Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1999)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Dean Ricard
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement is the metering of gas supplies to residential, commercial and industrial premises - it is the process which determines how much gas has been used. Ultimately, it determines how much revenue wili be realised by the gas utility. The importance of the metering device, a gas meter, is obvious and it is the aim of this paper to address the basic needs for the selection of the correct meter giving a successful installation, one which will maintain optimum accuracy and prolonged operation
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Document ID: 9F9D1AAC

Fundamentals Of Pilot-Opeiiated Regulators
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to better understand the fundamentals of pilot-operated regulators, it is necessary to review the design features and performance characteristics of spring-loaded regulators. Fig. 1 shows the elements of such a regulator. The adjustment spring determines the outlet pressure of the regulator. Increasing or decreasing the spring compression will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in outlet pressure. Therefore, as the spring extends or contracts in response to flow rate changes downstream, the spring force changes as well. This results in a change in outlet pressure
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Document ID: 68403AE4

Fundamentals Of Self
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases/ in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly
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Document ID: 60677583

Over-Pressure Protection Methods, Assessment And Selection
Author(s): Tom Connolly
Abstract/Introduction:
Every system connected to a high pressure source of gas stands the risk of a pressure control failure. Such a failure may result in the systems being pressurized beyond its maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP), therefore some means of overpressure protection must be established
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Document ID: D86F3D9A

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Richard J. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry began using Flexible Element regulators extensively in the 1950s. Grove Valve & Regulator Company introduced the original flexible element regulator design, the Hexflo. The Flexflo (See Fig. A), was known as an expansible tube design because a rubber tube stretched over a metal core is expanded to open the valve. American Meter introduced a variation of the design in 1970 called the Axial Flow
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Document ID: CA55DF84

Regulator Selection And Sizing Emphasis( On Large Flow Rate Applications
Author(s): Dale Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the sizing and selection of regulators. Since the subtitle is Emphasis On Large Flow Rate Applications, we will begin with a discussion of why the selected regulator might be different for high flow applications than for low flow applications
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Document ID: 2A3A5D0C

Soundproofing And Noise Reduction
Author(s): James L. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
Control valve generated noise, resulting from. gas pressure reduction (regulation), can exceed EPA or local noise limits or can cause destructive damage to regulating and pipe components. Too often regulation generated noise is an afterthought of station design. Its importance is realized only after noise complaints or noise generated damage to regulating components is brought forcefully to the designers attention
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Document ID: 2443A3CB

Control Valves For Natural Gas Pipeline Applications
Author(s): Douglas B. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines today transport huge volumes of energy in the form of liquid or gas throughout the world. Ships, trains, and trucks cannot match the efficiency, reliability, or safety record of pipelines. Transmission of natural gas is based on varying levels of pressure that result in high velocity movement. Well pressure or compressors are utilized to produce the pressure. Pressure reduction Is commonly required when moving the gas through pipelines from the well head to individual customers or the local gas distribution companies.
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Document ID: 27EE5BBE

Principles Of Relief Valve Sizing
Author(s): Dale L. Meyer
Abstract/Introduction:
DOT (Department of Transportation) Part 192 Transportation of natural and other gas by pipeline: Minimum Federal Safety Standards states the general requirements: Each pipeline that is connected to a gas source so that the maximum allowable operating pressure could be exceeded as the result of pressure control failure or of some other type of failure, must have pressure relieving or pressure limiting devices that meet the requirements of 192.197 and 192.201. The most common methods of overpressure protection are Relief, Monitor, Series Regulation and Shutoff. In this paper we will only deal with Relief Valves
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Document ID: 776B80BE

Design And Operations Of Line Heaters
Author(s): Darby L. West
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is transported from the wellhead to the consumers through high pressure pipe lines. At the point that natural has is taken from a main line to provide a consumer natural gas, a pressure reduction causes the gas to cool, similar to the refrigerator process, and can form hydrates.
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Document ID: 9E6CA5FD

Filter Sizing And Installation: An Overview Of Filters And Strainers, And Their Proper Selection, Installation, And Maintenance
Author(s): Patrick Hail
Abstract/Introduction:
Overview of different types of strainers and filters - and when you need them for your application. An engineer or operator should always begin his filter selection by asking How good is good enough? Better filtration is likely to cost more money. A coaiescer may work well in a given application, but shouldnt be used if a less costly separator could be used instead. This is also true when selecting replacement filter elements.
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Document ID: 87F3C9D8

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Thomas Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
All rotary piston meters, commonly known as rotary meters, utilize the fundamental 1846 lobed impeller design of the Roots brothers. Figure 1 Originally designed for water pump appiications, this fundamental style has been parent to virtually all Interweaving rotor designs applied to gas and liquid compression, pumping and measurement applications. The first positive displacement rotary meters manufactured for gas applications were built in 1920.
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Document ID: D4727A5C

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatographs & Gas Quality
Author(s): Mark Smyth
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of the quality of natural gas requires a variety of instaimentation, only one of which is the gas chromatograph. Contractual requirements frequently define the energy content, relative density, and moisture content of the gas being sold. The sale of natural gas is performed on the basis of the heating value per unit volume of the gas. For these reasons, the industry uses instruments to monitor the characteristics of the gas at the point of sale or at strategic locations along a pipeline. The following instruments are commonly found in the field and in the laboratory
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Document ID: 4509F807

Flow Computers Fundamentals And The Influences From API Chapter 21
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in orifice measurement has increased in popularity over the last 25 years. With the need to have accurate information on a more timely basis, electronic flow computers and RTUs (Remote Telemetry Units) have come into their own. Forces fi-om FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) have allowed open access to the pipeline industry for both the producer and purchaser of gas. This action has put pressure on the pipeline industry to account for the natural gas volumes, both inputs and outputs into their respective pipelines
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Document ID: 55796DAA

Current Design Of Electronic Odorization Systems
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thuty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astoiinding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in abroad sense, natural gas is certainly considered to be the fuel of the future.
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Document ID: F06BBDD0

Isolation And Grounding Solutions On Cathodically Protected Systems
Author(s): Michael H. Tacmck
Abstract/Introduction:
Cathodic protection requires DC isolation firom ground for the structure being protected. Yet, at the same time, safety concerns exist regarding exposure to AC faults, AC induced voltage, lightning, or other electrical disturbances, which require solid grounding. Technology advances have led to the design of solid-state AC grounding/DC blocking devices, which can meet both requirements simultaneously. This technology has eliminated maintenance
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Document ID: 65B6E1A3

Composite Sampling To Determine Heating Value And Compositional Analysis Of A Gas Stream Under Investigation
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite sample is gas collected in a sample container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during some specific period of time. In order for this to be true, the sampling system must be installed properly, maintained in working order, and the sample must be subsequently handled properly. The object of the composite sampling system is to gather representative bites or grabs of the gas moving by the sample point and inject those bites unchanged into a sample container for storage and transportation to an analyzing device.
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Document ID: 281A7F4A

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Measurement
Author(s): Fred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
One measures quantity (Positive Displacement): the other measures rate of flow (Inferential.) All fluid meters, however, consist of two distinct parts, each of which has different functions to perform. The first is the prinfiary element, wnich is in contact with the fluid, resulting in some form of interaction. This interaction may be that of imparting motion to the primary element: the fluid may be accelerated etc. The second or secondary element translates the interaction between fluid and pnmary element into a signal that can be converted into volume, weights or rates of flow and indicates or records the results
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Document ID: 63274E93

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles to measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large volume measurement and thus fewer applications
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Document ID: E3DFE903

Transit Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): E. Loy Upp And Kevin L. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
Transit-time ultrasmiic flow meters for gas have gained a larger acceptance within the natural gas industry in recent years, and are now an option for custody transfer metering in several countries. Additionally, there are several varieties of less expensive transit-time ultrasonic flow meters which are cxcclient in check metering applications although limitwl in accuracy. The proper choice of ultrasonic flow meter normally depends on the absolute accuracy required, with the multipath configuration offering the best accuracy. Ultrasonic flow meters must be properly installed and the natural gas must be of good quality to achieve an accurate measurement, as with any type of gas flow meter. As experience grows within the measurement community, the use and applications for transit-time ultrasonic flow meters may expand greatly
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Document ID: F595A512

Meter Set Standardization
Author(s): Steven R. Jensen
Abstract/Introduction:
Our company has been evolving from a mix of screwed and flanged assemblies for industrial and large commercial sets, toward all flanged. Mixing components and connection types isnt always cost effective, nor was making flanged pups to install into screwed assemblies to make them flanged. It was impossible to create true standards for installations, and accurate documents for Marketing to show customers, among other things. The infamous field fit required a welder on each job and stymied any opportunity to recycle parts when removed from the field. Numerous issues could be resolved if all parties had a chance to address their issues relative to non-standard sets
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Document ID: 4C38F967

Transfer Proving
Author(s): Phil Whittemore
Abstract/Introduction:
All meters need to be tested for accuracy. Many companies choose to remove their larger meters from service and take them into the shop for test and repair, while others find it is more economical to test their large meters on location at the meter site. Greater emphasis on accurate measurement has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. The more commonly accepted methods for field testing of gas meters include: Low Pressure Flow Proving, Critical Flow Proving, Sonic Flow Nozzle Proving, Differential Testing - Rotary Meters, Spin Testing Turbine Meters, and Transfer Testing
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Document ID: 170D0B02

Introduction To Electronic Volume Correctors
Author(s): Gil m. Pineda Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, mechanical devices have been providing a means for correcting measured gas volume to base conditions of pressure and temperature. Their origin can be traced back to the 1920s when chart recorders were used to record line pressure at the gas meter. These charts would then be read to determine average line pressure so that the volume measmred by the gas meter could be corrected to base conditions of pressure. Today, mechanical chart recorders are still used for volume correction. They may record any combination of metered volume, line pressure, or line temperature
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Document ID: DE9ECDFE

Meter Station Design Guide For( Transmission Pipelines Delivering To Local Distribution Companies )
Author(s): Thomas m. Home
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide an Introduction and guidelines for those in transmission pipeline companies designing new meter stations or modifying existing meter stations. The intent is to lightly cover all the considerations involved in designing and installing a meter station
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Document ID: 6FE75858


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