Measurement Library

FLOMEKO (An IMEKO Conference) Publications (2000)

Estimation Of Not Measured Water Volume Supplied To Residential Consumers, In Juazeiro - Bahia
Author(s): Jorge Gomez Sanchez, Sandro De Almeida Motta
Abstract/Introduction:
The presented paper describes a work developed in a 180 000 habitants city in the Northeast of Brazil, that intends to characterize the water consumption profile of typical residential consumers and estimate the volume not measured and billed, due to the inaccuracy of the water meters, function of the age of installation. Keywords - water meters, calibration, consumption forecast.
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Document ID: A2CF57FB

Demonstration Test On And Evaluation Of An Ultrasonic Flow Meter In A High-Pressure Gas Pipeline
Author(s): m. Watanabe, H. Okamoto
Abstract/Introduction:
Osaka Gas conducted a demonstration test on an ultrasonic flow meter in a high-pressure gas pipeline. In this paper we report on the result of that test. Keywords: High-pressure gas pipeline, Ultrasonic flow meter, Leakage detection
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Document ID: 9D20CED7

The Impact Of Low-Frequency Pulsations On A Dualbeam Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Author(s): E. Van Bokhorst, M.C.A.M. Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
The impact of flow and pressure pulsations on flowmeters of various measuring principles, like turbine, vortex or DP-based flowmeters is well known and published at several occasions. To the authors knowledge, there have been no publications on investigations regarding the impact of low frequency pulsations on commercially available ultrasonic flowmeters. The influence of high frequency acoustic noise, as caused by control valves, is part of several investigations and reported in recent publications 1,5. This paper describes the impact of low frequency, almost sinusoidal pulsations in the range from 25 to 100 Hz, which are imposed on a 4-inch, dual-beam, commercially available ultrasonic flowmeter
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Document ID: 4D780A55

Installation Effects On Single- And Multi-Path Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker, Daniel Industries
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper takes an analytical approach to examine the effects of swirl, asymmetry, pipe roughness, and Reynolds Number on the performance of a meter that utilizes a single bounce path through the center line (e.g., Daniel JuniorSonic) and a meter that employs four chordal paths (e.g., Daniel SeniorSon
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Document ID: DFF86F76

Temperature And Installation Effects On Small Commercial Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Author(s): Carl Carlander, Jerker Delsing
Abstract/Introduction:
bstract: Experimental work has been performed on a selection of small ultrasonic ow meters for water. This work was accomplished in order to investigate the inuence of temperature a
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Document ID: BF6BB0C5

New Meter Reading Techniques Applied To The Brazilian Gas Market
Author(s): J. Venancio F. Monteiro
Abstract/Introduction:
This article will describe applications of the automation and automatic meter reading techniques at the internal gas pipes installations design, considering residential and commercial buildings, and taking in account the tendency of rapid growth of the activities related to the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the recently development of new technologies that can be applied with affordable prices. It will be analysed the application of an automatic meter reading technology in a building of several floors in So Paulo, which gas installations design is being carried up, with be purpose of making a comparative cost-effectiveness study with the traditional constructive methods applied in Brazil. As a result, it will be purposed a new commercialisation model for the gas in Brazil at the residential and commercial market.
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Document ID: 980F5A78

Natural Gas System - Flow Measuring And Volumetric Balance
Author(s): Homero Fenner Filho
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a computational system developed for the gas measuring management and for the accounting balance closure of an entire gas network. The system calculates for each measuring point an uncertainty and a quality value, based on the gas features, the equipment and the variables involved in the flow rate calculation. A mathematical programming model closes the balance, minimizing the weighed sum of the network adjustments of the flow rates
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Document ID: 9BDED27F

Development Of The Gas Meter With The Thermal Flow Sensors Arranged On The Surface Of The Rectified Fluid Path
Author(s): Kazumitsu Nukui, Mitsunori Komaki, Ken Tashiro
Abstract/Introduction:
Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has developed the new electronic gas meter with several thermal flow sensors for industrial use. We designed the proper structure of the rectifier and the arrangement of sensors experimentally. The paper describes the result of the experiment and the specifications of the meter.
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Document ID: 3D766BD4

Double Approach Modeling Of TP-TABLE In Mass Flow-Meter Of Superheated Steam Combined- Application Of Artificial Neural Network And System Identification
Author(s): Han Jian-Guo, Sun Yan-Zuo
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper a method based on combining Artificial Neural Network (ANN) training technique and Non-linear Least-square Linear in StructureSystem Identification technique for Double Approach Modeling the TP-Table in Mass Flow-meter is introduced. The model has several advantages such as saving calculation workload and storage space, having essential filterability of ANN Statistical Model. Thus the method provides a reliable way for realizing the current development for high- degree integration of measuring and instrumentation technology
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Document ID: F4F70C77

Ultrasonic Domestic Gas Meters - A Review
Author(s): N. Bignell
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many designs of ultrasonic domestic gas meters but all the main ones use the measurement of the transit time of an ultrasonic signal through the flowing gas to estimate its velocity. The shape of the duct and devices to control the waveform of the signal passing through it are significant parts of the design. The transducers used to produce the signal, reciprocal operation and the main techniques to time the transit of the signal to several nanoseconds are discussed. The acceptance of these meters has been restricted and their possible future is discussed.
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Document ID: F582A62E

Development Of Open Channel Meter Calibration Facility
Author(s): Fernando Rodrigues Garcia, Cludia Dos Santos
Abstract/Introduction:
. To overcome the disadvantage of building weirs and flumes, recently velocity-area meters have been developed, using that electromagnetic or ultra-sound Doppler effect principle. In these meters the wet area is evaluated using liquid column pressure or ultra-sound.
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Document ID: 2FE06CBC

State-Of-The-Art Of The Flow Measurement Of Hydrocarbon Gases In Cuba.
Author(s): Dr. Claudio Garcia, Osmel Reyes Vaillant
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper1 intends to give a general overview concerning the state-ofthe- art of the gas flow measurement in the Cuban petroleum industry.
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Document ID: 499DC442

Multilayer Ceramic Technology Applications To Mass Flow Control
Author(s): Mario R. Gongora-Rubio, Luis m. Sola-Laguna, Jorge J. Santiago-Aviles
Abstract/Introduction:
Micro-fluidic devices suitable to MFC were fabricated using LTCC technology from the emerging field of Meso-Scale systems. A multiplicity of hybrid devices can be developed using this flexible technology because this is a hermetic and compatible material ideal for fluidic systems
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Document ID: 23CB309D

A Silicon Flow Sensor For Highly Accurate Mass Flow Measurement
Author(s): Michel J.A.M. Van Putten, Pascal F.A.M. Van Putten
Abstract/Introduction:
We describe a thermal, silicon integrated, mass ow sensor for highly accurate mass ow mea- surements over a large dynamic range. Oset-drift is completely eliminated by application of the VanPutten-ADM method. The method is illustrated using air. The total measurement uncertainty is typically 1% of reading, with a turndown larger than 1:1000. keywords: thermal, silicon ow sensor, VanPutten-ADM
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Document ID: 7CAA2A0E

Development Of A Very Small Ultrasonic Flowmeter For Liquids
Author(s): H. Ishikawa&&, m. Takamoto, K. Shimizu, H. Monji, G. Matsui
Abstract/Introduction:
In this study, small disk ultrasonic transducers were used to develop a very small ultrasonic flowmeter with a measuring pipe diameter of less than 1 mm. The feasibility of using an ultrasonic flowmeter to measure a liquid flow rate below 1 mL/min was investigated experimentally. Calibration results of the developed ultrasonic flowmeter were almost all scattered within the range predicted from the standard deviation of measurements. The flowmeter can stably measure a flow rate of less than 1 mL/min with a standard deviation of about 0.01 mL/min. This result suggests that the flowmeter can be very useful for semiconductor, medical and chemical industries.
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Document ID: EB04719F

Microfluidic Devices For Gas Flow Control
Author(s): Eliphas Wagner Simes, Rogerio Furlan, Dong Ho Choi
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is focused on the study of microfluidic devices implemented in silicon. Microactuators with no moving parts, microfluidic amplifiers, were integrated with microchannels. The operation of the obtained devices was analyzed in terms of gas flow control and division. Considering flow control, the devices presented proportional and symmetrical behavior with high proportional flow gains (output flow/control flow), similar to fluidic amplifiers with supply hydraulic diameters higher than hundreds of microns. For operation with flow division, a transition to a linear behavior between the supply flow and supply pressure is observed and the devices presented symmetrical output characteristics. Also, in this case, at moderate supply pressures, the results of numerical simulation indicate the possibility of internal choked flow, at the output of the supply nozzle, and supersonic regime in the interaction region.
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Document ID: 543331CA

A Flameless Calorimeter
Author(s): Ronald A. Berg, Jan G. Drenthen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the design and operation of a new reference calorimeter based on a flameless combustion technique. Within this technique, a mixture of (reference) gas and air is passed over a noble metal element that is electrically heated to a constant temperature. The gas is oxidized as it encounters the temperature of the noble metal element and rises above auto-ignition temperature within a small combustion cavity. The precise value of the electrical energy, required to heat the element, is stored. The same procedure is again carried out with the (unknown sample) gas and the same air supply. The ratio of the value of the electrical energy now required to heat the element and the reference electrical energy, is inversely proportional to the ratio of the calorific values of the two gases. The new instrument meets the ASTM 4891 standard and is designed to be integrated into a complete energy measurement system with an expected uncertainty in heating value of better than 0.25% and a repeatability better than 0.15%. The first test results of the instrument measuring low calorific- and high calorific gases are shown. The Method A method has been developed which directly and accurately
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Document ID: C48946A3

Feasibility Study Of A Correlative Energy Measurement System For Natural Gases
Author(s): P. Schley, R. Kleinrahm, m. Jaeschke, R. Janssen-Van Rosmalen, J.A. Schouten
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper presents a new correlative energy measurement method developed under a joint project of Ruhrgas AG, Germany, and Nederlandse Gasunie N. V., the Netherlands. The paper mainly refers to the results obtained from a previous feasibility study proposing a method using as input parameters dielectric permittivity, speed of sound and CO2 mole fraction. On the basis of these input parameters, superior calorific value and natural gas composition can be determined. Total uncertainty envisaged for superior calorific value is 0.2 %. Initial laboratory tests confirm that the uncertainty envisaged can be obtained or is even better. The method is to be tested in the field soon.
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Document ID: 43492F20

Ultrasonic Amplitude And Time Measurements In Gas Identification
Author(s): W. Rawes, m. L. Sanderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes work which has been undertaken to identify individual gases and gas mixtures employing techniques which are based solely on ultrasonic means. The method employs broad-band capacitive ultrasonic transducers to measure the transmission of ultrasound over a wide range of frequencies across the gas or gas mixture under investigation. The results can be used to infer the composition of the gas and thus estimate such properties such as the density or calorific value of the gas or gas mixtures. The relevance of this work is mainly in its use in the gas distribution and transmission system where increasingly ultrasonic flow measurements are being employed and where an additional ultrasonic measurement would convert the volumetric flowmeter into an energy meter
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Document ID: B254370D

A Novel Approach To Improve Diverter Performance In Liquid Flow Calibration Facilities
Author(s): R. Engel, U. Klages
Abstract/Introduction:
A diverting device (diverter) is an essential and error determining component part of a liquid flow calibration facility based upon a static gravimetric system with flying start and finish. The diverter timing error can be considerably reduced by the use of an angular encoding transducer in combination with an appropriate electronic and storage device. Further benefits in diverter performance can be obtained by an electric diverter actuator.
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Document ID: 4E8DBC74

Traceability And Uncertainty Analysis For A Calibration Process For Flowmeters, Using Coriolis Flowmeters As Reference
Author(s): Robert Deboom, Marc Buttler, Andrew Kolbeck
Abstract/Introduction:
A flow meter manufacturer has recently developed a new system for calibrating its flow instruments. This system is based on the use of Coriolis flow meters as intermediate transfer standards. This new system is referred to as the Transfer Standard Method or TSM
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Document ID: F70B2CBF

Ultrasonic Technology: Prospects For Improving Flow Measurements And Standards
Author(s): T. T. Yeh, G. E. Mattingly
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic technology is evolving rapidly. It offers prospects for improving flow measurements, for serving as transfer standards, and possibly for serving as a primary flow standard. This paper describes results from several current NIST projects that have the goal of assessing travel-time ultrasonic flow measurement techniques for their potential in improving flow measurements. These projects include a meter testing program and computer simulations of travel-time techniques in ideal conditions and in measured pipe flows for a range of metering configurations.
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Document ID: 5A1ADF18

The Cipm Mutual Recognition Arrangement And Its Implications For Flow Metrology Harmonization In The Americas
Author(s): Pedro I. Espina, Roberto Arias
Abstract/Introduction:
Recently, the Comite International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) decided to provide a structure for the harmonization and comparison of measurement standards for fluid flow and related quantities. As with all other measurement quantities considered by the CIPM, this effort should provide the means by which to ascertain the equivalency of flow standards among the various countries of the World as declared in their entries to the Mutual Recognition Arrangement1 (MRA) of the CIPM. The CIPM flow harmonization effort will be conducted under the umbrella of a newly created Working Group for Flow and Related Quantities (WGF), which is part of the Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM).
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Document ID: 943FD851

Quality Maintenance Of Flow Measurements In Industry.
Author(s): Risto Kuoppamaki
Abstract/Introduction:
There is keen interest in the total accuracy of flow measurements in industry. Total accuracy is defined as the accuracy of the whole measurement chain which can be determined only in a field calibration. Indmeas has for several years carried out quality maintenance work for industry using the radiotracer methods for field calibrations of liquid and gas measurements. Comprehensive data from these calibrations show that the dominating uncertanties of flow measurements in industry lie outside the flow meters themselves. The large error components, however, are often fairly stable and can be eliminated by constant corrections.
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Document ID: D294361B

Centaur Round Robin Test Traceability Of Transcanada Calibrations Facility
Author(s): Umesh Karnik, Damian Flegel
Abstract/Introduction:
TransCanada Calibrations (TCCs) new high pressure, large diameter calibration facility is designed to meet the needs of the changing natural gas industry. With year-around access to gas volumes in excess of 50,000 actual m3/h, the TCC facility is designed to provide full range calibrations of flow meters ranging from 0.15 m (6 inch) to 0.75 m (30 inch) in diameter. In order to ensure that the facility meets user expectations of accuracy and repeatability, a round robin testing program was initiated by TCC.
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Document ID: A0651F7F

Qualification Of A Flow Condtioning Device According To The New API 14.3 Procedure
Author(s): Klaus Zanker, Dale Goodson
Abstract/Introduction:
The new AGA 3/API 14.3 standard on concentric square edged orifice meters suggests that, if installation effects can be shown to be less than about 0.23%, there is no need to apply any additional uncertainty to that of the basic discharge coefficient. This suggestion has revived interest in flow conditioners that can assure this performance without the need for long straight upstream lengths of pipe.
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Document ID: 9FE01117

Quantified Comparison Of The Efficiency Of New Flow Conditioners
Author(s): Mickan, B. Kramer, R. Wendt, G., Dopheide, D.
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper reports about the profile measurement downstream of several perforated plates and their evaluation. Five different designs of perforated plates were investigated, which were: modified Zanker, Mitsubishi, two designs by company NOVA and a design by Laws. Every flow conditioner were tested in three different pipe configurations with different levels of axial profile deformation and swirl. The report focuses on development of the axial velocity profile. The evaluation was done not only by comparing the velocity profiles but also with respect to the error shift of turbine meters.
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Document ID: 17FD508C

Numerical Analisys Of Flow Conditioner Efficiency
Author(s): G. Buonanno, m. Dellsiisola, A. Frattolillo, N. Massarotti, A. Carotenuto
Abstract/Introduction:
- The use of flow conditioners becomes necessary in flow measurement applications where the geometry of conduits does not allow complete development of the velocity profile upstream the flowmeter. In this paper the authors present a numerical analysis, based on finite volume technique, for the evaluation of flow conditioner performance under low level perturbation conditions. The use of non structured grids was necessary because of the complexity of the geometry studied. The results of the numerical calculations were used to evaluate the efficiency of different types of flow conditioners. The efficiency was defined on the basis of different parameters that take into account flatness, uni-directionality and asymmetry of the velocity profile downstream the flow conditioner.
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Document ID: 986200F8

A Unique Fluid Diverter Design For Water Flow Calibration Facilities
Author(s): W. Poeschel, R. Engel, D. Dopheide,H. J. Baade, Droege, H. J. Kecke, R. Praetor, N. Weist, E. Kurras
Abstract/Introduction:
A special fluid flow diverter was developed and tested for the new water flow standard facility which is under construction now at PTB Braunschweig. It offers several new features and properties for improving the accuracy, e. g. variable rectangular nozzle, CFD designed influx pipe section and high precision electromechanical switching device. The paper describes design and test results of a first prototype in a water flow circuit.
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Document ID: D73BCAC4

In-Situ Calibration Of Natural Gas Orifice Meters -- A Recently Accepted Concept In China
Author(s): Zhang Liangjie, Zheng Qi, Cheng Xiaoyi
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the details about in-situ calibration of natural gas orifice meters in China, and discusses some actual calibration results made in the custody transfer metering station of natural gas transportation pipeline from Shanxi to Beijing.
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Document ID: B385C6C5

Ultrasound Ow Meter Errors Related To Transducer Cavities
Author(s): Jerker Delsing, Johan Niem
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of the ultrasound ow meter technology is currently very rapid. This is especially seen in the small meter market. In both the district heating and natural gas industry the ultrasound ow meters are rapidly taking market shares.
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Document ID: AF6727C7

Modelling Of Transit Time Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Theoretical Asymmetric Flow
Author(s): Pamela I. Moore, Gregor J. Brown, Brian P. Stimpson
Abstract/Introduction:
Velocity profile is the definition given to the distribution of velocity in the axial direction over the cross-section of the pipe. This distribution is not usually flat and can vary dramatically depending on the properties of the fluid and the configuration of the pipe in which it flows. Fully developed flow is well defined for most values of Reynolds number however distorted flow is not. Ultrasonic flowmeters are affected by such distortions in the flow profile often resulting in erroneous measurements. For this reason correction to or prediction of distorted profiles has sparked great interest in the design and application of ultrasonic flowmeters. Multipath ultrasonic flowmeters are widely used in industry and many utilise a bouncepath technique. This document describes an analysis of the effect of theoretical asymmetric flow profiles on four transit time ultrasonic configurations utilising no more than two paths.
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Document ID: ECC8C17C

Decreasing Of Volume Flow-Rate Measurement ERRORPRIVATE In Modified Averaging Impact Tubes
Author(s): S. Walus
Abstract/Introduction:
The criteria for classification of averaging impact tubes are introduced (the art of measuring of reference pressure, the construction of the primary device, the number of ports and their displacement, the way of taking of total pressure). and some technical solutions are presented. Mathematical model of averaging impact tube is introduced and the correction factor is derivated. This factor takes into account the fact, that the output signal from differential pressure transducer is proportional to the average of dynamic pressures (velocities in second power) but the flow-rate is proportional to the average of velocities. Author introduced proposal of independent pressures measurement and calculating velocities in front of these ports in purpose of estimating of velocity distribution and than calculating flow-rate analytically.
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Document ID: 9A3E157E

The Ultrasonic Cross-Correlation Flow Meter - New Insights Into The Physical Background
Author(s): V. Skwarek, V. Hans
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last years of research, flow measurement by the cross correlation method made much progress concerning accuracy and reliability. Especially for gaseous fluid the signal processing was far improved by new demodulation techniques such as undersampling and complex demodulation. This allows new insights into the physical principle of interaction between ultrasound and fluid introduced in this paper.
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Document ID: 7EF4B990

An Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter Using High Frequency Transducers And Correlation Technique
Author(s): P. Brassier, B. Hosten, F. Vulovic
Abstract/Introduction:
The research activities carried out in the past years showed that in gas networks some constraints exist on the ultrasonic working frequency of flowmeters. The study of the transmission and the attenuation of the signal, and noise mechanisms gives us a defined suitable frequency range 1. Thereby, a working frequency of 500 kHz proves to be the most suitable to avoid noise effects. This frequency is above the noise level detected in gas pipelines. Moreover, the signal lost due to attenuation of ultrasound in gas is still negligible. In parallel, the use of this frequency allows the application of efficient numerical techniques of signal processing such as the correlation method. An initialisation process based on this method is developed for gas flowmeters. It provides low uncertainty on parameters involved in the flow measurement process.
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Document ID: BA69E46E

3D Velocity Profile Reconstruction Of Gas Flow In A Pipe With Ultrasonic Tomography
Author(s): J. Escande, P. Gajan, A. Strzelecki
Abstract/Introduction:
Beyond possibilities of simple flowmeters, ultrasonic tomography allows to reconstitute the three-dimensional velocity field over a circular pipe cross section. The differences of transit times between transducers distributed around the pipe are used in an iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithm in order to reconstruct the three velocity components. This experimental method has been tested successfully to quantify the 3D velocity field of various flows (fully developed, asymmetric and swirling air flows).
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Document ID: CBFEA38F

The Performance Of A Modified Electromagnetic Flowmeter When Abutted To A Smaller Misaligned Upstream Diameter Pipe
Author(s): C. J. Bates
Abstract/Introduction:
Electromagnetic flowmeters are today widely used for industrial flow measurement. For industrial users, due to physical constraints, the installation recommendations contained in national and international standards may not be achievable. The actual installation then results in the flowmeter being exposed to velocity profiles which are not fully developed, and do not accord with the situation for which the meter was designed and calibrated. The influence of a smaller upstream diameter pipe together with pipeline misalignment, when abutted to an electromagnetic flowmeter, is discussed.
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Document ID: 667C460A

Effects Of Disturbed Inflow On Accuracy Of Vortex-Shedding Flowmeters
Author(s): S. Perpeet, E. Von Lavante, H. Windorfer, V. Hans
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortical ows are mostly considered as disturbances, however, in a vortex- shedding owmeter controlled vortex shedding from a blu body is used for through ow metering. In this case, any additional vortices, swirl, or pulsations introduced upstream will interfere with the meters function. In the present work, the eect of in ow vortices on the accuracy and function of a vortex-shedding owmeter are investigated numerically. The in ow vortices are induced by a single and double bend positioned upstream of the blu body. The resulting ow is analyzed using visualization and DFT for various types of blu bodies.
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Document ID: 9BB448B1

Numerical Investigation Of Flow Eects On Accuracy In Turbine Flow Meters
Author(s): Th. Huwener, E. Von Lavante, Reinhard Ernst, W. m. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The present paper describes 2-D numerical simulations of a new class of turbine ow meters with two counterrotating rotors. The main goal was to investigate stator/rotor interactions and to improve the accuracy of the meter. The impact of sta- tor/rotor interaction on the variation of coecient of tangential force is shown. An improved design with a modied guide vane is proposed. Experimental results of the accuracy curves for the original and the modied guide vane are shown.
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Document ID: 6E39E9AE

Pipe Flow Modeling For Ultrasonic Flow Measurement
Author(s): H. Jeanneau, m. Piguet
Abstract/Introduction:
In many industrial applications, the precise measurement of volumetric flowrates is of crucial importance for economic or safety reasons. Flowmeters are generally installed in perturbed flow conditions. The measured value is then affected by a systematic error which can reach several %. EDF has developed a numerical tool to estimate the error introduced by the flow disturbances on the flow-rate measurement with ultrasonic flowmeters or differential pressure devices. The tool is based on a 3D CFD program which determines the flow profile. A module allows the simulation of ultrasonic flowmeters and differential pressure devices. This paper deals with ultrasonic flowmeters which are very sensitive to the flow profile through the parameter K (profile factor). Two configurations are presented in this paper:
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Document ID: EAABC3F3

Lda Measurements In High-Pressure Gas Pipelines
Author(s): H. Gehlhaar, B. Nath
Abstract/Introduction:
In industrial gas volume measurement, the reliable, precise, and economically efficient determination of the gas quantities by measurement is of utmost importance. Standby meter sections, Z-connection, and permanent series connection of two gas meters of different designs represent the state of the art. The permanent or temporary series connection for the comparison and test sections require expenses for a the establishment of a second complete measuring device. An alternative at present is the dismounting of the gas meter and checking it in an highpressure test facility. A test according to requirements, using a non-interfering measuring instrument which should be portable, if possible, and usable with other gas meters, can be a bridge between these two options. To prove this, measurements with an LDA system were carried out in a natural gas high-pressure pipeline upstream of a turbine gas meter. After extensive profile and single-point measurements have been made, it can be said that this test using the single-point method is feasible with an uncertainty of 0.5%, providing that certain prerequisites are met.
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Document ID: 9375FB3E

The Effects Of Asymmetric Flows In The Coriolis Mass Flowmeter With Straight Parallel Tubes: Numerical Simulation
Author(s): P. Kesic, V. Damic
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of flow disturbances on the performance of the Coriolis mass flowmeter(CMF) with two straight parallel tubes were invetigated numerically. Two types of flow disturbances were studied numerically using the bond-graph presentation. The first one represents a local restriction in one of the pipes that causes asymmeric flow in pipes. In the second case of operating conditions, uniformly obliterated tubes were considered. The effect of the obliterated layer thickness with different densities was analysed. It was found that the local restriction at the tube entrance does not effect the sensitivity coefficient, while the flowrate in the tube changes from zero to a rate equal to that in the parallel tube. The obliteration does not effect the sensitivity coefficient either, but changes the first natural mode of tube vibration. If the CMF is used for density measurement, the obliteration may cause significant error.
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Document ID: 17F50C3C

Effect Of Finite Medium Speed Of Sound On Coriolis Massflowmeters
Author(s): m. Anklin, G. Eckert, S. Sorokin, A. Wenger
Abstract/Introduction:
A theory is presented for the interaction between a vibrating tube and the enclosed flowing fluid with finite speed of sound. From this the influence of the speed of sound on the massflow measurements is derived. This model is valid for compressible mediums and for flow velocities which may be quite high ( 100m/s) but still subsonic. Such velocities can easily be reached in a Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) for gas application. The exact theoretical calculation is complex and the results can not be written in a simple one line equation. Nevertheless, we approximate the exact formula to estimate the deviation between true mass flow and the CMF reading. This deviation can be described with mainly two terms:
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Document ID: C703F4DD

Liquid Flow Measurements Via 3-D Piv
Author(s): G. Papadopoulos, K. J. Hammad
Abstract/Introduction:
A novel approach to flow metering is described based on the particle image velocimetry technique. The flow through a round clear pipe was investigated by isolating a plane normal to the stream direction and obtaining the instantaneous velocity information of tracer particles in the plane. A stereoscopic arrangement was used to obtain all three components of velocity. Integration of the streamwise component over the cross-sectional area of the pipe gave the instantaneous flow rate through the pipe. The benefits and features of this novel approach to flow metering are discussed within the content of measurements performed at several flow rates
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Document ID: B69E026E

A Comparision Of Accuracy On Orifice Meter With And Without Straightener In The Field
Author(s): Seung-Hee An, Jae-Young Her
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of this study is to improve the metering facilities at metering stations of Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS), which are being operated in unsatisfying meter run conditions. For experiments, a test facility was constructed to simulate one of the metering stations and it was set up in Jung-dong metering station. Presently, KOGAS has 60 nationwide metering stations and among them, 34 metering stations are located in metropolitan area.
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Document ID: F4DAE85F

Discharge Coefficients Of Venturi Tubes With Non-Standard Convergent Angles
Author(s): m. J. Reader-Harris, W. C. Brunton, J. J. Gibson,
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes six 100 mm Venturi tubes manufactured in a range of diameter ratios from 0.4 to 0.75. They are standard except for the convergent angles which are either 10.5 or 31.5. They have been calibrated in water and highpressure air. It is clear that the data in air from the Venturi tubes with a convergent angle of 10.5 are much smoother than those with the standard or the higher convergent angle. Work on the physical basis of the equation for the discharge coefficient at high Reynolds number is described, and using this work an equation for the discharge coefficient in air has been obtained with an uncertainty of 0.71 per cent. This is much smaller than has been achieved with standard Venturi tubes.
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Document ID: 155D91EE

Enhanced Integral Orifice Assemblies Provide High Accurate Small Line Measurement
Author(s): Gregory Livelli
Abstract/Introduction:
By combining integrated electronics with integral orifice technology, these flowmeters are capable of measuring three process variables in one device: DP, static pressure, temperature, and then dynamically compensating mass flow rate. With built in flow computers for dynamic compensation, integrated flowmeters eliminate the errors commonly found in non-dynamic compensated flow measurement. This design eliminates tubing, valves, adapter unions, transmitter mounting, excessive welding and leak points, therefore reducing installation time.
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Document ID: AAA1A8C7

Transondas: A New Device To Measurement Of Flow
Author(s): R. A. Almeida, Z. De Souza, E. Da C. Bortoni
Abstract/Introduction:
This work shows the transonda that is a device destined to measure the flow in pipe lines under pressure and in natural or artificial channels. This instrument is being developed in the Hydromechanical Laboratory for Small Hydro Power Plants - LHPCH - of the Engineering Federal School of Itajub - EFEI - in partnership with Markare Devices Electronics Co. This paper shows the transondas patented models, the results of researches of the preliminary version and the results of the tested prototype in the wind tunnel of the referred laboratory
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Document ID: C0339842

The Use Of Adcp In Small And Medium Rivers
Author(s): G. L. Tiago F, G. T. Caetano
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction and operation of a hydrological data net depends on the installation of flow stations net that can generate reliable data obtained from a stage discharge curve, that is produced through a series of flow measurements made in the cross section. Usually, for measurement of those flows, it is used the conventional current meters and other methods. They are well-known and applied plenty methods, however, in the execution they demand time, knowledge and technical abilities, without which can be generated data that are not real.
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Document ID: 9948DAEE

The Measure Of Flow In Large Size Turbopumps
Author(s): A. N. C. Viana, E. C. Bortoni, R. A. Almeida
Abstract/Introduction:
This work presents a procedure adopted to measure the flow in an installation with four large sized axial pumps. A twelve captors Pitot type special probe was used for the measurement of flow, specifically developed for this work, as well as, the data acquisition system. The experimental results are shown.
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Document ID: FA3194EA

Ab Initio Simulation Of Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
Author(s): Nantenin Mamadi Keita
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) is the basis of the working principle of Coriolis Mass Flowmeter (CMF). Up to now the description of this coupling has been done using some crude simplifications. Within this weak coupling approximation, the action of the fluid on the structure, the so-called Coriolis force, is easily derived from the structure movement. Clearly the fluid properties effects are out of the reach of this simple model. Nevertheless, CMF are very competetive and are used in many fluid (liquid and gas) flow metering applications. Therefore an a priori understanding of their behaviour is needed.
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Document ID: 273587F5

Multiphase Flow Metering Technology Updated
Author(s): Claudio Barreiros, Jose Alberto Pinheiro, Miguel Joao Borges, Josaphat Dias
Abstract/Introduction:
Multiphase flow metering can be understood as the measurement at line conditions of the component volumetric rates of a multiphase flow stream without its compulsory separation or sampling. For oil well test applications, multiphase flow metering is the measurement of the oil, water and gas flow rates of the produced fluids, without the usage either of a two-phase or a three-phase separator. In comparison to conventional gravity-separator well test systems, multiphase flow metering allows shorter-duration, more accurate tests and less operator oversight for well tests. Additionally, multiphase flow meters have lower capital and operating costs for offshore and subsea applications. In the oil industry, the main goals of multiphase flow meters are: (a) to replace test separator vessels, (b) to avoid installation of production test lines and test headers (both in subsea and topside applications) and, (c) to improve the well data acquisition by improving the accuracy and frequency of oil well tests. Typical output results from a multiphase meter are the flow rates and the volumetric fractions of each phase (mass quality and water cut). Several physical principles have been applied to multiphase metering concepts, which are characterized by the combination of techniques used. No simple type of meter or metering system can cover all applications, so there is clearly room for more development and optimization. Recently, the research has been focused more on modeling and artificial intelligence approaches. Besides, there is a permanent need of installing multiphase meters along the down-hole environment of the oil wells or at the well christmas-trees, not yet achieved but with many ongoing projects. This paper intends to present the major advances in the multiphase flow metering technology which impacts directly on the final performance of the measurement process.
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Document ID: B79B5D0E

Multi-Phase Flow Metering Using Twin Helicoidal Rotors - The Multi-Stream Meter
Author(s): J. G. De Carvalho, B. De C. Antunes
Abstract/Introduction:
Multi-phase flow meters development present different principles with different associated technologies. Some systems are designed to separate gas, oil and water fractions before measuring each one separately. Others are able to measure the three fractions together, using supplementary devices to obtain gas, oil and water cuts
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Document ID: 72F947AD

Development And Validation Of A New Single Straight Tube Coriolis Meter
Author(s): Craig Van Cleve, Greg Lanham, Curt Ollila, Chuck Stack, Rob Garnett
Abstract/Introduction:
The popularity of Coriolis meters continues to grow, largely as a result of the high performance and field robustness of dual, curved tube Coriolis meters. Such curved tube designs solved many of the problems that plagued early Coriolis meters, such as mount sensitivity and vibration effects.
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Document ID: FC6BCD6E

Operational Perspective, Of 0IL-IN-WATER Monitoring Offshore
Author(s): Claudio Barreiros, Jose A. Pinheiro, Valerio Fabian
Abstract/Introduction:
Petrobras has been testing on-line oil-in-water monitors in offshore Campos Basin, Brazil, aimed at establishing cost effective, accurate and reliable operational procedures and at the same time complying with the legislation for the discharge of produced water Into the marine environment. There are many available technologies and some were chosen according to their adequacy to measure oil and grease (O&G) in produced water and re-injection water offshore. The need of Freon replacements and alternative laboratory analysis methods are evident. Systems based on ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF), infrared absorption, infrared scattering and Laser scattering techniques are among the targets of these field tests which seek simplicity, easiness of sample conditioning and low sensitivity to variations due to processed oil blending. This paper intends to present the status of the first results and the operational perspectives from the use of on-line oil-in-water monitoring systems.
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Document ID: 956D1B23

Atalaia Multiphase Flow Test Facility: Description, Recent Works And Future Tests
Author(s): Ibere Nascentes Alves, Paulo Jose Pinto Ribeiro, Valdir Estevam
Abstract/Introduction:
This work presents the facilities of the Sitio de Teste de Atalaia (Atalaia test site) from Petrobras, located in Aracaju, Brazil. It was installed in 1994 to investigate the performance and endurance of different equipments related to artificial lift systems or multiphase flow installations, such as gas lift valves, meters, boosters and pumps. A large scale flow loop, 220-meters long and 6-inches of internal diameter, was designed to conduct two and three-phase flow tests. The multiphase flow loop is capable of flowing natural gas, crude oil and water simultaneously, at pressures up to 45 bar. Maximum flow rates are 400 STD m3/h of gas, 120 m3/h of oil and 76 m3/h of water. With these flow rates and pressure ranges, all multiphase flow patterns encountered in operating pipelines can be obtained. A control & data acquisition system is used to acquire data from any equipment under test and from several resident measurement devices. It also provides the necessary control for the flow loop. Experience shows that a very good control of all the flow variables is achieved with this system. The following equipment were tested in the last four years at Atalaia: multiphase flowmeters from Fluenta, Framo and Mixmeter two-phase flowmeter from ITT Barton Bornemanns multiphase pumping system and VASPS separation system (using both Agip and Petrobras-Unicamp designs). The following activities are scheduled for the year 2000: drilling and completion of a testing well 300- meters deep testing of a WEMD-Leistritz subsea multiphase pumping system testing of multiphase flowmeters from Framo, DUET and MFI and phase II of the gas lift valves performance tests. Keywords: Test Site, Multiphase Flow, Artificial Lift, and Meters
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Document ID: E3BA1E12

Field Experience With Real Time Water-In-Oil Monitoring
Author(s): Claudio Barreiros,Jose Alberto Pinheiro, Marcelo A. L. Gonalves,Gualton Manhes, Josaphat Dias Da Mata, Ricardo Pessanha, Roberto Guedes
Abstract/Introduction:
Water-in-oil or BSW monitoring in produced oil streams on offshore platforms in Campos Basin, Brazil, consists of a daily basis procedure to calculate the total liquid production balance. The measurement of the water cut becomes more critical through time when there is a natural depletion with a consequent decrease in the reservoir production, normally followed by an increase in water production, which can mask the oil fiscal metering. It is fundamental to consider the instability of the oil flow from the reservoir caused by gas or water slug, in the production columns, which can cause problems with sampling representivity and results from laboratory analysis carried out within pre-set periods. In the case of Petrobras, each analysis run represents the average value of six samples collected at the field locations and eventually the process of sampling can be problematic because of the process variations. Oils analysis is performed using centrifuging, decanting and by means of differential pressure measurement and none of these processes can be used in a continuous on-line basis. In order to guarantee a better representivity in the oil and water metering, a real time metering process is necessary. This can eliminate the constraints of the non-continuous metering processes and make the automation of the manifolds and oil gathering stations possible as well as the reduction of the total measurement uncertainties, among other advantages.
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Document ID: A3DFAD69

Subsea Multiphase Flow Metering Offshore Brazil
Author(s): Elisio Caetano, Jose Alberto Pinheiro, Claudio Barreiro Cassio Kuchpil, Eivind Dykesteen,
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of the multiphase flow at the wellhead eliminates the need for dedicated testlines from remote wellhead completions, and the need for a dedicated test separator at the processing facility. A multiphase flowmeter at the wellhead will also allow improved well control, and hence better reservoir control. For remote or deep subsea wellhead completions the savings and operational benefits offered by this new technology are quite extensive.
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Document ID: E82693BB

Behaviour Of Venturi Meters In Two-Phase Flows
Author(s): A. Strzelecki, P. Gajan, J.P. Couput, V. De Laharpe
Abstract/Introduction:
Needs for accurate and reliable on line metering of two-phase flows (gas and/or liquids) are arising for fiscal and allocation reasons when subsea or topside installations are shared by several partners. This paper describes the work carried out by ONERA in collaboration with ELF EXPLORATION PRODUCTION and GAZ DE FRANCE to assess and develop accurate methods applicable for gas metering with condensate (wet gas).
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Document ID: 7FAECCF8

Wet Gas Metering With A Horizontally Installed Venturi Meter
Author(s): Richard Steven
Abstract/Introduction:
Wet Gas Metering is becoming increasingly important to the Natural Gas Production Industry as Wet Gas flows are becoming more common in the field and the addition of a field separator is prohibitively expensive. Wet Gas is defined here as all flows with a Gas Volume Fractions greater than 95%. There is no agreement in industry to which wet gas metering method is best. Of all the published two-phase flow Differential Pressure (DP) Meter correlations this research has shown seven to be of possible relevance. This paper uses new independent data to compare their performance. Finally, a new correlation is offered.
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Document ID: 1CC8975B

Field Tests Of Conductance Cross-Correlation Flowmeter In Measuremeant Of OIL/WATER Two Phase Flows In High Water Production Wells
Author(s): Xing-Bin, L. Jin-Hai, H. Ling-An, X. Zhi-hui,Y. He-tang,Q. Xiao-Ping, L. Yu-Hui Zh. Chun-Hui H. Jia-Qiang, Zh Zhuor Q. Hai-Jun, Zh.
Abstract/Introduction:
A new type of conductance cross-correlation flowmeter based on two conductance sensors has been designed to measure the velocity of oil/water twophase flow in a borehole. This flowmeter is capable of measuring the flowrate in a production well with high water cut. Experiment results carried out in a multiphase flow loop demonstrated that the flow velocity measuring range is from 0.0368 to 3.68 m/s, and the relative deviation is 2.3%. Field tests have been performed with the flowmeter in Daqing oilfield. The total flowrates measured with the flowmeter in the well are very closed to the flowrates metered at surface
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Document ID: B7A6F884

Wet Gas Well Testing
Author(s): Alan m. Fairclough
Abstract/Introduction:
Testing wells, which produce 1-2% liquid in the presence of 99-98% gas volume, is very difficult. The mixture is far from homogeneous, and task is similar to looking for a needle in a haystack. Yet, in the case of condensates, the dollar value of the liquid may equal that of the gas. Biggest economic justification is the case of Gas Lift, where proper gas injection control can make a significant contribution to the profitability of the operation. If the gas contains water, the treatment is very expensive, so knowledge of the exact nature of the produced fluid is essential for proper reservoir control and optimization. In gas wells applications for example, it is crucial to measure the small amounts of liquid to the highest degree of accuracy, since this data is necessary to monitor and control hydrate formation. The difficulty is in the accurate measurement of 2% of the total flow. For 5% accuracy of reading of the liquid flow rate, one requires 0.02x0.05 0.001, or 0.1% accuracy of the total flow. Moreover, additional knowledge is required to know the water content of the condensates. In the case of multi-layered production, this knowledge contributes a lot to profitability.
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Document ID: D8178EAC

Tele-Metrology And Advanced Ultrasonic Flow Metering
Author(s): Pedro I. Espina, T. T. Yeh, Peter I. Rothfleisch
Abstract/Introduction:
In an effort to expand the range of the national standards, NIST is experimenting with tele-metrology concepts to annex flow calibration facilities throughout the U.S. An essential part of this approach is the use of sensors capable of assessing the dynamic properties of the flow-testing environment. Specifically, we advocate the use of an advanced ultrasonic flow meter (AUFM) to provide a detailed description of the flow field entering the flow meter being calibrated. The AUFM couples multi-path ultrasonic sensing capabilities with pattern recognition software to provide likely flow fields and their probability of existence. The knowledge encoded in the pattern recognition software is derived from training exercises that use computational fluid dynamic and experimental results to teach a flow field recognizer (FFR) via learning algorithms. The performance of the FFR is proportional to the number and variety of example flow fields used during training, and to the flow detection features used for classification. Although the purpose of this research is to reduce the uncertainty of flow calibration devices, the use of AUFM could prove beneficial in field applications where installation effects can lead to gross errors when ultrasonic signals are evaluated using conventional integration schemes.
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Document ID: 0F7771C2

Intelligent Flowmetering - Maximum Profit Of Available Information
Author(s): m. Braal, W.J. Bouman, C.H.L. Limpens
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the development of a diagnostic system for flowmeters, that does not only make flowmeters work optimal under the toughest conditions, but can also diagnose the condition of instrument, process and installation. The paper describes the promising results of a pilot project for vortex flowmeters. Investigated items are vibrations, pulsations and cavitation. Making the flowmeter insensitive to these disturbances makes it possible to measure lower flow rates than before.
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Document ID: 976F2D6B

Vortex Flow Field Investigations With Application Of Hot-Wire Anemometer
Author(s): J. Berlinski, R. Chmielewski, G.L. Pankanin
Abstract/Introduction:
Laboratory investigations of the fluid velocity field in the vortex meter are reported in the paper. The 2D hot-wire anemometer system has been applied for determination the velocity vector components and turbulence values distribution. Also, the spectral analysis of the fluid motion has been applied. Keywords: vortex meter, hot-wire anemomete
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Document ID: 83C85EAF

An Ultrasonic Measurement System For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Joo Carlos De Mendona, Ton Leenhoven
Abstract/Introduction:
The Ultrasonic Flowmeter 5 beams is na unique flowmeter system for custody transfer flow measurement of hydrocarbons. It offers substantial improvements in accuracy and turndown required for custody transfer of high value petroleum products. Until now, ultrasonic flowmeters were not capable of meeting the stringent requirements for true fiscal and commercial metering.
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Document ID: 8A860870

Measurement Using Ultra-Sonic Transit-Time Method - Some Aspects Of Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): J. G. De Carvalho, B. De C. Antunes
Abstract/Introduction:
1. The objective of this paper is to show some characteristics of measurement of gas flows using ultrasonic time of flight method. Also, USE-Ultraflux has developed a series of test on the IPT Anemometry facility to check the influence of several situations found on actual process plants on the ultra-sonic meter performance.
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Document ID: 1DDCF2F7

Experiences Of CLAMP-ON Ultrasonic Flowmeters In Small Pipes
Author(s): S. Asikainen, J. Halttunen
Abstract/Introduction:
Two commercially available clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeters were tested in the Laboratory of Measurement and Information Technology at Tampere University of Technology. In these tests two different pipe sizes, four different pipe materials and several sensor setups were used. The results show that it is very difficult to make accurate measurements in small pipes, because several factors have quite large effect on the meter performance. The measurement method, error in measured wall thickness, pipe material and the quality of the material are examples of these factors.
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Document ID: 5FF08BAE

In-Situ Validation Of Usm Based On Speed Of Sound Comparison Using Non-Flowing Natural Gas
Author(s): Ion Safta
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a method of validation of Ultrasonic Flow Meters (USM), which does not require their removal from the pipeline. The test gas is the natural gas metered under normal operating conditions. The paper describes the pipeline fittings and their installation, the testing procedure and the software and hardware required for its implementation, together with an error analysis of the method. The overall uncertainty is better than 0.15%.
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Document ID: BD35C320

High-Reliability Vortex Flow Meter With Dual-Coupled Ultrasonic Sensors
Author(s): Hiroshi Ohashi, Kuniyoshi Okamoto
Abstract/Introduction:
Confirmation of measuring technology for flow rate of high pressurized gas is required. So, in order to build up measuring technology keeping High Sensitiveness, Wide Rangeability, High Accuracy, up to now, we have developed a vortex flow meter for gas with one coupled ultrasonic sensors. And we confirmed this effectiveness by testing on an existing gas pipe line with high pressure. This type of vortex flow meter has a hole inside the bluff body situated in the flow, and the change of flow which are generated by vortexes lead to this hole. Ultrasonic sensors situated both side of this hole detect the change of flow in the hole.
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Document ID: 76D14610

Correlation Of Ultrasound And Pressure In Vortex Shedding Flow-Meters
Author(s): H. Windorfer, V. Hans
Abstract/Introduction:
Using ultrasound for the detection of vortex frequency in a vortex shedding flow-meter is a powerful combination. The demodulated timesignal of the ultrasound differs from the known timesignal received by the pressure sensor. The optimisation of bluff-bodies for the generation of well defined vortices requires a visualisation of the vortex street and the correlation of pressure and ultrasound for the enlightenment of the differences. Measuring the timedependent pressure plot around the bluff body shows the correlation between the modulation of the ultrasonic signal and the pressure structures separating from the bluff body.
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Document ID: 4D6BC634

Experimental Optimisation Of Bluff Bodies In Ultrasound Vortex Shedding Flow-Meters
Author(s): H. Windorfer, V. Hans
Abstract/Introduction:
Using ultrasound in vortex shedding flow-meters is a powerfull combination. The high sensitivity of ultrasound to the vortex structures enables a compleatly new design of the measuring system. Smallest bluff-bodies can be used generating a regular and well defined vortex street. At the same time the pressure loss caused by the bluff-body is minimised. The high sensitivity of ultrasound to the vortex structures and the secondary vortices requires the design of a special shaping with new properties.
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Document ID: 2201EADF

Installation Effects On Vortex Flowmeters - The Impact Of Piping And Flow Dynamics On The Sensor Signal
Author(s): M.C.A.M. Peters, F.M. Braal, C.H.L. Limpens, E. Van Bokhorst
Abstract/Introduction:
: At the Flow Centre of the TNO Institute of Applied Physics installation effects on various types of flowmeters are being studied. Recently, an extensive study on the impact of pulsations and mechanical pipe vibrations on the output of five different make 3-inch industrial vortex flowmeters has been finalised and the comparison has been presented at several occasions 1,2. To study the impact of bluff body dimensions, the experiments have been repeated for a 1.5 and 4 vortex flowmeter. Also a detailed analysis has been carried out to study the impact of unsteady flow and pipe vibrations on the sensor signal.
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Document ID: 26C5B1EC

Divided Flow Technique For The Calibration Of Gasflowmeters
Author(s): Luciana Casciny, Nilson Massami Taira
Abstract/Introduction:
This article describes the Flow Laboratory necessities for a new facility, and how to extend the calibration flow rate using a meter with no moving parts, easy to operate and with low uncertainty. The proposal alternative is using two meters in parallel as the working standard: one sonic nozzle and one rotary piston (CVM) its the measurement uncertainty and some results.
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Document ID: 1C09B26A

Numerical Study Of Critical Flow In Small Orifices
Author(s): Paulo J. S. Jabardo, Kazuto Kawakita
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a numerical investigation of critical flow in small cylindrical orifices. Microorifices with diameters ranging from 16 to 423mm with length to diameter ratios (L/D) ranging from 0,6 to 16 were simulated using a numerical solver. Flow simulations were carried out under several back to upstream pressure ratios (Pb/P0) under pressurized (increasing upstream pressure P0) and vacuum (decreasing back pressure Pb) modes of operation. Numerical results were validated by comparing calculated flow rates with experimental data. This comparison showed a good agreement between simulation and experimental data. Results also showed that, when operating with small diameter orifices under vacuum conditions, both the Reynolds number and the volumetric flow rate remain constant at critical flow regime. However, when operating under pressure, the volumetric flow rate refered to the upstream stagnation conditions does not stabilise even at critical flow conditions, and the Reynolds number increases by decreasing the back to upstream pressure ratio.
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Document ID: 5E93A009

Manufacture Of Diamond Sonic Micronozzles
Author(s): S. Silva, K. Kawakita, m. T. Pereira, m. Cattani, m. C. Salvadori
Abstract/Introduction:
A process to manufacture diamond sonic micronozzle has been described. Tungsten wires was used as a mold to make diamond microtubes. A pretreatment of the wire surface with diamond powder provided a continuous diamond film deposited by Chemical Vapor Deposition. An acid etching of the tungsten was performed to remove the mold, obtaining a cylindrical diamond micronozzle.
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Document ID: 61A42CC4

Flow Meter Calibration With Sonic Nozzles In Highpressure Natural Gas
Author(s): H. Dietrich, B. Nath, E. V. Lavante, m. Jaeschke, P. Schley, H.-J. Hotze
Abstract/Introduction:
A new CEN-Standard for gas flow meters requires meters, which working at operating pressures of more than 4 bar to be calibrated accordingly. However in this pressure range, and especially for small flow rates, only a few suitable test rigs exist world-wide. Based on the good experience with sonic nozzles for air at atmospheric conditions, their use for the calibration of gas flow meters in high pressure natural gas is anticipated.
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Document ID: 2451BC9C

Characteristics Of Small Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): K.A Park,Y.M Choi,H.M Choi,T.S Cha, B.H Yoon
Abstract/Introduction:
Small sonic nozzles (throat diameter 0.284.48 mm) were tested in the gas flow standard system. This standard system is composed of two bell provers and 5 colum piston provers, compressor, filters, and dehumidifier. The discharge coefficients of small sonic nozzles are obtained and correlated as a function of throat Reynolds numbers with 0.33 % uncertainty at a confidence level 95 %. The tested high Reynolds number was the lower limit of ISO 9300 specifications. The data are useful as data base for revision of ISO 9300.
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Document ID: 1CE8760F

Improvement Of Thermodynamic Calculations Used For The Flow Rate Of Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): J.P. Vallet, C. Windenberger
Abstract/Introduction:
Nozzles operating under sonic conditions are already used widely as reference flowmeters in many countries to measure gas flow rate under pressure. These Nozzles are calibrated, in each of the countries concerned, on approved primary test rigs. The techniques used in these countries today are the fruit of R&D carried out on nozzles for more than twenty years. The outcome has been standard ISO 9300, published in 1990, on the technique for measuring gas flowrates using a sonic nozzle.
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Document ID: 678DB6EC

Simulation Of Critical Nozzle Flow Considering Real Gas Effects
Author(s): Schley, E. Von Lavante, D. Zeitz, m. Jaeschke, H. Dietrich, B. Nath
Abstract/Introduction:
Critical nozzle flow is predicted for high pressure natural gas by way of numerical simulation. The CFD-program used was developed for simulating twodimensional and axially symmetric, viscous flow. The thermodynamic properties significantly affecting nozzle flow of high pressure natural gas were computed using the AGA8-DC92 equation of state. To verify the present theoretical results, mass flow measurements of natural gas were made using the Pigsar high-pressure test rig. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results is presented for one test case
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Document ID: 45BBDF9E

Effects Of Various Geometric Parameters On Flow Behavior In Sonic Nozzles.
Author(s): E. Von Lavante
Abstract/Introduction:
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FLOW FILDS ASSOCIATED ITH SONIC VENTURRI NOZZLES.
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Document ID: 13C0607F

Influence Of Surface Roughness On The Flowrate Behaviour Of Small Critical Venturi Nozzles
Author(s): G. Wendt , E. Von Lavante
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the results of experiments carried out with a set of 50 critical Venturi nozzles with diameters between 0.15 mm and 10 mm with special emphasis on small nozzles with diameters of less than 1 mm. All nozzles were shaped in accordance with the current ISO Standard 9300 1, only the quality of surface finish having average roughness heights between 0.1 mm and 1 mm differed from the requirements of this standard
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Document ID: BFCE6682

Investigation Of Flowelds In Small Sonic Venturi-Nozzl
Author(s): E. Von Lavante , m. Ishibashi, G. Wendt
Abstract/Introduction:
Detailed investigation of ow elds associated with several sonic Venturi nozzles with small Reynolds numbers used for ow metering was carried out. The range of Reynolds numbers considered in this work extended from 4 103 to 4:4 104. In the experimental part, global parameters such as discharge coecient Cd and local ow vari- ables such as recovery temperature Tr were investigated independently at two dierent scientic institutions. Both discovered ow phenomena that were not explainable using simple linear theories. Therefore, in the numerical part of the present investigation, the corresponding ow elds were simulated using compressible viscous ow solver ACHIEVE. The qualitative agreement of the numerical and experimental results was satisfactory the comparison enabled the authors to explain most of the physical phenomena observed.
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Document ID: 33762707

Experimental Investigation On Critical Flow Through Microorifices And Capillaries
Author(s): Kazuto Kawakita, Marcos Tadeu Pereira
Abstract/Introduction:
. With the purpose of studying application of critical flows through small orifices in the measurement and control of very low gas flowrates, experimental investigations were carried out on a set of 22 microorifices and capillaries of circular cross sections manufactured out of ruby and stainless steel. Diameters of the orifice and capillary samples ranged from 16mm to 427mm, and their lengths from 254mm to 68mm. The microorifices were submitted to tests using air, argon, helium and carbon dioxide, and the back to the upstream pressure ratio Pb/P0 varied from unity down to about 0,1, both under pressure and vacuum operations. Results showed that, when operating under vacuum, the critical flow regime indicates that the discharge coefficient is stable and choking occurs even in flows with very small Reynolds numbers. However, when operating under pressure, the critical flow regime depends on the pressure ratio Pb/P0, and other parameters related to the gas properties and the orifice dimensions. Experimental results also showed that compressibility factor is a fundamental parameter to be considered in critical flows through microorifices, mainly when operating under a pressurized condition
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Document ID: 0D36FBE3

Uncertainty In Primary Gas Flow Standards Due To Flow Work Phenomena
Author(s): John D. Wright, Aaron N. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Static gravimetric and static volumetric gas flow standards are both affected by uncertainty components related to the measurement of the change of mass of gas within the inventory volume. In the process of diverting gas into the collection vessel, rapid pressure and temperature changes occur in the inventory volume. A low uncertainty gas flow standard requires thorough understanding of these transients so that appropriate instrumentation, system design, and operating procedures may be developed. A thermodynamic model for the flow work phenomena is presented and compared to experimental measurements and strategies for minimizing their effects on flow uncertainty are discussed.
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Document ID: CD3BC901

The National Standard Gas Provers Of The Imgc-Cnr
Author(s): G. Cignolo, A. Rivetti, G. Martini, F. Alasia, G. Birello, G. La Piana
Abstract/Introduction:
A small bell prover and a piston prover of large capacity recently installed in the new Gas Flow Laboratory of the IMGC-CNR (the national primary standards laboratory in Italy for mechanical and thermal quantities) are described. The provers have been completely revised, automated and equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation for measurement of temperature, pressure, bell or piston displacement and time.
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Document ID: 53023DE2

Dynamic Traceabilty For Gasmeter Calibration Stations Using Ultrasonic And Diaphragmatic Reference Meters As A Twin Package
Author(s): Dr. B. Btyi, A. S. Kun, L. Kloczy, K. Kocsmr
Abstract/Introduction:
A Sonic Nozzle Prover System (SNPS) stepped into service at Gas Work of Budapest. After a two-(2) years of operation a Round-robin test was made to control the basic accuracy and repeatability. The test involved the National Standard gas meter calibration system1 and the SNPS. Also a new one -which operation just going on - based on PD master meter was tested. The calibration systems working at low pressure using vacuumed and pressure controlled flow circle. The twin meters has temperature compensators. Repeatedly obtained tests based on twin meter package pointed out reasonable results.
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Document ID: 50B00CEB

Repeatability And Uncertainty Of Tccs Isle Des Chenes Testing Facility
Author(s): Harry Dijstelbergen, Harry Bar, Henk Bellinga
Abstract/Introduction:
The elements required to design TCCs new high-pressure calibration facility for the least uncertainty are summarized. Results obtained during commissioning are shown, indicating the results according to the ISO Guide to the expression of Uncertainty of Measurements (GUM). Key words: Calibration stations, Gasmeters, High-pressure meter testing, testing facilities.
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Document ID: 8B666FD9

Flow Measurement Uncertainty Of Natural Gas Metering Station In Gas Processing Unity
Author(s): Valmir Ruis, N. m. Taira, Jose m. Camara Brito
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plates are the most common flow meters used in Brazil to measure natural gas in metering stations in processing units. This article presents the results of analysis of the present situation of gas flow metering stations according to metrological and dimensional criteria of AGA Report #3. The uncertainty analysis was made following the guidelines of the ISO Guide for Uncertainty in Measurement (ISO GUM).
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Document ID: 4D73552B

An Operational View On Gas Measurement Using Orifice Plate Device With Low Uncertainty
Author(s): Josaphat Dias Da Mata, Edvaldo A. Carrascosa
Abstract/Introduction:
The new scenario for the Brazilian energetic policy points out to a steep growth on natural gas demand for diverse applications, such as electric energy generation and industrial, domestic or vehicular use. Therefore, the necessity of an intensified effort toward the improvement of the volume gas balance is increasing
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Document ID: 2DFF9918

Uncertainty Analysis In Piston Prover Calibration
Author(s): Valmir Ruis, Noemi Christina Hernandez
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents main uncertainties sources, differential equations analysis and the estimation of combined uncertainty in the calibration of a compact piston prover of the IPT Flow Laboratory.
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Document ID: C4C4BA11

Natural Gas Energy Flow Quality() Uncertainty Estimation Using Monte Carlo Simulation Method.
Author(s): Hoi Yeung, Christos E. Papadopoulos
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas market, open access along with gas brokering and marketing has resulted in multiple gas contracts through one physical measuring point. Accurate metering of natural gas has become more important than ever as de-regulation subjects pipeline companies to competition. A more competitive market is driving the need for real-time accurate electronic flow measurement. Modern electronic natural gas metering systems (ENGMS) introduced additional, though necessary, complexity in the estimation and verification of the reported results. Additionally, it becomes more and more important to be able to verify these results. The application of Monte Carlo simulation as a combined energy flow measurement uncertainty estimation method seems to offer specific advantages over the more complex, traditional uncertainty estimation methods while at the same time fully conforms with the method of the ISO/GUM, the authoritative document for uncertainty evaluation. Since Monte Carlo simulation relies on randomness, it seems to capture more naturally and more related to the underlying physics of measurement uncertainty. Typical comparisons of estimated uncertainties by the model and the conventional method (RSS) have been carried out. In general the Monte Carlo method gives slightly higher estimated uncertainties. This is due to the fact that the simplified conventional methods inevitably neglect correlations between the variables.
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Document ID: 63C73245

Guide And Bayesian Approach To Polynomial Regression Models In Flow Meter Calibration Data
Author(s): Olga S. Yoshida, Nilson m. Taira, Mrcia Delia Branco
Abstract/Introduction:
The polynomial regression model has been largely used in flow meter calibration. The document ISO 7006 - Part II describes how to adjust a polynomial expression to non linear calibration data. The Guide establishes general rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement, but does not demonstrate methods of evaluating uncertainty in flow meter calibration. In this paper we concentrate on the uncertainty analysis for calibration of flow gas meters by using polynomial regression models. A detailed Guide analysis of this model will be given with selected examples of non linear calibration data. The Guide analysis of this model is dictated by assumptions made on the distribution of errors. Typically, it is assumed that the errors have normal distributions but it is not true in many situations. Alternatives to the normal distribution for regression errors are discussed such as Student-t with small number of degree of freedom using Bayesian statistics. The rules recommended in the Guide are viewed in the light of Bayesian concepts, and we conclude that the interpretation of the results are very natural. The Bayes calculations was done with the Bugs (Bayesian Using Gibbs Sampling) software.
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Document ID: EA53D354

Measurement Uncertainty Factors Of Acoustic Flowmeter
Author(s): Wan-Sup Cheung, Kyung-Am Park, Jong-Seung Paik
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses uncertainty factors associated with the acoustic flowmeter developed in KRISS. Repeated experimental attempts have been made to investigate their effects on the measurement accuracy of the flowmeter and its robustness in various experimental conditions. The attempts have enabled us to sort out the two major uncertainty factors of the acoustic flowmeter the measurement errors of the acoustic pressure in the pipe and the acoustic wave reflection characteristics (the ratio of the incident wave to reflected one). Their effects are in details discussed. These findings are shown to lead to a new method that can present more accuracy and robustness in measuring the flow velocity in the pipe. The proposed method decomposes the measured acoustic pressure into the incident and reflected wave components and then estimates the flow velocity by choosing one or both of the decomposed wave components. Their choice depends on the acoustic wave reflection characteristics inside the pipe. Since the Mach number is estimated by using the least squares method, it is found to be the best-fitted result. In order to make those points clear, experimental results will be demonstrated in this paper, including the simulation results that were not possible to implement experimentally.
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Document ID: B4E7467E

A New Ultrastable Transfer Standard For Tccs New High Pressure Gas Meter Calibration Facility
Author(s): H. H. Dijstelbergen, H. Bellinga
Abstract/Introduction:
Tests are reported on a 10-unit Rotary Piston Prover system that is installed at the TCC high-pressure gas meter testing facility. The paper also describes new tests that were carried out with the Rotary Piston Prover concerning its temperature dependence. Tests against a Bell Prover are also reported. Keywords: Reference standards, gas meter calibration, meter proving, piston prover, high pressure gas meter testing.
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Document ID: DCEC1052

Applications Of Ultrasonic Flow Meters In The Petroleum Industry
Author(s): Josaphat Dias Da Mata, Ricardo A. T. Pessanha, Roberto Guedes, Gualton Manhes,
Abstract/Introduction:
With the recent advances in electronics, the ultrasonic flow measurement technology was the one with the greatest development, allowing a wider use of these flow meters in various applications in the petroleum industry.
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Document ID: 5E507266

Application Of Data Reconciliation To An Atmospheric Crude Unit To Calibrate Instruments
Author(s): Fernandes, N.F.
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, data reconciliation has been used to obtain more accurate estimates of plant measurements. The accuracy is assumed to be improved by taking more information into account, ie additional measurements and knowledge of the process. Mass balance reconciliation has been used to get a consistent set of mass flow rates. Plant-wide material balance in oil refineries are providing an accurate representation of the interconnectivity of the entire plant complex and resolving and reconciling data discrepancies associated with plant operating data sources. The process of reconciliation is often an inexact and arduous task. Meters measure within tolerances, measure volume not mass, and often do not measure all the material movement in the plant. The task of reconciliation, then, becomes one of surmising the missing flows and determining where the errors are in the measurement system. Process data are generally corrupted by gross measurement errors. Using data reconciliation of process data we can use the operational performance of field instrumentation and plot calibration curves and the problematic instruments can be determined. Ploting reconciliation vs measured data we can produce a reliable mass balance for the distillation crude unit.
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Document ID: EE4E0D0A

Blockage Effect Of Mechanical Anemometers
Author(s): Vahit Ciftci, Basak Akselli Yilmazkaya, Hakan Kaykisizli
Abstract/Introduction:
Investigation of the blockage effects of the mechanical anemometers that are located at the end of the wind tunnel during the calibration process is one of the important research projects in the flow metrology.
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Document ID: 4C3A7C23


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