Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (2000)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Training Gas Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Buddy Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 7655AD95

Lessons Learned From The API 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Projec
Author(s): Kendricks A. Behring II
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas sampling is a process critical to the measurement of gas value. Improper sampling can distort the composition of natural gas, which indirectly affects flow rate measurement through gas properties and directly impacts heating value measurement. Thats why the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1 working group initiated a consortium research project - to document the causes of gas sample distortion and to implement procedures that work. The working group will use these research results to revise the industry standard for gas sampling, the API MPMS Chapter 14 - Natural Gas Fluids Measurement, Section 1 - Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer 1.
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Document ID: 325176F7

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
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Document ID: CBE51809

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results.
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Document ID: 2A529770

An Overview And Update Of A.G.A. Report No. 9, Measurement Of Gas By Multipath Ultrasonic Meters
Author(s): Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association has published (June, 1998) a recommended practice: Report No. 9 Measurement of Gas by Multipath Ultrasonic Meters. This paper reviews some of the key contents of A.G.A.-9 including recommended meter performance requirements, design features, testing procedures, and installation criteria. An update for the committee work in progress for year 2000 and beyond is integrally included. The paper addresses some of the most commonly asked questions by new users of the document.
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Document ID: 12771EC7

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few
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Document ID: 40516061

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
Why take a spot gas sample? The answer is apparent. In todays competative natural gas industry, accurate measurement is more important every day.
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Document ID: BE5DE509

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, low gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data.
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Document ID: F8C0CAA2

Report On API Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
Since this report references both itself and the 21.1 standard, the following nomenclature has been adopted to make it clear which document is being referenced. report - references this document, the one you are now reading. standard references the 21.1 standard, unless otherwise noted. section and subsection both refer to portions of the API 21.1 standard. document is a generic term that could be referencing either document. Hopefully the context will make it clear which document is being referenced.
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Document ID: 51E30468

Gas Contracts: Then And Now
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
Contracts involving the sale, gathering, transportation, processing, storage, marketing, compression, and other services provided by the typical natural gas organization are crafted with contributions from several different functional groups and individuals. The expertise of these different groups and individuals is needed to put into writing an agreement that will allow an organization to invest capital in projects with known risk and expected rate of return and to carry on with the day-to-day business activities it was formed to do. This paper will discuss the various elements of typical natural gas contracts and the expertise called upon to draft these elements
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Document ID: 8DA8E6F1

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity / Relative Density Of Gas
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean.
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Document ID: ED4A7758

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integration
Author(s): Gary L. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMC Chart Integrator, Model 362, is a digital computer based system for translating orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data on integrated flow (chart extension), average pressure and flow time. It is designed to accommodate American/Barton and Foxboro charts, as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Integrator can be fitted with pens for a third chart geometry if required. The operator places the Chart Integrator pens on the appropriate lines on the orifice chart while applying pressure to the foot control, the chart will begin to rotate. The rotation and motion of the pens simulate the action of the meter. At the end of the chart the Chart Integrator computes and prints the extension, pressure and flow time for that recording. The operator will then place the chart into the printer and the chart extension, average pressure, flow time and current date will be printed onto the back of the chart for validation. At chart validation the extension and the number of charts validated are recorded in the Chart Integrators memory as a batch total. This batch total can be printed and cleared upon demand by the operator at any time.
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Document ID: 746AAE78

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Stephen Easley
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays changing world of computers and data communications is an exciting time and is bringing major changes to the gas industry. Especially when evaluating whether to communicate with remote electronic gas measurement (EGM) devices and determining what communications media types will be installed.
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Document ID: 975CB20D

Cellular Digital Packet Data Technology For Scada And Telemetry Applications
Author(s): Bob Halford
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of Cellular Digital Packet Data technology (CDPD) came about after the build out of the cellular voice systems in the United States. The designers of those systems realized a part of that technology was not being used that could send short burst packets of data without interfering with the voice transmissions. The definition of CDPD would be: CDPD is a technology intended to provide packet data networking services to mobile hosts. The method used consists of radio channels typically used for Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) cellular service.
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Document ID: FC464377

Training Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Keith B. Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
An effective training program makes a significant impact on the bottom line of an organization. Volumes are relative to every purchase and sale of gas. Therefore, accurate volume measurements play either a direct or indirect role in the profitability of all the organizations in our industry. An effective training program is one of the best ways to promote accurate measurements and insure the optimal use of human resource
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Document ID: 7F6B510B

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of hydrocarbon fluids, with an overall measurement accuracy that is acceptable to all involved parties, is a goal most gas measurement organizations strive to meet. The achievement of overall measurement accuracy can be visualized by using an image of a steel chain. One side of the chain is fastened to the true quantity that passes through a measurement point. The other side of the chain is fastened to the observed quantity passing through the measurement point. If all of the links of this theoretical chain are strong, the observed reading will be held very close to the actual reading. If there are weak links in the chain, a difference in the true reading and observed reading will be experienced.
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Document ID: 223E4027

Computer Applications In Chart Processing
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas business has been undergoing an incredible amount of change in recent years, and the gas measurement department has not been exempt. Significant changes in regulation and market dynamics continues to drive much of this change. At the same time, newer, less expensive, more flexible and more powerful computer systems are enabling companies to adapt and make necessary changes. As the cost of computing continue to fall, and as systems offer more performance and flexibility, we can expect that the only constant will be constant change
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Document ID: FBB5BD52

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained. This has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges. A good EGM data editing software package
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Document ID: D1C9C8AF

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): Jodie Splawn
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts from two groups of people. First, we have the field personnel. They have the responsibility of seeing that a readable chart is produced and that all information pertinent to volume calculation is supplied to our next group, which is the office personnel. This group will read the chart, apply information supplied by the field, calculate the amount of gas delivered, and generate and deliver volume statements to the customer.
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Document ID: 02CBCD75

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation
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Document ID: 6DD6B768

Questions To Ask To Understand The Operator Qualification Program
Author(s): Jesus Ramos
Abstract/Introduction:
After a decade of deliberation between government and the pipeline industry, the action of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requiring qualification for individuals performing covered tasks on a pipeline facility is a reality. The synergistic efforts of the members of the Regulation Negotiation Committee resulted in the authoring of an acceptable proposed rule, Qualification of Pipeline Personnel. New Subparts to 192 and 195 are requiring pipeline operators to write a qualification program which identifies covered tasks, establishes evaluation methods, execute the evaluations to qualify individuals, preserve individual qualification, and maintain records of these activities. The written program must incorporate all the above requirements to accomplish the rules intent of ensuring a qualified pipeline work force to curtail incident probability and consequences caused by human error. The Regulators have the responsibility, hence the authority, to review Qualification of Pipeline Personnel programs, ensure that federal regulatory standards are complied with nationwide and may question an operators inclusion and/or exclusion of particular covered tasks. Program modifications may be required if it fails to meet rule requirements. The compliance time line is dependent on the Qualification of Pipeline Personnel Rule being published in the Federal Register which was August 27, 1999. The official compliance clock began when the rule was published in the Federal register. The operator must complete the written program by April 27, 2001 and must qualify all individuals performing on the pipeline facility by October 28, 2002. The primary advantage for the operator is that the operator writes a qualification program specific to his pipeline operating, maintenance and emergency response policies, procedures and practices. The impact on the operator will vary depending on what preparation the operator has accomplish to date. Those companies that waited for the final rule to be published in the Federal Register, may fine themselves rushing to complete the minimum requirements before the deadlines. The indisputable impact of the operators qualification program effectiveness will be manifested after Regulators critique the program or when a reportable incident is investigated.
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Document ID: CEFE8B77

The Extended Analysis Of Natural Gas With Agilent Micro Gc
Author(s): Feng Li, Bob Belaire, Kevin Welch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses applications and performance of the Agilent Micro GC system for the standard and extended analysis of natural gas chemical composition and the calculation of heating value.
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Document ID: C5155ADD

Pipeline Control Systems: An Overview Of Scada And Telemetry In Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Gerry Browne
Abstract/Introduction:
A common requirement for gas transmission pipeline systems is to provide a pipeline control system to remotely monitor and operate the pipeline from a central location. This paper presents an overview of the main components of a pipeline control system:
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Document ID: F24A26A7

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
As the worldwide demand for oil and gas forces offshore exploration into waters off the continental shelves into depths of over a mile deep, capital expense spending (CapEx) and production operation expense (OpEx) budgets are slashed and the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) requirements as well as some companies goals for a greener image raises the standards of operations even higher, the demands placed on accurate hydrocarbon measurement with minimal maintenance, space and weight requirements becomes increasingly greater. These financial, governmental and technical challenges coupled with normally high flow rates and therefore wide flow range requirements have enhanced the development and application of new technology such as ultrasonic gas and liquid meters, multiphase flow meters, microwave and near infared (NIR) water cut analyzers, coriolis flow meters for oil and gas and compact orifice meter tubes utilizing isolating flow conditioners and liquid meter provers. This paper will attempt to provide guidelines in selecting, installing and operating this equipment to insure cost effective designs and reliable operation with a high degree of accuracy. Since the authors background is primarily in project design, emphasis will be placed on the decision process of selecting, installing and commissioning metering equipment
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Document ID: AB42B5D6

Terminology Used In Instrument Accuracy
Author(s): Rick Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief explanation and discussion of many key terms used in describing instrument accuracy. The terms included within this discussion are most commonly used for defining performance standards with primary sensing elements typically used in the measurement of flow, level pressure and temperature instruments. Many of the terms used may apply to controllers, recorders and final control elements. However, the focus provided herein is the primary element device. The specific devices include transmitters (differential pressure and temperature) and flow meters (e.g., magnetic, vortex, turbine, variable area and positive displacement).
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Document ID: F93C6E49

Field Experience With Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Drew Hetherington
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators in the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. With the onset of electronics, new and strange words began appearing. Readings and terms appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration readings or methods, and terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, stability and traceability surfaced. Technicians began using correction factors to achieve standard conditions. These correction calculations gave the technicians challenges when performing their calibrations. Technicians began seeing the effects to temperature on their test instruments and how temperature affects the accuracy for the gas measurement.
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Document ID: 7B6CC809

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar.
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Document ID: 9EFD0225

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process.
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Document ID: B58594B8

Low-Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Rick Heuer, Charles Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
As we enter the second decade of use of Low Power Flow Computers (LPFCs), we do so with significantly different hardware, software, economics and motivating forces.
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Document ID: 069C2757

New Trends In Measuring Natural Gas Flow Rates
Author(s): John Schnake
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, the flow of natural gas has been measured by a combination of pressure transducers, smart transmitters, and flow computers. In the earliest types of natural gas flow measurement, transducers and transmitters were connected to flow computers to calculate natural gas flow rates. In terms of the real measurements, these transducers and transmitters served as the heart of flow computers. They still do in newer, smarter forms.
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Document ID: F7DC5F3D

The Q.SONIC Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an outline of the theory applied in multi-path ultrasonic gas flowmeters. The history of multipath meters for custody transfer and recent developments, including test results will be presented for the Instromet 3 and 5 path Q.Sonic custody transfer flowmeter.
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Document ID: 226E79D5

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulation
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: F8E003CC

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety
Author(s): Linton T. Lipscomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material.
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Document ID: 0442F714

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well-defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters.
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Document ID: B99786AA

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ron L. Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: 3B41EAFE

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. Not surprisingly the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808
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Document ID: 83B40D99

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Micheal Bealer
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device.
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Document ID: A85C70C6

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Tony Crainer
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate, economical measurement of process fluids. Orifice metering satisfies most flow measurement applications and is the most common flow meter in use today.
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Document ID: A6166A2F

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters.
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Document ID: C0861304

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Chemistry
Author(s): Steve Whitman
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to understand the chemistry of natural gas, it is important to be familiar with some basic concepts of general chemistry. Here are some definitions you should know:
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Document ID: 09E780F6

A Review Of The 2000 Revisions To Ansi 2530/API Mpms 14.3/AGA Report No. 3 - Part 2
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period 1993 through 1999 Part 2 of ANSI 2530/API MPMS 14.3/AGA Report No 3 underwent revision. It is the intent of this paper to discuss the highlights of this revision.
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Document ID: 3DFDA378

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3- 1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: A653FEC0

Gri Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): Edgar B. Bowles, Jr. Charles E. French
Abstract/Introduction:
GRI (formerly the Gas Research Institute) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization (RD&C) program aimed at improving natural gas metering performance in the field. This paper summarizes some of the recent accomplishments of the research program at the GRI Metering Research Facility (MRF), a high-accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs. The MRF, located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, supports a variety of GRI-sponsored research and third-party test and calibration activities. Major research initiatives currently being funded by GRI include orifice and ultrasonic flow meter research, gas sampling methods research, and development of a new energy flow rate meter concept. Through its portfolio of projects addressing priority research needs, the GRI natural gas measurement program provides significant benefits to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 2972AEBD

Meter Change-Out And Routine Testing Programs
Author(s): Don Yarbrough
Abstract/Introduction:
With the understanding that the gas meter is the cash register, it is important that the accuracy of that meter is maintained. This sets up the need for routine inspection. Routine inspection will be determined based upon the number of various types of meters a company may have.
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Document ID: E265AEB4

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. NorAm Pipeline Service developed and now uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which uses the actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: 95CFBA3F

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes.
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Document ID: 862B4823

Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS.
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Document ID: 1DA873C3

Application Of Telemetering In Natural Gas Distribution
Author(s): Dale P. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) has become an integral component of the operations of a natural gas distribution company. Where once telemetry was primarily employed for pressure monitoring, now it is just as critical that businesses have accurate and timely data both of their customers and of their suppliers.
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Document ID: B2E8DB1A

Odor Fade - Possible Causes And Remedies
Author(s): Michael J. Usher
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern industry conducts itself much differently than it did at the turn of the century. Public safety and care for the environment has gone from the bottom of the list of goals, right to the very top.
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Document ID: F326F76A

Remote Meter Reading Methods( Of Retrieving Data By Use Of Remote Devices)
Author(s): John Schnitzer
Abstract/Introduction:
Remote devices for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) have many common characteristics but vary depending on what kind of communication system is in place. A partial list of communication systems that current technology supports includes the following:
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Document ID: 00860665

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology.
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Document ID: B739A6BD

Periodic Inspections Of District Regulator & Relief Valves
Author(s): Jerry Bowins
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspection of District Regulator Stations and over pressure protection devices are essential in complying with Federal and State Regulations.
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Document ID: C0E6DEA2

Field Testing By Transfer Proving An Explanation Of The Techniques And Procedures
Author(s): Ruben P. Sanchez, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Aristotle once said, Science begins and ends with Measurement. Without question, measurement is a function that truly influences the economics of the gas industry. This is true because the revenue of the industry, for the most part, is determined by the registration from meters. This is why it is said that meters are the Cash Registers of the business. Therefore, it is essential for service companies such as Reliant Energy to prove or test each meter. Transfer Proving is a portable method of meter performance testing. The methods to prove meters must continually be improved to assure accuracy of revenue at the lowest feasible maintenance costs.
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Document ID: 55E8F15C

Design And Installation Of A Complete Measurement And Control Facility
Author(s): T. G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation is intended to illustrate the implementation of a successful project. These principles can be applied to measurement and control projects, LNG projects, and LPG projects.
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Document ID: CD1D77EB

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy markets and the environment of FERC order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments, to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: DE08C5AD

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality has always been a key issue, but the cutbacks in personnel and loss of experienced operators has made a simple, accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas extremely important. This paper will review the different sensor technologies in use today and also address key issues and proper procedures in assembling a sampling system to provide a clean, representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: F17E9042

Advances In Natural Gas Sampling Technology
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Obtaining a representative gas phase sample of natural gas sources containing entrained liquid has caused many problems. A new technology was developed which consists of a technique and hardware for sampling natural gas having entrained liquid. It removes the liquid under pipeline pressure an temperature conditions thereby preventing gas phase composition changes that would otherwise occur. After the liquids are removed the pressure is regulated in a manner which prevents excessive cooling and possible condensation of some gas phase components. The hardware can be inserted/retracted at normal pipeline pressures to facilitate maintenance. The technology applies to sampling for BTU determination, moisture and H2S analysis.
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Document ID: 53C6E478

Verifying Gas Chromatograph Operation At Custody Transfer Locations
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
The on-line gas chromatograph (GC) has been widely used for natural gas quality analysis and energy measurement at custody transfer locations since the early 80s. The energy measurement and relative density measurement provided by the GC can have a large effect on unaccounted for Gas because the gravity effects volume calculations and the heating value effects energy rates. The gas chromatograph measures component concentrations first and then calculates physical properties of the gas such as heating value and relative density. Units of energy measurement can be British Thermal Units (BTU) Mega Joules (MJ) or Kilo Calories (KJ). This paper will refer to BTU for energy units, ISO (KJ) or SI (MJ) metric units can be used interchangeably.
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Document ID: 5BEDC764

Gas Flow Conditioning
Author(s): Michael P. Saunders
Abstract/Introduction:
The full cost of ownership consists of the initial capital, commissioning, training, spare parts, maintenance and calibration costs for the lifetime of the equipment. The full cost is several times the initial capital investment and should be the deciding factor in equipment selection.
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Document ID: 3E25597C

Effects Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurements
Author(s): William Johansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas often has some liquid content. The liquid may be water, hydrocarbons, or compressor oil. As this gas flows through an orifice meter is the gas being measured correctly? The measurement methods and calculations described in ANSI/API 2530 are for dry gas.
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Document ID: F6BF6B0A

Communication Between Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in measurement with reductions in staff of up to 60%.Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. To meet these demands requires timely communication between the office and field employees. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased work loads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: C3B74345

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom R. Cheney
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world we almost accept computers without question. In fact we place our hard-earned dollars and in some cases even our very lives in their care without a second thought. Computers and electronic technologies have greatly impacted the way everyone does their business. For those of us who work in the oil and gas industry, the use of electronic gas measurement devices (EFM) is an example of this impact.
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Document ID: C07F4CA5

Electronic Gas Measurement Auditing
Author(s): Joe Landes
Abstract/Introduction:
Ideally, the science of gas measurement and the personnel who attend to gas measurement equipment would have evolved to the state of perfection, wherein uncertainty and errors do not exist. Were this the case, we could install a single metering point at every location where a change of possession occurs and merely apply the associated volumes we obtained from them to an accounting program and give attention to more important matters than measuring natural gas. In the real world, although much progress has occurred, we have not yet attained perfection. Hence, we have multiple metering facilities at single locations and to complicate things further, sometimes these meters produce different results.
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Document ID: FD889A1A

Composite Sampling To Determine Heating Value And Compositional Analysis Of A Gas Stream Under Investigation
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite sample is gas collected in a sample container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during some specific period of time.
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Document ID: 1B8E5F8C

Chart Auditing
Author(s): Keith B. Fry
Abstract/Introduction:
The main reason for auditing natural gas charts is the economic benefit derived from it. Because audits require skilled manpower to be performed and administered, there are costs involved. However, audits are advantageous because their benefits generally outweigh their costs, many times significantly.
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Document ID: 28C6B9BE

H2S Detection And Determination
Author(s): D. Marshall Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is found in many natural gas fields throughout the world. Measurement and the determination of the concentration of H2S is critical for many reasons. From Personal Safety to Corrosion Control and eventually to Contractual Obligation, the measurement of H2S is a critical in the Pipeline Industry. This paper will discuss the Properties, Purpose of Measurement, Measurement Techniques, Calibration, and other Sulfur measurements that maybe required by the Pipeline Industry.
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Document ID: 2CD27125

Public-Private Partnerships
Author(s): Rae Mcquade
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB) has been fortunate to develop public-private partnerships with several agencies, and these partnerships have contributed to GISBs credibility and its success. GISB strives to be responsive to the industry and government agencies through the efforts of its volunteers. Without the commitment of the members and interested industry participants, we would not have developed public-private partnerships that have evolved over the years to support GISB as an effective mechanism for setting industry standards.
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Document ID: A0890606

A New Perspective On Measurement
Author(s): Lohit, Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
Everything we do must have business relevance or must add value. This is true not only for measurement process, but for every process we are involved in. One must constantly question our action and not fall in the trap of thats the way we have always done it. This paper provides a new perspective on measurement in light of changing business environment, competition, and technology.
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Document ID: 13885A51

Ops, Oq And You
Abstract/Introduction:
OPS (Office of Pipeline Safety) and its State partners have been undergoing changes in their approach to pipeline safety compliance. You will notice the word enforcement is not used as much as in the past. OPS is interested in compliance through a working relationship between the operator(s) and regulatory bodies. OPS has undergone much scrutiny, soul searching, and mindset changes, in an effort to promote and assure better safety of pipeline systems without increasing the burden on the operator(s). All of the studies and evaluations brought about a new paradigm. Through partnering and stakeholder approaches, Risk Management (RM) and System Integrity Inspection (SII) programs were developed. With changing times and the competitive market place, OPS and its partners must do business differently. It is no longer acceptable to follow a check list blindly and count number of violations. Inspectors will have to dig deeper and become more acquainted with the operations of the pipeline system(s). A mutual trust between the operator and inspector must be established in order for the program to be successful. Much more detailed data must be shared in order to get by in the regulatory community. The regulatory community must assure trade secrets are not compromised. The communication phase is well under way with some programs that will be implemented shortly.
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Document ID: E5943490

Understanding And Using Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): John Lansing, William Freund, Dan Hackett, Winsor Letton, Kevin Warner, Klaus Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses fundamental issues relative to ultrasonic gas flow meters used for measurement of natural gas. A basic review of an ultrasonic meters operation is presented to understand the typical operation of todays Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM). The UFMs diagnostic data, in conjunction with gas composition, pressure and temperature, will be reviewed to show how this technology provides diagnostic benefits beyond that of other primary measurement devices. The basic requirements for obtaining good meter performance, when installed in the field, will be discussed with test results. Finally, recommendations for installation will be provided, including an example of a good piping design.
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Document ID: EA18BCBC

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): David R. Looper
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper hopefully affords readers a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those that have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: D3FC3576


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