditions. They permit safe handling of high-pressure fluids during sampling and transport. (Caution is needed when transporting a liquid-full cylinder. The expansion of the fluid as the temperature of the pycnometer rises could cause an unsafe condition in a very short time period.) Their volume and evacuated weight are known to a precision of 0.02 percent over the operating pressure and temperature range
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 96BA872B

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences Lm 2350
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Unlike sums of money, quantities of oil cannot be measured with the complete elimination of errors or uncertainties. The resulting differences can have definite financial impacts. The objective of good measurement is to minimize the errors and uncertainties, and thus the financial impact, by measuring to high standards. In the United States, most commercial contracts state that the measurements must be made in accordance with the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). These standards are consensus standards developed to address broad issues, and thus may need to be supplemented by company standards to address specific issues.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C567B1AD

Statistical Control Of Meter Factors - A Simplified Approach Lm 236
Author(s): R.G. Dodson
Abstract/Introduction:
Why control charts? Anyone involved in measurement has or should have a need to know how their measurement equipment is performing. A meter control chart is a very effective tool for communicating the health of your metering system to interested persons.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 5615E7AA

Developing Role Of Helical Turbine Meters Lm 2370
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird Erie, Pa
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum measurement people are continually searching for the ultimate meter - a meter that is accurate, reliable and inexpensive. One of the latest entries is the helical turbine meter (See Fig. 1). However, it should be noted that this type of meter has been around for many years but did not find wide application outside of Europe until the mid- 1990s because of the proving difficulty posed by its inherent low pulse resolution. With the advent and API acceptance of pulse interpolation techniques for proving in low pulse resolution situations, the helical turbine meter has found broader use.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 004505AB

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains Lm 2380
Author(s): Joe E. Trice
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the challenges of todays pipeline measurement personnel is troubleshooting pipeline losses and gains. More often, the losses on a system tend to draw more attention from management than do the gains, particularly in the current era of 30 per barrel crude oil. Although gains in a pipeline system are equal indicators that a system is out of control, the concepts and techniques of identifying a loss usually are the same to address gains.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 03A4D265

Truck Loading - Rack Blending Lm 2390
Author(s): Hasit Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to satisfy the demands of a diversity of gasoline and diesel formulations caused by constraints on pollution, requirements for various octanes and product enhancers, the practice of blending fuel at the loading rack is becoming common. The electronic preset has been one of the most important devices simplify the blending process. The blending process and measurement equipment chosen dictate the design of the loading rack and the loading procedure.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: DD82719D

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Measurement Lm 2400
Author(s): Galen Cotton
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flow meters of various designs have long found use in industry. Their use dates back in excess of twenty years and one might reasonably ask why there is a renewed interest among potential users for such a dated technology. The answer resides in recent advances in the technology that werent even dreamt of a few short years ago. Advances that are in the process of altering the landscape of our traditional responses to demands for precision flow measurement.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 762872E9

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement Class Number LM-2410
Author(s): Gary Rothrock
Abstract/Introduction:
Viscosity measurement in the hydrocarbon industry presents something of a paradox.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 4E31CDE2

Advanced Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems Em 3010
Author(s): Stephanie Law
Abstract/Introduction:
The application of Flow Computers is not limited to calculating flow. They can also be used for pressure control in a natural gas distribution grid. This equipment is frequently used to automate existing regulator stations and provide advanced system pressure control.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 6178A543

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control Em 3020
Author(s): Dave Shollenbarger
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers (EFCs) are rapidly becoming the standard for real-time gas measurement. As these devises become more and more capable, advanced control stratigies are becoming common place. As more and more EFCs are commissioned, customers sometimes learn hard lessons regarding electronic gas measurement. Many times these lessons could have been avoided if proper consideration was given to the selection of an EFC devise and the applications at hand.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7BDB4653

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software Em 303
Author(s): Barry Tate
Abstract/Introduction:
This session will address the evolution of portable computing hardware and software applications. Emphasis will be on mobile computing as it relates to the Natural Gas Industry. Information gained from this session will aid in the understanding of the wide variety of field computing technologies that are currently available and in how to specify a hardware platform that is best suited for mobile computing in extreme environmen
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CD571848

Automatic Meter Readings Em 3040
Author(s): Dean Lightfoot
Abstract/Introduction:
Leaders in the utility industry describe todays marketplace in a variety of ways. The following quotes from leaders in the utility industry provide some insight to the market.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F9196568

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems Em 3050
Author(s): Michael Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
Telemetering is the process of transferring data, measured, calculated, or monitored data, over a distance or from point A to point B. One of the first forms of telemetry developed was used to determine pressures and flows of natural gas pipelines. It was popular during the 70s and 80s. This type of telemetering used a process known as pulse duration. Pulse duration is a process of a pulse being transmitted over a set period of time to indicate a variable. For example the first times were based on a 3-15 second time interval. A 3-second pulse provided a measure of 0% of scale and a 12- second pulse provided a measure of 100% of scale. Why start at 3 seconds? This provided for a true 0, if the pulse was less than 3 seconds the processor could determine that the value was actually less than 0%. The 15-seconds provided for a true 100%. These pulses were usually passes through dedicated phone circuits to a central point where the data was presented in the form of charts on recorders for monitoring. This was a great improvement over previous operating schemes because it provided real time data. The data accuracy varied however due to temperature and distance of the wiring used for transmission.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 42EAAF5F

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement Class Em 306
Author(s): Greg Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper hopefully affords readers a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those that have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C9FBC5DF

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data Em 3080
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
As the world has evolved to the information age, the natural gas industry has experienced a sense of urgency in the accuracy and timeliness of deliveryof gas measurement data. From wellheads and pipeline interconnects, to city gate stations and industrial gas users, the data must be delivered promptly and accurately. Since most natural gas company organizations have several functional groups that are dependent on the gas measurement data, systems must be in place that acquire the data and transport it back to a central computer to be verified, edited, and made available to all groups that need it.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: C4EE80D9

Communication To Measurement Equipment At Gas Distribution Locations Em 3090
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Business changes demand changes in doing business. One of the last great holdouts has been gas measurement. Ever since the days before this generation, meter indexes were read and charts were changed for a measurement process to begin. This process has been going on for so long that nearly everyone recognizes the utility meter reader. But now, a business change is taking place that is causing us to do business differently. Over the last five years the sight of a familiar meter reader around a meter setting is slowly diminishing. Little antennas are popping up all around gas facilities. A new gas company icon may soon become the communication technician.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 574EE7FC

About Ishm 2000
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
Request Document From www.ishm.info
Email Reference
Document ID: 0BDBAAD4


Copyright © 2017