Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (2000)

A New High Pressure Calibration Facility For Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Bill Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
A new high-pressure test facility was constructed for calibrating ANSI Class 300 and 600 gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 to 8 inch on natural gas. Meters can be tested over a 20 to 1 flow rate range up to 72,000 ft3/h at pressures between 200 and 1000 psig with natural gas and between 0 and 150 psig with air. The transfer standards used in the facility are selfproving dual-rotor turbine meters. Dualrotor turbine meters offer a novel approach in a laboratory standard because continuous monitoring of the master meter performance is possible. Comparing the output frequency from the main rotor to the checking rotor in the master meter provides an immediate means of determining a change in the calibration of the transfer standard. Thus the reliability of the transfer standard used in this facility is improved over conventional turbine meters by using this process control technique.
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Document ID: 0B0B03C9

Internal Corrosion Control In Gas Storage Wells
Author(s): Scott Farthing
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas storage fields are an integral part of the overall gas transmission system. A majority of these storage fields were developed in depleted petroleum reservoirs located near major market areas in order to ensure and meet the needs of the end-user. It is the duty of the corrosion professional to maintain the integrity of these storage systems to meet these energy demands. The wells associated with gas storage are subject to similar corrosion control concerns as transmission pipelines, but shifted at a 90-degree angle. The focus of this paper is on internal corrosion in storage wells. It will not address the effects of stray currents and cathodic protection as these subjects have been well covered in other papers.
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Document ID: 70DC6DC8

Fluidic Oscillation Measurement
Author(s): Andrew Carver
Abstract/Introduction:
The scientific community has known about Fluidic Oscillation as a measurement technology for many years. Recent advances in this technology now make this a highly robust, costeffective solution to metering needs. This paper will discuss the advances and benefits. Based on Bernoullis Theory - A slow moving high pressure gas becomes fast moving low pressure gas at the nozzle exit forming a jet of gas. The jet, once formed can be controlled by the Coanda effect using an obstacle in the flow that is designed to optimize the performance of the meter. Controlling the jet path enables formation of feedback nodes of pressure on either side of the jet. This provides a predictable oscillation of the jet. The metrology of the meter is only related to the mechanical design of the oscillation chamber and flow tranquilizer. The jet oscillations are detected using a thermo-resistive sensing device, which provides the data to the electronic index. In addition to the commonly known benefits of static metering technology (no moving parts and the possibility of integrated volume conversion and AMR), fluidic oscillation provides high rangeability in a robust design that tolerates unclean gas.
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Document ID: 83A9EE9D

Improving The Quality Of Pe Pipe Installation During Horizontal Directional Drilling Operations
Author(s): Michael A. Pometto, Steven J. Troch
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years the decreasing cost and increasing availability of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) equipment has made trenchless construction more affordable and customary. Customer sensitivity to disturbance of the landscape has also made the use of trenchless construction methods more attractive. In 1996, Baltimore, Gas & Electric Company (BGE) became concerned about the potential for damage to polyethylene pipe due to excessive tensile forces exerted during the pipe pullback operation. BGEs solution was to work with Condux to manufacture a calibrated mechanical breakaway device for use during pullback to limit the amount of force imposed on the pipe.
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Document ID: E1C8286D

Precision Natural Gas Flow Measurement Using Coriolis Technology
Author(s): Tom Obanion
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with a worldwide installed base of around 300,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 15,000 units on gas around the world, groups including the AGA, API, Measurement Canada, German PTB, and Dutch NMi are all involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology.
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Document ID: 08667852

Uncertainty And Calibration Of A Residential Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter
Author(s): Gary P. Corpron,Guang Li,Dennis R. Montag
Abstract/Introduction:
Understanding and assessing uncertainty are common problems with most measurements. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty can become more difficult as the complexity of the measurement increases or as environmental conditions change. Ultrasonic flowmeters are instruments that measure time in order to calculate a flow rate. Ordinarily, time is easily measured to a high level of precision, so it might be expected that ultrasonic flowmeters should have a high degree of accuracy. Demonstrating that this is the case can be difficult, however. Part of the purpose of this paper, therefore, is to develop the general equations for a single path ultrasonic flowmeter. These equations are then analyzed to determine the meters sensitivity to variations in measured quantities. The uncertainties of individual measurements are discussed, and it is shown how they are combined to obtain an overall statement of the flowmeters accuracy. The role that a factory calibration plays in this process is discussed, and typical flowmeter calibration results are shown and analyzed. The outcome of this exercise is a more complete understanding of the uncertainty of residential ultrasonic gas flowmeters.
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Document ID: 76A0643E

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Obtaining a representative gas phase sample of natural gas sources containing entrained liquid has caused many problems. A new technology was developed which consists of a technique and hardware for sampling natural gas having entrained liquid. It removes the liquid under pipeline pressure and temperature conditions thereby preventing gas phase composition changes that would otherwise occur. After the liquids are removed the pressure is regulated in a manner which prevents excessive cooling and possible condensation of some gas phase components. The hardware can be inserted/retracted at normal pipeline pressures to facilitate maintenance. The technology applies to sampling for BTU determination, moisture and H2S analysis.
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Document ID: 442AFB3F

Natural Gas Hydrates: Formation And Prevent
Author(s): Lawrence m. Cenegy
Abstract/Introduction:
The problem of gas hydrates has been well known to those working in the gas production, storage and transportation industries for many years. Although the phenomenon of gas hydrates was first studied as early as 1811, gas hydrates of methane, ethane, and propane, common components of natural gas, were first determined to exist by Villard in 1888. In the 1930s, Hammerschmidt discovered hydrates as a pipeline plugging agent and developed an equation to predict the hydrate depression temperature, and throughout the late 1930s, 1940s and 1950s work continued to study the effects of hydrate inhibitors.(1,2)
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Document ID: 8D70C939

The Aging Workforce
Author(s): Miriam Sims
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: D6657A2F

Coiled Tubing Ultrashort-Radius Horizontal Drilling In A Gas Storage Reservoir: A Case Study
Author(s): E. Kevin Stiles, Spe, Mark W. Deroeun, Spe, I. Jason Terry, Spe, Steven P. Cornell, Sid J. Dupuy
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject paper is a review of the philosophy, planning, execution and results for the first successful Coiled Tubing Drilling ultra short radius horizontally drilled well into a gas storage reservoir. The paper will seek to describe the process and results for the just mentioned areas. The philosophy behind CTD and the idea of using it as a tool to enhance gas storage deliverability and the associated costs are considered. This well achieved an 800% increase in gas deliverability after sidetracking, as compared to the original wellbore. The idea of rate of penetration enhancement is strongly conveyed to help the audience understand how this drives drilling parameters and hence, cost. Planning for CTD operations is discussed and includes a geological discussion. The use of Coiled Tubing and the BHA used to perform this operation are discussed. One tool for several functions drives down cost by reducing process steps. Execution of the project from mobilization to demobilization is briefly discussed as are lessons learned. Ideas are suggested for further improvement. Some of the issues identified to date will be much more refined prior to paper delivery. This is 63+ due to the idea that more work is on the immediate horizon. The first well (KW-34) was re-
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Document ID: 961C97B9

Modeling The Thermodynamic Properties Of Natural Gas*
Author(s): Richard T Jacobsen
Abstract/Introduction:
In this work we discuss a mixture model explicit in Helmholtz energy and its application to natural gas mixtures. The model is valid for a wide range of fluids and compositions. It covers all liquid, gas and supercritical states, and may be used to calculate all thermodynamic fluid properties (PVT, speed of sound, isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity, etc.) in addition to locating fluid phase boundaries. We compare a preliminary version of the model with experimental compressibility factor data and with the AGA-8 model in its range of validity for multi-component mixtures containing typical components of natural gas, including mixtures with hydrogen. In general, the estimated uncertainty of calculated density is 0.1 % from 250 to 350 K in the gas phase, 0.2 % for density elsewhere, 0.1 % for the speed of sound below 10 MPa, 0.5 % for the speed of sound above 10 MPa, and 1.5 % for heat capacities.
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Document ID: A3B2ECBA

AGA-3 Flow Conditioner Performance Test For The Cpa 50E Flow Conditioner
Author(s): Phil Barg, Blaine Sawchuk, Dale Sawchuk
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last several years, research has shown that by improving on the flow conditioners used in natural gas metering applications, measurement is improved and installation cost can be reduced. The new standard developed for orifice meters (AGA-3/API 14.3) addresses the question of flow conditioner testing to ensure the meter performance when subjected to various flow perturbations. This paper reviews testing carried out by the Southwest Research Institute and the NOVA Research and Technical Centre performed on the CPA 50E flow conditioner in accordance with AGA-3. These tests meet the requirements of the standard for approval of type.
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Document ID: EC1C5831

Improved Productivity Through The Use Of An Advanced Coil Pipe Trailer
Author(s): Ricky D.
Abstract/Introduction:
With all of the competitive changes taking place in the natural gas industry, distribution companies have been forced to revisit practically every phase of their operation in hopes of becoming more efficient and reducing costs. Deregulation in the industry has certainly had a competitive effect on the energy business. One area that Mountaineer Gas Company has scrutinized closely is pipeline construction for new and replaced mains. Like many other distribution companies, Mountaineer Gas contracted a large portion of its construction work to local pipeline contractors. A few years ago, this trend began to change. Because of the necessity to stretch budgets as far as possible, Mountaineer had to assess where true savings could be made. We soon discovered that utilization of our own workforce was indeed the most cost-effective means, with savings consistently staying in the 30-35 percent range when compared to contractor prices. While using Mountaineer personnel was a great experience for our labor force, we were still very lean in our compliment of employees. Mountaineer needed to search for ways to become even more efficient. Traditionally, Mountaineer would perform
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Document ID: FE8AEE08

The Dot Plastic Pipe The Dot Plastic Pipe Data-Collection & Sharing Data-Collection & Sharing Program Program
Author(s): George Mosinskis, Anita Romero
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: AE2495FD

Major Gas Outage Restoration - Response To Tropical Storm Floyd
Author(s): Paul E. Pirro
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas outage contingencies always occur when least expected. Although many utilities have effective Emergency Response Procedures designed to handle gas outages, they may encounter unexpected challenges while performing a major restoration. Last year, Public Service Electric & Gas Company (PSE&G) experienced one of the largest gas outages ever recorded in their franchise territory when Tropical Storm Floyd caused flooding in a number of areas. With a strong commitment to satisfying customers, the majority of the restoration was completed in one week. At a State Assembly Committee hearing reviewing the aftermath from Tropical Storm Floyd, PSE&G received very high praise for the outstanding effort that was put forward during the natural disaster. Although the restoration effort was considered a complete success, the Company developed lessons learned to improve performance if faced with similar circumstances in the future.
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Document ID: BF286BE2

Repairing Bell Joints On Large Diameter Cast Iron Mains Using The Innersealsm Process.
Author(s): Thomas F. Bonner, James Wagner, Renny Norman
Abstract/Introduction:
The preferred gas main of the Local Distribution Companies established in the late 1800s was cast iron. Large diameter cast iron mains installed in 1800s and 1900s still transport gas in many metropolitan areas. Many of these gas mains are located in well established, highly congested, metropolitan areas. The maintenance and repair of these mains is more often than not, very expensive, cumbersome, time consuming and a disruption to pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The costs associated with the repair of these bell joints consists of, but is not limited to excavation, sheathing, police details, permitting restrictions, weather conditions, the type of seal used and site
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Document ID: 190F32B6

Development Of A Compact Header Orifice Meter Station
Author(s): Thomas B. Morrow, Eric Kelner, James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meter installation effects tests using currently available flow conditioners and straightening vanes were performed in the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Metering Research Facility (MRF) Low Pressure Loop to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the size, footprint, and weight of a multi-tube meter/header installation by approximately 50%. Capital savings due to such a size reduction for typical offshore flow meter installations are estimated to be on the order of 250,000 to 500,000 (1999 U.S. dollars) per offshore structure. Sliding flow conditioner tests were performed in a 4-inch (102-mm) diameter orifice meter tube with an upstream length of 10 pipe diameters for (1) good flow conditions, (2) meter tube installed downstream of a tee, and (3) meter tube installed in a compact header configuration. Three versions of the Gallagher flow conditioner and a K-Lab flow conditioner without tabs or vanes performed well in the compact header configuration for orifice diameter ratios up to and including 0.75. These results show the feasibility of a compact header/meter tube arrangement. A Joint Industry Program (JIP) will be proposed to design, fabricate and evaluate the performance of a prototype compact header/orifice meter installation for offshore applications where space and weight must be minimized.
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Document ID: 0929088E

Development Of A Thermoacoustic Natural Gas Liquefier
Author(s): John J. Wollan, Greg Swift, Wim Van Wijngaarden, Jacobs Comprimo
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and testing is just starting. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.
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Document ID: 8DECCE36

Research, Development And Commercialization Of The Non-Interruptible Service Transfer (NIST) Tee
Author(s): Mario Carbone, Frank Volgstadt
Abstract/Introduction:
Perfection Corporation of Madison, Ohio, with funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS) and the Keyspan Energy Corporation (Brooklyn Union) has developed a new, unique, novel and economical process for the transfer of service from old retired mains to new mains without having to interrupt gas service to the customer. This new process is based on a new service tee design and is used with plastic service pipes of one and one-and-a-quarter inch size. The product was qualified through an extensive laboratory and field testing program and is currently available through Perfection Corporation.
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Document ID: 4BD38A9E

Verifying Gas Chromatograph Operation At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
The on-line gas chromatograph (GC) has been widely used for natural gas quality analysis and energy measurement at custody transfer locations since the early 80s. The energy measurement and relative density measurement provided by the GC can have a large effect on unaccounted for Gas because the gravity effects volume calculations and the heating value effects energy rates. The gas chromatograph measures component concentrations first and then calculates physical properties of the gas such as heating value and relative density. Units of energy measurement can be British Thermal Units (BTU) Mega Joules (MJ) or Kilo Calories (KJ). This paper will refer to BTU for energy units, ISO (KJ) or SI (MJ) metric units can be used interchangeably.
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Document ID: BDFD77DA

Geomechanical Analysis And Decision Analysis For Delta Pressure Operations In Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): Michael S. Bruno, Glenn Dewolf, Stephen Foh
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most cost-effective ways to increase deliverability and working gas capacity in gas storage reservoirs is to operate at higher pressure (increased delta pressure). A common practice in the U.S. and Canada has been to operate gas storage reservoirs at pressures less than or equal to original reservoir pressure due to concerns for caprok integrity, fracturing, faulting, and gas loss. However, original discovery pressures do not always represent the maximum short-term pressure capacity for the formation. In many instances the pressure can be safely increased by a substantial margin if the geomechanical behavior and stress conditions of the reservoir and overburden is well characterized. The economic viability of such operations can be evaluated through quantitative decision analysis, taking into account and balancing economic benefits, conversion costs, and any additional risk costs. This paper describes step-by-step processes to evaluate both the technical feasibility and the economic feasibility for delta presssure operations at gas storage reservoirs.
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Document ID: AFD1FFC2

Environmental Considerations Of Entering A New Service Territory
Author(s): John C. Place
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the strategies of a gas utilitys marketing department is to grow the business by expanding its service and distribution system into new service territories. In 1994, 41 percent of the State of Wisconsin was unfranchised territory, not served at all by natural gas. The primary reason was that this area only accounted for 7 percent of the states population or roughly 210,000 households. Therefore, when recent projects to enter unfranchised areas have been proposed, it is usually the first time that someone considered them to be economically feasible and marketable for gas service. Since many of these projects can be characterized as marginal, one must consider all of the environmental aspects of the project which present a real risk to the financial success of the project. This paper presents environmental considerations that were considered in two such projects completed by Wisconsin Electric-Gas Operations (WE-GO).
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Document ID: 54E1416B

Software And Inspection Advances In Pipeline Integrity Assessment
Author(s): S.F. Steve Biagiotti, Jr., P. P. Paul Guy
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditional pipeline risk management has been based on regulatory code compliance and in response to incidents. Advances in pipeline risk management software and pipeline inspection tools allow a proactive approach to pipeline integrity maintenance. What are the benefits of a proactive approach? This paper explains some of the risk management tools available to pipeline companies.
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Document ID: 0E4118B1

Office Of Pipeline Safety Study Common Ground Best Practices For Reduction Of Third Party Damage
Author(s): Russ Kopidlansky
Abstract/Introduction:
In June of 1998, Public Law 105-178 (TEA-21) was signed into law. A provision of this law was a directive for the Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) to determine how to prevent third party damage to underground facilities by performing a best practices study. The output from that study is the COMMON GROUND report, which was delivered on June 30, 1999, and is the accumulation of work done by 160 people in a nine-month period. The Best Practices are broken into eight areas as follows: Planning and Design One-Call Centers Locating and Marking Excavation Mapping Compliance Public Education and Awareness Reporting Each of the eight areas was a Task Team with a makeup of individuals from all entities that have an interest in underground facilities and construction. Construction contractors, facility owners, one-call center people, governmental, locate contractors, and other interested parties. To become a Best Practice, the activity had to be operational in one or more areas of the country and the task team had to agree, by consensus, that the activity was indeed a Best Practice. This paper contains a summary of the Best Practices from each Task Team. The detail for each recommended practice is available on the Office of Pipeline Safety Home Page on the net at ops.dot.gov. The Common Ground Study opened the avenues of communication between all parties which is needed to make underground damage prevention happen. This dialog has to continue and the current Best Practice work must be carried forward to reduce the incidents of underground damage to all buried facilities. 00-OP-27
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Document ID: 06B1F4E7

Achieving Compliance With The Operator Qualification Rule
Author(s): John. P. Erickson
Abstract/Introduction:
The operator qualification rule gives each pipeline operator until October 28, 2002 to qualify all persons performing covered tasks on its pipeline system. Qualified means evaluated able to perform routine aspects of the task and recognize and react to abnormal operating conditions that might be encountered while performing the task. Evaluated, means a documented assessment, such as written or oral tests, observation on the job or in a simulation or any other method that objectively determines that a person possesses the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities for a task. Each operator may develop a program appropriate for its unique needs, however the flexibility in the rule also poses compliance challenges to both operators and regulators. Safety and Compliance Evaluation (SCE) has developed OQ compliance programs for dozens of operators ranging from the smallest master meter operators to large gas and oil pipeline operators. This paper describes various approaches taken by SCE and others to comply with the OQ rule.
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Document ID: 73533DFA

Superior Durability And Performance Of An Integrated On-Line Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Yang Xu, Teresa J. Lechner-Fish, Robert Runyan
Abstract/Introduction:
The properties of the gas, the composition of the sample during upset and the operation in hazardous locations affect the analytical method development and the hardware design for online instrumentation. Since on-line gas chromatographs are installed at the pipeline to analyze sample continuously, the hardware must be designed for reliable analyses, durability and low maintenance. To provide a reliable on-line gas chromatograph, the integrated valve system should be designed with the flexibility to allow multiple (multiple valves and detectors), leak-free analyses. For increased durability, the material and components of the integrated valve system must be carefully selected and the columns and connective tubing should be carefully prepared to prevent from contaminating the system. Since the GC system can be contaminated during upset conditions, the valve system should be easily cleaned or replaced. 1-4 In this presentation, system design (patents pending), operating characteristics, durability and performance of an integrated on-line GC system will be discussed. The system durability (i.e. long-term testing) data and performance (i.e. repeatability) data for light hydrocarbons (C1-C10) will be presented.
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Document ID: A170FFBA

Natural Gas Incident Investigation: Origin/Cause/Liability In The Absence Of Anything Else: Natural Gas
Author(s): Walter K. Rothfuss, Keith A. Heckler
Abstract/Introduction:
local authorities and create problems for utilities, who need to comply with 29 CFR Part 192 plus state and local regulations. Utilities must investigate fires and explosions to determine if they are reportable as pipeline incidents. Too often, the local fire authority exclude the utility from having the utilitys own people or experts involved in the scene investigation. In order to protect themselves and to comply with federal law, utilities must perform their own fire and explosion investigations and employ communication tactics with public fire investigators.
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Document ID: 8EF5E5D5

Environmental Planning And Management Of The North Alabama Pipeline Project
Author(s): Jon A. Barfield, Jason m. Goldstein
Abstract/Introduction:
Increased public scrutiny and heightened regulatory awareness require new approaches to ensure environmental compliance during pipeline construction. Recent experiences on the Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern) North Alabama Pipeline Project (NAPP) provide an opportunity to learn new and better ways of dealing with landowners and citizen groups, regulatory agencies, and contractors. The lessons learned during the NAPP will allow better communications among affected parties, a more streamlined regulatory review process, and effective environmental compliance for future projects.
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Document ID: 770D33CF

High Powered Lasers For Recompletion And Stimulation Of Gas Storage Wells
Author(s): Richard A. Parker
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods used to drill and complete gas and gas storage wells have not changed appreciably in decades. The availability of high power lasers, both industrial and military, along with the development of optical fibers that are able to carry large amounts of energy, have made it possible to consider developing a new, revolutionary drilling and completion system. A 1997 GRI project which evaluated the feasibility of adapting these technologies to new gas well and storage recompletion and stimulation system has not answered all the necessary questions, but gives reason for optimism that such a system is possible. The study indicates that lasers can cut any type of rock, and can do it in such a way that the formation permeability and porosity is not damaged. The potential exists for a completion method that allows real-time control of size, placement and depth of the perforations, as well as allowing the creation of slots along the well bore to increase flow from the formation.
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Document ID: 3592C792

12 Pe Main Installation - Morris County, New Jersey
Author(s): Keith Sturn
Abstract/Introduction:
Back in the fall of 1997, our Marketing Department came to us with an inquiry from a large asphalt plant operator requesting a gas service to their facility. The facility also contained contaminated soil recycling equipment that operates year round. This load would represent a large year round load that would be a great opportunity for NJNG. It also represented some major obstacles such as the location of the nearest gas line was not within 5 miles of the customer and the best route to bring them a service was a small winding two lane road over the mountain. As you would expect in a mountainous region, the ground was full of boulders, the area was criss-crossed with mountain streams and because of the historical nature of the area, it contained many sensitive preservation areas. Our Marketing Department asked us Can this be accomplished? We answered that Anything is possible but this will not be easy. So we got down to the task of getting this customer his gas. General location plan of pipeline route At first, we thought that this load would best be serviced from either NJNGs 720# or 230# pipeline systems. Although this would certainly have allowed us to serve the load, both our Marketing Department and the township added
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Document ID: DB4DD1E4

The Development Of A Probe For Detection Of Pcbs And Other Liquids In Live Gas Mains.
Author(s): Yannis Savidis, Dr. Jane Hodgkinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Water ingress into distribution mains can be a common problem that can lead to loss of gas supply to customers and gas quality issues. The standard solution to this problem is to excavate and find where the water is entering the main, usually by camera inspection, and then carry out a repair. Camera inspection often proves unreliable in finding the source of the leak, so BG Technology in conjunction with Advanced Optical Solutions (AOS) have developed a device for locating the water ingress point, whilst the main is still live. The water ingress probe can successfully locate the source of the water ingress without the need for extensive excavation. It is inserted through a small diameter hole made in the main, under live gas conditions, and rodded along the main. On encountering the presence of water, the probe generates a signal, which alerts the operator. The operator can then ascertain the location of the water ingress.
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Document ID: 2A6A1B1A

Development Of Flowstop Systems For Large Diameter Polyethylene Mains
Author(s): T Hill
Abstract/Introduction:
The economic success of BG Transco Plc, (formerly British Gas) during the last three decades stems from the mid-sixties discovery of natural gas fields below the North Sea. The subsequent development and exploitation of that resource has depended on a number of key decisions. The decisions to create a national high pressure gas grid and to convert all consumers from towns gas to natural gas created the modern industry, but a third decision has had an equally revolutionary effect on the technology employed and that was the decision to utilize polyethylene (PE) pipework for low pressure distribution purposes.
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Document ID: DC091465

Design And Design And Implementation Of Implementation Of Complete Metering And Complete Metering And Regulating Facilities Regulating Facilities AGA Operations
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: CFE6CB29

Fundamentals Of LNG Facilities
Author(s): Tom Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: AC982C92

A Review Of The 1999 Revisions To Ansi 2530/API Mpms 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - PART2
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period 1993 through 1999 Part 2 of ANSI 2530/API MPMS 14.3/AGA Report No 3 underwent revision. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the highlights of this revision.
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Document ID: 51462B76

Evaluation Of Ucatm Raps/ For Gas Industry Applications: Standardized Technology Looking For Users
Author(s): H. Falk, K. Kothari
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the UCA vision of being able to use a single protocol suite for gas, electric, and water utilities. It discusses the methods through which this has been achieved and the results of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project to prove its viability.
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Document ID: D5FF6A02

Subsurface Utility Engineering
Author(s): Jim Lewin
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 56DB9C1D

Washington 10 - Development Of A Southeastern Michigan Gas Storage Field
Author(s): Fredrick W. Metzger, Matthew C. Rowan
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1992, Washington 10 Storage Corporation and Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, both affiliates of MCN Energy Group (soon to be DTE Energy), began planning for conversion of a Niagaran gas field to natural gas storage. The initial planning and design led to regulatory approval in 1994. Market conditions resulted in a delay in final design and construction until 1997. By that time rapid growth in Washington Township, Macomb County, 30 miles north of Detroit, caused the engineering team to re-evaluate the development plans.
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Document ID: 0777385E

Best Practices Best Practices Benchmarking
Author(s): William L. Kaphing
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 7EB6E45D

Precision Natural Gas Flow Measurement Using Coriolis Technology
Author(s): Tom Obanion
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters have gained worldwide acceptance in liquid applications since the early 1980s with a worldwide installed base of around 300,000 units. Newer designs have shown greatly improved low-flow sensitivity, lower pressure drop, and immunity to noise factors which now enable their successful use in gas-phase fluid applications. With more than 15,000 units on gas around the world, groups including the AGA, API, Measurement Canada, German PTB, and Dutch NMi are all involved in writing standards for this emerging gas flow technology.
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Document ID: 4431CA47

Flowable Fill As Pipe Support Material
Author(s): Richard A. Oneil, Harry E. Stewart, Daphne C. Dzurko
Abstract/Introduction:
material consisting of flyash, sand, cement and water, was found to be an excellent backfill support material for pipe under traffic load. Full-scale field-test results on 6-in. (152-mm)- diameter cast iron pipe showed that flowable fill provided better support than well-compacted sand. Cast iron gas main, recently removed from active gas service, was cleaned, reassembled, instrumented with strain gages, buried in a typical size utility trench and then subjected to heavy static and dynamic loads. Compacted sand was used initially as a support material to determine baseline data with static and dynamic truck loadings. The sand then was excavated, flowable fill installed and the same static and dynamic loads applied. The cast iron pipe had less strain and deflection when supported by flowable fill than sand, thus showing that a flowable fill mix can be superior to granular backfill. Flowable fill also is easier to install as it is self-leveling and self-compacting. The flowable fill mixture provided adequate pipe support and was ready for traffic loads when the curing strength reached 10 psi (70 kPa) unconfined compressive strength (UCS). Paving operations also can be performed when the Proctor penetrometer resistance test reaches 650 psi (4.5 MPa) or approximately 10 psi (70 kPa) UCS. This strength can be reached overnight or in a couple of days depending on the design of the mix. Curing time and strength versus the ability to re-excavate is the trade-off that the user needs to consider. The use of flowable fill as a support and backfill material should be applicable to: 1) all types of underground pipe and 2) all odd-shaped excavations (such as keyhole pits) that are difficult to compact properly using conventional compaction equipment. Background Members of the New York Gas Group (Niagara Mohawk, KeySpan Energy, Rochester Gas and Electric, Consolidated Edison, Central Hudson, Orange and Rockland, Long Island Lighting, Central Hudson, and New York State Electric & Gas) wanted to evaluate the performance of flowable fill in utility operations. One specific application involved the use of flowable fill in situations where cast iron was undermined by its own operators or by a third party. By current NY State Public Service Commission requirements, gas utilities must remove any 8 in. (203 mm) or smaller diameter cast iron that becomes exposed for a length greater than 3 ft (0.9 m). This section must be replaced with steel or plastic. The utilities wanted to determine if flowable fill could provide adequate support and thus safely retain the cast iron. The utilities, led by Niagara Mohawk and united in the consortium by the NY Gas Group, contracted with Cornell University, the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering to perform studies on undermined cast iron. Methodology and Instrumentation The general methodology was to load and stress full-scale cast iron pipe in a test trench (Figure 1) and then measure strain. The cast iron pipe was first supported by compacted sand, then undermined three different times at widths of 3, 6 and 10 ft (0.9, 1.8, and 3.0 m). With each undermining, the compacted sand was excavated and replaced by flowable fill. The cast iron pipe in each flowable fill section was then loaded 00-OP-44 with a heavy truck, and strains measured the same way as with compacted sand. The flowable fill was loaded at carefully controlled cure dates to evaluate the progressive strength. A comparison between strains measured when the pipe was supported in compacted sand and when supported in flowable fill indicated which material provided better support.
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Document ID: E286A6D9

A Novel Ultrasonic Flowmeter Concept
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic flowmeters have been the center of attention within the natural gas industry for the last several years. To date, current commercial devices have been developed using Gaussian or propriety integration techniques to measure the velocity of the flowing stream to eliminate the sensitivity to piping induced installation effects. When these propritary integration techniques are applied, the ultrasonic meter is required to determing the swirl and asymmetry of the flowing stream.
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Document ID: 9F39B7B4

Flow Calibration Laboratory Performance Flow Calibration Laboratory Performance What Should Your Expectations Be? What Should Your Expectations Be?
Author(s): E. B. Bowles, T. B. Morrow, T. A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 26698EBC

Ultrasonic Meter Installation Configuration Testing
Author(s): Terrence A. Grimley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results of recent multipath ultrasonic flow meter testing using proposed standard installation configurations. A suite of flow tests was applied to three types of commercially available 12-inch multipath meters to establish their performance in response to the proposed test suite. The tests are intended for verification of a meters performance relative to the levels required for compliance with AGA Report No. 9. The tests included piping configurations with single and double elbow combinations (in plane, and out of plane) and meter tube configurations with and without flow conditioners. The work was sponsored by the GRI and was performed at the GRI Metering Research Facility at Southwest Research Institute.
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Document ID: E4B8E344

Operator Qualification: Gaining Confidence With A Simulator
Author(s): K. Alan Rodecker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper details the incorporation of covered tasks for control room operators into qualification sessions on a trainer / simulator. The paper will emphasize gaining confidence that operators will be able to recognize abnormal operating conditions and react appropriately. A number of possible abnormal conditions on the pipeline will be presented in the context of a simulated exercise.
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Document ID: 50A71E8F

Progress In Path Forward Organization
Author(s): Willard S. Carey
Abstract/Introduction:
This report provides a status report as to the progress of the Damage Prevention Path Forward (The Common Ground Alliance) in forming a non-profit corporation for the purpose of encouraging implementation of best practices in the area of damage prevention.
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Document ID: 786E00B7

Unbundling Initiatives Aggregation, Retail Access And Customer Choice
Author(s): Phillip S. Teumim
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 5F74DDB9

The Application Of Structural Reliability Analysis Towards Developing Pipeline Integrity Management Programs
Author(s): Alan m. Edwards
Abstract/Introduction:
BG Technology Ltd, the research and consultancy business of the energy company BG Group plc has developed and implemented a major structural reliability assessment (SRA) program in the UK. This has been applied to increase operating pressure in parts of the UKs national transmission system to allow operation at higher stress levels than those currently permitted by the UK onshore pipeline design code. The methodology was used to provide assurance to both the operator and the national regulatory body that there was an insignificant reduction in safety levels associated with this increase in pressure. In addition to the uprating study, BG Technology has applied the technique to other situations including increasing asset life and validation of new design proposals. The technique has been applied successfully for customers both within and without the UK including North America. BG Technology are currently leading a major Joint Industry Project to establish formal guidelines for the application of the approach. In parallel with this BG Technology is re-configuring its in-house verified and validated software into a commercial user-friendly format for more general use by the non-technical expert. The service is available in North America via BG Technology, Inc. (Chicago & Houston). This paper describes in more detail the application of the SRA techniques to developing a rigorous integrity management program that ensures pipelines are operated to a quantified, consistent and acceptable level of reliability (and hence safety).
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Document ID: 91CE2B99

Gas Research Institute Gri() Pioneers Use Of Plastic Piping Materials At Higher Operating Pressures With The Use Of Polyamide 11
Author(s): Hitesh Patadia, Dennis Jarnecke, Michael Mamoun, Richard Wolf, Elf Atochem , Duc Le
Abstract/Introduction:
Given the increased interests of LDCs to operate plastic piping systems at higher operating pressures, a comprehensive research program sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Elf Atochem (ATO), and other gas utilities was undertaken to evaluate, verify, and validate the use of Polyamide 11 at higher operating pressure (100 - 300 psig). Based on the positive results of both laboratory and field application studies, a waiver was filed and accepted by the Illinois Commerce Commission and the Department of Transportation. A first ever successful installation of plastic piping materials operating at 150 psig in the public right of way was performed by Nicor Gas. This paper summarizes the regulatory process and construction activities related to the installation. In addition, this paper presents material property data for the Polyamide11 after 30 months of exposure to in-service conditions.
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Document ID: DA2DFE70

ISO 9080 And The Us Natural Gas Distribution Industry
Author(s): Steve D. Sandstrum, Gene Palermo,
Abstract/Introduction:
This is a follow-up paper to a series of papers prepared at the request of the AGA-PMC to educate the US gas distribution industry on the history and benefits of PE100 polyethylene resins for gas piping applications. In this paper, we briefly explain the nature of ISO 9080, the preeminent ISO standard by which these new HDPE materials are stress rated and how they compare to the ASTM methodology currently utilized throughout the US natural gas distribution industry. Finally, an assessment is made of the benefits to be realized by the US gas distribution industry through the incorporation of the ISO protocol into the prevailing ASTM HDPE and PE gas pipe standards
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Document ID: D9C97870

Anode Selection Criteria
Author(s): William F. Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will highlight the considerations for cathodic protection material and installation methods for both new pipeline and distribution systems and for rehabilitation of older pipelines and distribution systems. This paper will highlight the planning necessary for successful rehabilitation of pipelines and distribution systems, and discuss the cathodic protection materials used in various soil environments to protect different levels of coating degradation. This paper will discuss in detail the review of the structural integrity of the steel in pipeline and distribution systems through the use of various tools. This paper will discuss the use of many sources of data to make the most economical decision for cathodic protection for new and rehabilitation of old cathodic protection and coating systems.
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Document ID: ECA2E8E4

Latest Field Tests Of The Sonic Leak Pinpointer
Author(s): James E. Huebler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pinpointing gas leaks by detecting the sound created by escaping gas has been a goal for many decades. This is a difficult problem because the small amount of sound created by the leak can be obscured by background noises generated by traffic, etc. The Digital Sonic Leak Pinpointer (DSLP) has been successfully used in Chicago to pinpoint leaks, including lowpressure (6-inches of water column) cast-iron mains and joints. Leaks were also correctly pinpointed on 20-psig cast-iron mains. The DSLP correctly pinpointed leaks where the CGI readings were negligible. Also, the DSLP correctly did not detect sound at locations where high CGI readings were obtained, but no leak was present. Field trials in New York were less successful. Tests are continuing to resolve the discrepancies between the two sets of results.
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Document ID: DB34638E

Appliance Performance And Indoor Air Quality Field Protocols For Measuring Co And NO2 Emissions
Author(s): Irwin H. Billick, Ted A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas utility service personnel, HVAC contractor and others such as fire departments are frequently called upon to conduct field evaluation of combustion emission products, specifically carbon monoxide (CO). More recently, consumer interest has emerged concerning field measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Field measurement challenges relate to measurement of these combustion products in the indoor air and emissions from the appliance themselves. Proper field assessment of emission levels involves addressing this separate but related issues. This paper addresses two-step protocol based on the systematic field measurement of pollutant concentrations in ambient air and the proper interpretation of the data in terms of appliance emission limits in certification standards and ambient indoor exposure levels. Step one evaluates whether the appliance is performing to current appliance standards. Step two predicts what the long-term pollutant concentration would be from extended appliance operation and is undertaken if step one is determined to provide insufficient information on health and safety to the gas customer.
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Document ID: 939E68E4

Introduction Of Object Oriented Technology To Scada And Control Systems For The Gas Industry
Author(s): William A. Chapman, Brent H. Maynard
Abstract/Introduction:
Object oriented technology represents the next paradigm shift in software technology for the natural gas industry. A general background in the technology is given to help provide a basis for understanding the benefits that this technology can provide in the areas of compressor control, station automation, data acquisition and even maintenance. Examples are given that illustrate current applications of this technology as well as plans to implement it to assist Columbia Gass facility management program and to reduce networking costs.
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Document ID: C9E0C5C2

Actions Of The First Responder
Author(s): Ronald m. Six
Abstract/Introduction:
the scene of a dig-in, or worse yet, an incident scene is not a routine part of the job. These situations can happen and we must prepare ourselves and our employees in the proper steps to take to perform our most important goal - Public and Personal Safety!
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Document ID: 6968BEED

Test Results Of Ameteks Low Cost Btu Meter & Impact Assessment
Author(s): Ed Frank, Steve Maselli
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 8B355A66

Gain Reduces Automation And Business Costs
Author(s): William F. Rush, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Automation Integration Network (GAIN) was formed by Brooklyn Union, Southern California Gas Company, and Consolidated Edison to facilitate the emergence of interoperable automated equipment. GAINs long-range objective is to reduce the cost of all utility automation systems by about 30% in 3 to 5 years. This is being achieved by -- Creating a competitive market for integrated automated equipment Reducing the cost of linking automated systems Transferring the burden and cost of interoperability development and assurance to the equipment manufacturers, and Facilitating the production and deployment of equipment that uses open architecture standards. GAIN is developing a consensus on the most appropriate open architecture standards and articulating this position to manufacturers and standards groups. GAIN members gather and share intelligence on nearly 20 standards groups, in order to anticipate which standards will emerge and when. Consequently, GAIN members have up-to-date, reliable, and neutral information on which to base their purchase decisions. To simplify buying interoperable equipment, GAIN members are developing and sharing purchasing specification language that incorporates the current and developing standards, thus reducing the risk of premature obsolescence. GAIN members are also developing a strategy to make the transition from proprietary protocols to an open architecture environment. GAIN Is A Group Of Gas Utilities Seeking To Save Money With Automation Brooklyn Union and SoCal Gas formed the Gas Automation Integration Network (GAIN) in 1997 to help them save money with automation. Current members of GAIN are Brooklyn Union, Consolidated Edison, and Southern California Gas Company. Much of the drive for the formation came from top management and was focused on developing a common utility industry position on automation. GAIN also works with the electric and water industries to assure that all utility automated systems are compatible. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is the contractor and is responsible for monitoring developments in the area, analyzing the results, and presenting GAIN positions. The goals of the group are -- Lower operating costs Lower automation costs, and Lower restructuring costs. Achieving these goals offers utilities significant financial benefits. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates total industry savings from integrated automation at 180,000,000. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has found similar results for the electric industry. The potential returns are so large that integrated automation is the largest item in GRIs program. Broadly, the method of realizing these savings is to integrate ALL automated utility systems together using Open Architecture interfaces.
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Document ID: F78A3BF4

The Revised Natural Gas Sampling Standard - A Review Of Changes And Additions
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
The revised manual of petroleum measurement standards
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Document ID: F54A990F

Order No. 637 And State Unbundling Initiatives
Author(s): Jane Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 992A3C12

The Pine Needle LNG Peakshaving Plant
Author(s): Charles Fleenor, Brian Elcentrout
Abstract/Introduction:
Fine Needle LNG Co. LLC began operations of a new LNG (Liquefied natural gas) peak shaving facility in the summer of 1999. The plant is located in Gulford County, North Carolina near the Transco main transmission line. The Fine Needle plant is one of the largest LNG peak shaving plants in the world. This paper describes the Pine Needle organization, The LNG facility project development process, project permitting construcion and operation.
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Document ID: C7FC62A2

Agas Steering Committee On Public Right Of Way
Author(s): Angelo Fabiano,
Abstract/Introduction:
? Most ROW issues are prompted by deregulation of the Telecommunication Industry. ? ROW management strategies imposed on the telecommunications industry are not appropriate for the Gas Industry. ? These strategies may dramatically increase costs associated with street work for the gas industry.
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Document ID: 7FBB7080

Trenchless Technology Experiences And Innovations
Author(s): Mark W. Heckman
Abstract/Introduction:
The high costs and inconvenience imposed on the public associated with the excavation and restoration of pavement for gas pipeline replacement and rehabilitation projects has lead Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) to expand its use of trenchless construction technologies.
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Document ID: B47873A0

Local Distribution Company Regulatory Alternative Feasibility Team Ldc( Raft)
Author(s): Alan Eastman,
Abstract/Introduction:
American Gas Association National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives American Public Gas Association Office of Pipeline Safety
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Document ID: D27A1BD3


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