Measurement Library

North Sea Flow Measurement Workshop Publications (2000)

Determination Of Gas Density At Operating Conditions
Author(s): Mr. Reidar Sakariassen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the experience related to the Sampling and installation guidelines, Verification methods and Quality control given in this ISO/DIS.
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Document ID: BAAF7820

Advances In On-Line Gas Chromatography In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): D. J. Pettigrew
Abstract/Introduction:
On line gas chromatography has been used in the natural gas industry for many years, principally as a means of determining composition for calorific value calculation. Advances in such diverse areas as microprocessor electronics and calibration gas preparation now allow the existing chromatograph technology to be utilised for more accurate and sophisticated measurements. Techniques that once could only be implemented in the laboratory can now be routinely used in the field. This paper discusses: Improved accuracy by use of multipoint calibration Potential dual detector applications Determination of hydrocarbon dew-point from on-line analysis
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Document ID: CA4F3396

Use Of Photo-Acoustic Measurement Technology To Measure Hydrocarbon Concentration Levels In Reinjection Lines
Author(s): P. Terzoudi, T. Whitaker, H. A. Mackenzie
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the use of photo-acoustic measurement to determine the Ppm concentration of hydrocarbon in water re-injection pipelines. The basic techniques are described, with reference to the impact of pressure, temperature, salinity and background noise levels on the precision of the measurement. Data from laboratory and field trials of a production prototype instrument will be presented to indicate the quality and reliability of measurement, which can be obtained, based on data acquired during an ongoing development project.
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Document ID: 309CFAA1

Effortless Oil Ultrasonic Fiscal Meter Operation
Author(s): Maron J. Dahlstrm
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a follow-up of earlier presentations. Frank Svendsen presented the Snorre-Vigdis Crossover early phase challenges in 1998, at the NFOGM annual meeting. He concluded that excellent performance had been achieved and was documented, and that a Faure Herman Helical Rotor master turbine meter was successfully introduced for transfer of traceable volume between, the Compact Prover volume, and volume flow calibration of the Krohne Altosonic-V meters.
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Document ID: 6DC0EBCA

Correction Of Readings From An Orifice Plate Installed In Reverse Orientation
Author(s): G.J. Brown, M.J. Reader-Harris, J.J. Gibson, G.J. Stobie
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarised work carried out by NEL to evaluate the magnitude ofmismeasurement in one specific case of an orifice plate being reversed. The plate in question was installed in one of the 10-inch metering streams on the Judy platform.
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Document ID: D38655E5

New Design Concepts In Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Geeuwke De Boer, Floris Huijsmans
Abstract/Introduction:
Today ultrasonic gas flow meters are widely accepted for custody transfer measurement. Particularly for applications with larger pipe diameters (10 inch and larger) ultrasonic gas flow meters are an attractive alternative and have proven to offer excellent and reliable performance. The key to this is the fact that the ratio between transducer diameter and nominal pipe diameter is most favourable within this diameter range.
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Document ID: 88660045

Impact Of Pulsation Sources In Pipe Systems On Multi-Path Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Evan Bokhorst, Cam Peters
Abstract/Introduction:
In this paper we describe the impact of low frequency pulsations in the frequency range from 10 to 100 Hz, which are imposed on a commercially available 4-inch dual-beam ultrasonic flowmeter.
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Document ID: 23CDDFA3

Building Confidence With Multi-Path Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Ali Niazi, Mike Gaskell
Abstract/Introduction:
BG has many years experience with high pressure Ultrasonic meters. We were involved with the original development of the meter including the verification of the technology using the BG Technology high pressure testing facility at Bishop Auckland. Experience included installing a number of mulipath meters at BG sites. The early versions of meters indicated problems with noise, reliability and transducer failure particularly at high flows.
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Document ID: 42D6E42C

Smart Monitoring & Diagnostics For Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses routine maintenance issues relative to multipath ultrasonic meters used in natural gas for fiscal measurement. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical parameters that are monitored. The meters diagnostic data, along with other operational parameters such as gas composition, pressure and temperature, can be used to help verify proper meter performance. Diagnostic information, obtained from the meter, can also be used to monitor gas velocity profiles and help predict unusual behavior due to obstructions, pipe wall contamination or other performance deteriorating conditions. Intelligent monitoring of the meters data will be discussed, and examples provided, to show how diagnostic data from an ultrasonic meter can be instrumental in determining a metering facilitys health.
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Document ID: 800F1D1A

The Discharge Coefficient And Through-Life Performance Of Venturi Tubes
Author(s): D Hodges, M.J. Reader-Harris, N. Barton,W.C. Brunton, J.J. Gibson
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently it was generally assumed that the discharge coefficient of a Venturi tube is constant provided that the pipe Reynolds number is greater. However, recent work has shown the problems with this view. The work of Jamieson et al 1 and of van Weers et al 2 has shown that the performance of Venturi tubes in gas is very different from that in water. This paper describes experimental work carried out on new Venturi tubes in water and dry gas and gives a partial explanation of the behaviour of the discharge coefficient in gas. This work was supported by the National Measurement System Policy Unit of the Department of Trade and Industry.
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Document ID: 113CF031

Wet Gas Metering In The Upstream Area : Needs, Applications & Developments
Author(s): Jean-Paul Couput, Pierre Gajan, Vincent De Laharpe, Alain Strzelecki
Abstract/Introduction:
Direct measurement of flow rates in multiphase flows (liquids and gas) without separation is possible in the oil & gas production upstream area. The concept is now considered by operators in most developments of oil and gas fields and it has been demonstrated that when correctly designed and operated it brings some significant benefits both on investments and operations to the users.
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Document ID: C463892A

The Performance Of A Multi-Path Ultrasonic Meter With Wet Gas
Author(s): Klaus J. Zanker, Gregor J. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to increasing economic pressures in natural gas production, there is a recognized demand for flow meters that are able to measure when a significant quantity of liquid is present in gas flows. The key issues are that the liquid quantity is often unknown and its presence can affect the operation of traditional dry gas meters making the gas flow readings inaccurate. A number of techniques are emerging for the measurement of wet gas flows. The one considered here is the multi-path ultrasonic meter.
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Document ID: D90548F7

A Venturi Based Wet Gas Meter With On-Line Gas Mass Fraction Estimation
Author(s): Paul Daniel, Mark Tudge, Jonathan Lund
Abstract/Introduction:
An increasing number of publications pertaining to wet gas flow measurement is testimony to the growing importance of the technology. The economic viability of developing new fields often depends on the ability to measure unprocessed well stream fluids with sufficient accuracy to allow for the possibility of commingling fluids from a number of fields/wells prior to separation.
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Document ID: EE3F1F82

Traditional Uncertainty Analysis And Ip Guideline
Author(s): R. Paton
Abstract/Introduction:
Within the oil industry, measurement has always been of prime importance in the transfer of product both onshore and offshore. When calculating duty payable or allocation, the accuracy in measuring the quantity of oil is vital. It can be argued that when trading oil, consistency and agreement in measurement between buyer and seller is more important then accuracy (or even the correct value of the quantity!). However, to achieve consistency, you have to measure accurately, and to judge if you have consistency you have to know the uncertainty.
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Document ID: B99143A5

Application Rules For Vortex Shedding Flowmeters, Making A Selection Easy
Author(s): Frank Albers, Camille Limpens
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the early nineties vortex shedding flowmeters are used in the process industry as a cost effective alternative or replacement for orifice flowmeters, with the aim to have an improved performing flowmeter at a lower operating cost Often performance was not as successful as targeted for. Incorrect application of vortex flowmeters resulted in a number of cases in plant startup difficulties, resulting in e.g. extra costs to rectify the situation and deferred production. Examples of this were situations whereby the Reynolds number or flow velocity was too low, flashing/cavitation of liquids occurred or fluid pulsation or external induced mechanical vibration levels were too high. Moreover the up- and downstream pipe configuration or positioning errors at installation affected the meter factor. Concluding one can say, wrong selections were made because of limited application and engineering knowledge in relation to the behaviour of vortex flowmeters.
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Document ID: 18B8DCC0

Vocational Qualifications For Measurement Technicians And Engineers
Author(s): Gordon P. Fish, Grant Ross, Lol Coughlan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outlines: Background History of the MPA The Structure and Administration of NVQs/SVQs Relationship with Formal Qualifications NVQ/SVQ Occupational Standard The Benefits of NVQs/SVQs in Metering and Measurement World-Wide Recognition and Acceptance of the NVQ/SVQ
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Document ID: 1A7F3D33

Operational Experience And Utilization Of The Data From The Subsea Multiphase Flowmeter In The West Brae Field
Author(s): T.A. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
The West Brae Field, formerly the West Brae and Sedgwick Fields, is a subsea development comprised of two lower Eocene sands spanning two blocks. The field produces from a single well in Block 16/06a which is tied back to a subsea manifold in Block 16/07a, where the production from five additional wells is commingled before being transported to the Brae A platform for processing. Each well has downhole temperature and pressure gauges, and a multiphase flow meter is located at the manifold from which the flow from any single well may be measured. Production from the field is currently 35,000 barrels of oil per day.
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Document ID: ADB85C8B

Multiphase Flow Rate Identification By Pattern Recognition At Shell Auk Alpha Platform
Author(s): Haluk Toral, Shiqian Cai, Ersin Akartuna
Abstract/Introduction:
Multi-phase flow metering methodology developed by PSL is founded on the premise that there is a relationship between the time, frequency and amplitude domain properties of the turbulent hydrodynamic signals sampled at a high frequency and the average engineering quantities. In specific laboratory and industrial implementations of the methodology, it has been shown that there is non-linear relationship between the turbulent pressure signals and the average flow rates of the total liquid and gas phases and the turbulent impedance signal and the composition of the liquid phase (as water/oil).
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Document ID: 1F3E354B

Operational Experience With Subsea Multiphase Flow Meter
Author(s): Elisio Caetano, Jose Alberto Pinheiro, Claudio Barreiro Da Costa E Silva, Cassio Kuchpil, Eivind Dykesteen
Abstract/Introduction:
Monitoring of the multiphase flow at the wellhead eliminates the need for dedicated test lines from remote wellhead completions, and the need for a dedicated test separator at the processing facility. A multiphase flow meter at the wellhead will also allow improved well control, and hence better reservoir control. For remote or deep subsea wellhead completions the savings and operational benefits offered by this new technology are quite extensive.
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Document ID: 95EB0EE2


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