Measurement Library

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1999)

Appalachian Gas Measurement Short Course

Natural Gas Dehydration
Author(s): Matthew E. Vavro
Abstract/Introduction:
The key to effectively drying natural gas is planning and proper design. With increasingly stringent environmental concerns, dry bed desiccants are gaining rapid acceptance over traditional methods such as triethylene glycol. By properly selecting the correct deslacant, and operating the system in a way that is conducive to effective dehydration, costs can be kept to a minimum. Engineering support, coupled with adequate product choices, has dramatically reduced dehydration costs.
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Document ID: 533B8A45

Minimizing The Effects Of Pulsation Induced Gage Line Error
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and funded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) In San Antonio, Texas. This research culminated in the publication of several technical papers, including the April 1987 PCRC report 10.87-3 titled Pulsation and Transient-Induced Errors at Orifice Meter Installations and the most recent technical report An Assessment of Technology for Correcting Pulsation Induced Orifice Flow Measurement dated November, 1991. Though originally produced for PCRC members only, these reports are now available to the industry for a nominal charge. The PCRC sponsored research programs concluded that pulsation induced measurement errors fall into two broad categories 1. Primary Element Error, which includes square root averaging error (SRE), inertial errors, and shifts in the orifice coefficient. 2. Secondary Element Errors, which consist of gage line distortion and gage line shift, together commonly referred to as gage line error (GLE).
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Document ID: 88A9EEA1

Regulator Sizing & Selection
Author(s): Richard J. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Sizing and selection of regulators is of primary importance to all companies involved in the transmission and distribution of natural gas. Proper sizing and selecting regulators affect gas transmission and distribution systems in the following ways: 1) It ensures proper operation of the gas system for all service conditions. 2) It minimizes maintenance and trouble shooting costs. 3) It facilitates accurate measurement. 4) It enhances the safety of the gas system. 5) It is cost effective. The basic goal is to select the most cost effective regulator that will handle all the service conditions and provide the accuracy and reliability needed.
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Document ID: A16D47E7

Basic Gas Laws
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyone that works in the field of gas measurement or performs gas calculations has to deal with the basic gas laws. There is a lot of concern about using the gas laws but once you understand them they are not nearly so intimidating. Why are the gas laws required? There is a relationship between the temperature, pressure and volume of gases. A change in one of these parameters affects the others. Also another factor in the gas calculations is something known as the compressibility factor. This factor compensates for the deviation between the way an ideal gas responds to changes In pressure and temperature and the way a real gas responds to the same changes.
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Document ID: 2755FA27

Pressure Effects On Gas Turbine Meter Performance
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been many papers written and presented concerning the increased accuracy and confidence obtained by calibration of turbine meters at or near operating conditions. High pressure calibration of turbine meters is still the preferred and recommended method of defining meter accuracy. This desire to verify turbine meter accuracy at operating conditions is not always achievable, except of course for the Auto-Adjust Turbo- Meter. There are many obstacles preventing us from satisfying this need, such as economics, time, and physical limitations. Additionally, there are only about a dozen recognized high pressure calibration facilities in the world that provide this service. This paper will present some comparisons of low and high pressure performance correlations. These comparisons are intended to provide current and prospective turbo meter users with additional insight and understanding of turbo meter calibration.
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Document ID: B6614E24

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled, the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their effect on system stability.
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Document ID: 333E25B4

Devices Used To Determine Water Vapor Content Of Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
With todays focus on gas quality, an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas is of great importance. This paper will discuss several different sensor technologies available to perform these tasks. This paper will also address key issues in assembling a proper sampling system to provide a representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: 1AD779A9

Fundamentals Of Vortex Flowmeters
Author(s): Dennis Ciccarelli
Abstract/Introduction:
The phenomena of vortex shedding has been investigated in modern times by several notable people. Herman Von Helmholtz (1821-1894) V. Strouhal, who in 1878 published a comprehensive study of vortex shedding bluff bodies and Theodore von Karman (1881- 1963), who received a patent for a vortex shedding flowmeter. As you will see this phenomena surrounds us in or every day life. The principle is fairly straight forward putting it commercial use is less so. Vortex meters offer a number of benefits. Assuming that a given model is operating within its fundamental constraints in terms of minimum velocity and Reynolds number range some advantages include: No moving parts. The simplicity of construction and use of stainless steel materials will provide many years of uninterrupted and low maintenance service. High accuracy ( 1% of rate) and excellent repeatability. Linear flow measurement that is virtually independent of the fluids properties. Flexible measurement of a wide variety of fluids such as liquids, gases, and steam, all with the same meter. Low operating costs Turndown ratios of up to 20:1 Low installation costs. The meters can be simply bolted between two standard flanges and connected to a power source.
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Document ID: 1304946B

Ultrasonic Gas Meters
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
An ultrasonic meter is a type of inferential meter. This means that the meter does not directly measure the volume of gas passing through it, rather it infers the volume based upon some measured characteristic. Orifice meters use pressure drop to infer volume, turbine meters use the speed of the rotor to infer volume, while ultrasonic meters use the speed of sound waves to infer volume. Ultrasonic meters have been around for many years however, their use for the measurement of natural gas is fairly new.
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Document ID: B2CD1466

Combustible Gas And Flame Monitoring Techniques
Author(s): Tom Aoki
Abstract/Introduction:
Uses reference and active beads as part of its detection principal. The reference bead is encapsulated by inert material preventing outside air from contacting metals impregnated within the bead. A thin wire supplies current to the reference bead and the reference voltage stays constant even in the face of changes in air temperature, relative humidity concentrations, and atmospheric pressure. The output wire from the reference bead feeds one half of a wheatstone bridge circuit. The active bead is not encapsulated and is exposed to contact from ambient/outside air A thin wire supplies current to the active bead. The output wire from the active bead is also connected to the same wheatstone bridge circuit as the reference bead wire. Air that is free of any combustible gases) will give an active bead output voltage equal to that of the reference bead and the wheatstone bridge circuit will be balanced. In this state the bridge circuit output will be zero and will read 0% LEL concentration.
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Document ID: 98BD17B0

Overpressure/System Protection In A Large Gas Distribution System
Author(s): David C. Hiatt, Donald E. Holtman
Abstract/Introduction:
In a gas distribution system, each piece of pipe must be protected against overpressure or exceeding the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus allowable build-up. This includes all feeder line, distribution mains and all service lines. In some cases the operating company will apply a maximum pressure to a pipeline that is less than the MAOP. Systems that have a history of corrosion problems or those that have operated for years at a lower pressure may be assigned a maximum operating pressure (MOP) that the company considers safe, and will install an overpressure device to protect from exceeding that pressure. Requirements for the design, operating, maintenance, inspection and testing of gas pipelines and their components are in the contents of Part 192, Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations. These laws come under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation (DOT).
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Document ID: 69D8964D

Fundamentals Of Self Averaging Pitot Tubes
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Check measurement of volumetric flow in natural gas pipelines is essential for system pipeline monitoring and control. Although the custody of natural gas is not transferred at a check meter, the calculated flow rate through the meter must be reliable and repeatable while remaining cost effective. Various check meter options are available when check measurement is required. Orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters are often specified at an approximate installed cost of 3,000 to 10,000 per inch. As an alternative to traditional check measurement, averaging pitot tube meters can be used in many applications.
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Document ID: B12F0437

Pid Control - Fundamentals And Tuning
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not very easy to start talking about PID controllers. But, once we get started we will go over many aspects of control and how PID controllers help us. Do we start with what they are used for, or how they work? Or for that matter, what is PID? That might be a good place to start. Proportional - Integral - Derivative. Thats it! PID. In this paper we will go over the practical aspects of using and tuning mechanical, pneumatic, and electronic controllers. In our natural gas business nearly all control systems maintain pressure. However, there are many systems that require flow, temperature, level, blending and other types of control. The basic reason for using a controller is to automatically maintain the desired level or value of a given product being supplied to a user.
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Document ID: 743D4895

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the world, gas measurement utilizes two basic principles to measure gas volumes, positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters comprise the large majority of measurement devices in use while inferential meters are used primarily for large volume measurement and thus fewer applications.
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Document ID: AFECFD37

Fundamentals Of Control Valves And Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Paul R. Sekinger
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry utilizes two devices to reduce gas pressure and control gas flow. The first is the regulator and the second is a control valve. The control valve is utilized for high volumes and it can perform flow control as will as pressure control. This paper will provide the fundamentals of control valve types, sizes, and the controllers that are utilized to operate the control valves. We will also investigate the differences between the regulator and the control valve and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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Document ID: 38021424

Accurate Measurement Means Production Profit
Author(s): Joseph P. Lofink
Abstract/Introduction:
The forces of supply and demand are having a positive impact on gas prices in the 1990s, and the producer cannot afford to waste production through a faulty meter, or a meter that is not appropriate for conditions at each well site. There is no question that Production gas measurement is one of the most difficult and costly areas of gas measurement for the independent producer as well as the Gas utility. Through proper design and meter selection, accuracy and reliability can become the rule for increased profit. Your biggest thief is inaccurate measurement, which has a hand In your pocket 24 hours a day.
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Document ID: B4823F13

A Closer Look At Prefabs
Author(s): Eric J. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
A prefab. What is it? The purpose of this paper is to take the reader beyond his or her general ideas of a prefab. During the process, I will explore the associated terminology and make contrasts to field fabrication. I will also elaborate on the ingredients of a quality prefab as well as aid the reader in identifying a reputable prefab vendor. As a result of our analysis the reader should gain a greater appreciation for the skill involved in manufacturing a viable prefab.
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Document ID: DC78D6F3

Fundamentals Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Jerry Kamallieh
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the United States, The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat-rate basis. Its growth was slow, its charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company founded in 1823 prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success in New York, businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc., and the new industry in the United States began to flourish.
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Document ID: C11059D6

Chemistry Of Heat Transfer Fluids
Author(s): Ken Schreurs, Lori Mulneix
Abstract/Introduction:
Heat transfer has always been an integral part of the natural gas transmission industry. The compression of natural gas generates a tremendous amount of heat. Conversely, the decompression for distribution requires a tremendous amount of heat. Heat transfer ensures that these processes proceed smoothly and trouble-free. The first law of thermodynamics states that for any cycle a system undergoes, the heat generated is proportional to the work done on the system. Every compressor does a certain amount of work on a natural gas stream. The heat generated by the compressor is proportional to that amount of work. Without dissipating the generated heat away from the source, the temperature will rise out of control, the compressor will not be able to operate for extended periods of time, and maintenance costs will be extremely high. Similarly, when this gas is throttled for distribution, a certain amount of heat proportional to the pressure drop is needed to prevent costly valve freezeups and hydrate formation.
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Document ID: 94E9F544

Corrosion Control Considerations For M&R Stations
Author(s): John T. Kabay
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of the time people become engaged in controlling or preventing corrosion by appointment rather than as a final step in a process of formal education. The following basic information is designed to be helpful to that segment of such a group entering the Corrosion Control Field without the benefit of any extensive training in the basic sciences related to corrosion, but who may be called upon from time to time to take at least the first steps in anticipating or determining areas of active corrosion, either on their own or with fellow employees.
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Document ID: 7527B8E0

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): J. N. Witte
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most commonly used device for the measurement of natural gas in the natural gas transmission industry. This paper will present various topics related to measurement bias errors common to orifice measurement. Most of this information which has been published and presented by others in various industry events, is consolidated here for presentation in a classroom setting. This paper will address only errors associated with operation of the primary measurement device which is the orifice meter tube and plate. Flow recorders, transmitters, and flow computers are considered secondary equipment and will not directly be discussed.
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Document ID: CF5E8E35

Plunger Lift: Applications, Operations And Its Effect On Measurement Systems
Author(s): Stan Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
The growing popularity of plunger-lift as a a serious production technique is testimony to the effectiveness of this often-misunderstood process. Once rarely considered, plunger lift is now being used by prudent operators all over the world. The need for continued education and information for production operators continues to grow. Even though the basic applications remain the same, the parameters are changing. Thousands of wells that would never have been considered as candidates previously can now be operated effectively and efficiently.
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Document ID: 0629B5BB

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon liquids, entrained in natural gas, have been the source of many sampling problems. The primary problem is lack of agreement in the natural gas industry on the fundamental issue of should entrained liquid be included or excluded from sample gas. Standard practices issued by industry organizations are generally more applicable to natural gas that is free of liquid. The current standard practices provide minimum guidance in dealing with entrained liquids. Most of the current research in this field relates to techniques for sampling rich gas sources that contain no liquid. A second problem involving liquids in natural gas is the definition of terms. For example the term free liquid is defined by some as liquid in the form of surface film, pool, or liquid stream. This definition treats liquid in the form of small droplets or aerosol as an included part of the gas phase. Yet others refer to gas containing entrained liquids in any form as wet gas. However, wet gas is interpreted by some as gas having a high water vapor content. Before these liquid related problems can be solved or discussed it will be necessary to adhere to specific definitions of the frequently used terms. The definition of terms used by the author in this presentation can be found in the Glossary.
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Document ID: 6D31145D

Overview Of A Scada Remote Terminal Installation
Author(s): James F. Titus
Abstract/Introduction:
The field portion of a SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) System consists of: RTU (remote terminal unit) Means of communication between RTU and master computer Power for the RTU Devices used to allow the RTU to monitor and control the field equipment The RTU processes the information from the field and sends it back to the master computer where it can be monitored, stored and displayed. The RTU also takes information from the master computer and outputs signals which control various types of field equipment.
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Document ID: 11929BA6

A Beginners Overview Of Advancements In Flow Measurement And Scada Technology
Author(s): Robert Findley
Abstract/Introduction:
The communications revolution has accelerated in recent years, so It is no wonder why advancements in measurement technology and SCADA systems have become standard conversation in the gas industry. Accurate, readily available gas flow data and control capabilities are critical to many gas production, transportation and storage sites. Data in the gas industry relates to profit and accountability to customers. The complexity of a remote flow computer, transmitter or process controller linked to the usability and data handling of a SCADA environment makes instantaneous information and historical retrieval a reality.
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Document ID: D780D699

Measurement And Associated Instrumentation
Author(s): Diane L. Gladstone
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate measurement of natural gas is an important part of the management of energy. In the past, measurement information was needed at month end for closing of the books now daily and even hourly data, for system balancing, is needed. There are many methods available to accurately determine gas quantity and quality. Some of the most common are orifice, turbine, and positive displacement measurement. Ultrasonic flow metering is becoming an accepted form of custody transfer measurement since the recent approval of AGA Report No. 9. With the industry wanting more information faster, companies are migrating towards electronic measurement. The primary devices are not expected to change but the secondary devices sure will. Smart is available in transmitters, SCADA. and other secondary instrument, giving incredible options to the customer. However, to discuss each part of the systems from field metering to gas accounting would be lengthy. Our objective is a better understanding of the major components necessary for the measurement of natural gas.
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Document ID: 52C5CFC5

Odorizatioin-Instruments For Field Monitoring
Author(s): G. S. Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the inception of the Pipeline Safety Act, and more specifically section 192.625, Odorization of Natural Gas, our industry has gone to great lengths in an effort to comply. However, unlike certain aspects of the regulations which contain specific minimum surveillance requirements, the requirements for odorization are subject to interpretation. This paper will address our need to implement a comprehensive odorant level monitoring program. We will discuss the instrumentation available to us today and the proper application of this equipment to achieve a maximum level of compliance.
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Document ID: 9D02172E

Air Spills
Author(s): James R. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The focus of this paper and study is to present and highlight various methods of controlling odor release, at odorant injection and storage facilities during operation and maintenance, as well as decommissioning projects. Natural gas odorants are specifically designed for intense odor and volatility. While this functions very well for the designed application, it presents major problems for field operations. A small amount of uncontrolled odorant can quickly become a large nuisance. Odorant, even when the liquid itself is contained still spills, spills into the atmosphere. A slight breeze can carry the odor for a considerable distance. Containing and eliminating odor release is a large part of any system operation plan.
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Document ID: B1ECAA3F

Rotary Meter Temperature Compensation
Author(s): David J. Firth
Abstract/Introduction:
As a child, I visited my Grandmother in Philadelphia. She had a big glass tea kettle. When it was time for tea, she put the kettle on the gas stove I used to watch the water start to bubble. Once it boiled, the water vapor screamed as it flowed out the whistle in the lid. You might have a tea kettle like Grandmas in your kitchen and you might have never given it much thought. However, this simple little bit of household science demonstrates how fluids (liquids or gases) react to changes in temperature. Hold this thought. Well return to it in a little while. Imagine a lump of gas. Form it into a cube one foot on each side if you wish - the mythical cubic foot. If the lump of gas occupies one cubic foot of space at whatever temperature it is right now, the lump of gas will grow in size if you heat it. Imagine that you heat this lump of gas enough to make it expand to 1.5 cubic feet. How much gas do you have now? This is a thck question. You have no more gas than you started with. You have the same number of natural gas molecules - the same amount of chemical energy. Your lump of gas simply takes up more space than it did originally. Just like the water vapor expanding and escaping from Grandmas tea kettle, the natural gas in a gas distribution system will expand to occupy more physical space when heated.
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Document ID: 821B9107

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Bob Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator is a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. Our consideration today will be with the gas regulator, specifically the pilot controlled regulator, in matching the supply of gas moving through it with the demand downstream. Regulators operate on the following equation SUPPLY DEMAND. The regulator solves this equation by maintaining the outlet pressure at the set point. Too much supply causes an increase in downstream pressure while too little supply results in a decrease in downstream pressure. Graphically, the ideal regulator would operate as follows:
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Document ID: C665D376

Introduction To Natural Gas Properties
Author(s): John H. Batchelder
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas is misunderstood by many. It is believed by some that all gas is a liquid that is pumped into automobiles or into tanks and is used as a fuel. It is thought of as a dangerous material that will blow up easily. Others do not differentiate between LP gas, natural gas, or gasoline - They are all the same thing, right? While it is true that the above mentioned materials are all made up of the same basic components, each has its own physical and chemical characteristics.
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Document ID: C1363CF0

Statistical Analysis Of Chart Integration To Reduce Errors In Management
Author(s): Greg Hicks
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement is essential in todays natural gas industry. Significant chances to instrumentation in the measurement of natural gas has undoubtedly improved the accuracy of the measuring device. Technological advances to computer systems and chart processing equipment have revolutionized the gas measurement industry. All of these innovations Improve accuracy of measurement to a certain degree, however, the element of errors in measurement is not and will not be eliminated. Measurement departments/companies must take responsibility of reducing these errors as much as possible with any means available. Chart integration data is a tool which can be used to decrease errors.
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Document ID: 49C3BC8F

Basic Electronics For Gas Measurement Personnel
Author(s): Steven P. Czaikowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Mention to your neighbor that you are employed by the natural gas industry, and he will probably conjure up a vision of pipelines, pumping stations, and large tangles of yard piping. It is doubtful that John Q. Public thinks of the natural gas industry as high tech. Employees of the natural gas industry are, however, increasingly exposed to technologies which use electronic devices. Some reasons for switching from traditional pneumatic methods to newer electronic devices are Readability Digitized infonnation Is easier to read than analog scales. Information Exchange Electronics offer the ability to transmit information easily both within and outside of the company. Economics Electronics are less expensive to mass produce than their pneumatic counterparts. Expandability Electronics make it easier to add new data or information points to an existing station.
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Document ID: FBB015CC

Electrical Installations And Intrinsic Safety In Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Winfried Faulring
Abstract/Introduction:
When installing electrical circuits in hazardous locations, some form of explosion protection must be used. In the United States and Canada the traditional method has been to install these systems in explosion proof enclosures and sealed conduit. Since this type of protection can be expensive to install and maintain, many users have turned toward intrinsic safety as the preferred explosion protection method. Intrinsic safety is an explosion prevention design technique applied to electrical equipment and wiring for hazardous locations (where a flammable or combustible material Is present). The technique is based upon limiting electncal and thermal energy to a level below that which Is required to ignite a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture.
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Document ID: C7B23D3E

What, Why And How - The Basics Of Underground Natural Gas Storage
Author(s): Timothy D. Maddox
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people have never heard of natural gas storage. Even those working in related areas of the gas industry may not have had the opportunity to become completely familiar with it. Storage has historically been a unique but little discussed discipline. With recent changes in Natural Gas Industry regulation, storage has become an important service for utilities to economically serve markets. It is being discussed more frequently, therefore, I have attempted herein to provide the basics, or the what, why and how of underground natural gas storage.
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Document ID: 2A34B7CD

Current Design Of Electronic Odorization Systems
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesnt have natural gas provided as an energy source. The methods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todays economic climate determines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered to be the fuel of the future.
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Document ID: A25646B4

Storage Well Corrosion
Author(s): Mary S. Friend
Abstract/Introduction:
Storage wells tend to be long lived, and are subject to a maximum pressure every year. Gas passes through the pipelines both into and out of the wells during the course of a year. Storage wells are a vertical extension of the pipeline. Many storage wells are old production wells that have been converted to storage. Due to the long life of storage wells as well as the gas passage, corrosion is an ever-present concern. Well completions, fluids, and gas chemistry can cause corrosion in storage wells. Corrosion in storage wells can cause leaks, resulting in the loss of storage gas, loss of deliverability, and possibly property damage. The corrosion problems require time, effort, and money to repair. A few simple procedures can monitor and reduce the corrosion problems, and add efficiency to the wells.
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Document ID: FC1211DE

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar. As an inferential meter, the gas turbine meter competes with the rotary and diaphragm positive displacement meters. Like these meters, the turbine meter is versatile and accurate over a wide range of flowing conditions. Unlike these meters the turbine meter provides less pressure drop for equivalent flow rates. It also provides a digital pulse output for input with flow computers and local readout devices.
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Document ID: F928F875

Odorization 101
Author(s): Paul Goettler
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization is a process and facet of the Natural Gas Industry that is very much misunderstood and is in far too many instances, taken for granted. In essence, odorization of natural gas is a relatively young science having its beginnings in the United States around the early 1900s. It has been regulated by the Federal Government (Department of Transportation) since 1968. Technological innovations have been introduced through the years in Injection Control, Data Acquisition, Quantitative Analysis Instrumentation and even the Odorants themselves. Ironically, one factor has remained the same and that is the methodology used to comply with the regulation (CFR 192-625) the odor level Sniff Test. Critics today claim that the use of odorometers does not offer a valid test and are very subjective in nature. Some comments center on the age of the technology and the need for a state of the art replacement.
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Document ID: F0016F0A

Sonic Nozzle Proving
Author(s): Jim Albert
Abstract/Introduction:
This is all very evident when you prove manually using a bell. You operate the bell controls by hand you read the meter index and the bell scale by eye, the computation is basically dividing the scale reading by two cubic feet, and you write the results on a card. Since then much has changed in the details, but the fundamentals remain the same. The manual controls changed to electronic and then became computerized. Reading the index has gone from your eye to an electric eye to a magnetic sensor. Reading the true volume has gone from the bell scale to a chain encoder to timing flow through a sonic nozzle. Performing the computation has gone from the back of an envelope to a calculator to specialized electronics to a computer. And reporting the results has gone from scribbling on a card to automated printout to transmitting the results directly to a computer that may not even be in the same building.
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Document ID: 36BF1DCE

Y2K Impact On The Gas Industry
Author(s): Cindy Welch
Abstract/Introduction:
THE SKY IS FALLING! THE SKY IS FALLING! This reflects some of the statements overheard when the subject of the Year 2000 is introduced. Calm down. Dont panic. The sky is not falling, there is no comet hurtling at the earth and the Year 2000 will not be the end of civilization as we know it. Progressing into the 21st century is a manageable opportunity. Yes, an opportunity. In the words of a great philosopher, luck is the wisdom to recognize opportunity and the preparedness to act upon it. Here is the opportunity now, all you need is the preparedness. Preparedness requires a Y2K Project Team that is unforgiving in its quest for information. This information must be organized and managed precisely. There will be some stumbling blocks, but what project doesnt have obstacles? The greatest task for any Y2K Project Team is to identify the critical components and minimize the risk they may pose to personal safety or to staying in business.
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Document ID: 591E70D9

Electronic Instruments
Author(s): John Coner
Abstract/Introduction:
The installation of an electronic instrument is not difficult. However, it is difficult to determine the type of electronic instrument to be used and how the electronic instrument is configured to ensure proper measurement. The following variables should be considered in determining what electronic instrument should be used and configuration procedure for proper measurement to be achieved. Determine if a pressure or a pressure and temperature instrument should be used. Meters that are temperature compensated by use of a T.C. tangent use a pressure compensated instrument. Meters not temperature compensated require a pressure and temperature instrument and a thermowell downstream of the meter to install a temperature probe to measure the gas accurately. Instruments must be powered up for configuration and several power supply options are available.
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Document ID: EA3B3144

Moisture And Corrosion Protection For Sensitive Electronic Equipment In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Keith A. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation addresses problems associated with moisture and corrosion caused by high relative humidity and airborne contaminants. By controlling moisture and corrosion long-term, many problems associated with sensitive field electronics can be avoided. Todays world relies heavily on electronics in everyday life. Industry is no different, in that it also relies very heavily on sensitive electronic equipment to perform both complicated and routine tasks very quickly and efficiently. Couple this reliance on electronics with the fact that there are fewer people to do more work and this increases the demand for the electronic equipment to be reliable, i.e. have few failures in the field.
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Document ID: AE47DE6E

Environmental Risk Assessment Options For Pipelines
Author(s): Holly Hudson
Abstract/Introduction:
Risk-based decision making is a tool to evaluate and rank corrective action options. This ranking is based on an evaluation of the contamination at a site and its potential effect to human health and the environment. This evaluation must critically and justifiably prove that all risk reduction actions have been identified and addressed. Over the past few years we have seen a change in direction of the regulators and regulations to allow for a riskbased approach in evaluating environmental cleanup options. Thus, it is in our best interest as an industry, and as an environmentally conscientious steward, to carefully evaluate our new options and act accordingly.
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Document ID: 594CFB8D

Troubleshooting Large Capacity Diaphragm Meters In The Field
Author(s): Dave Shepler
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of you who have, or will have, experience in troubleshooting diaphragm meters, know it can be very frustrating at times trying to figure out the problems that can be encountered in the field. This presentation will hopefully address most of those problems and provide some solutions.
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Document ID: F707D3C3

Complete Energy Metering System Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Charles W. Derr, Charles F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas volume and energy metering stations using gas chromatography and ultrasonic metering are beconimg a mainstream field operation and a new challenge to metering personnel. They are easy to adapt to while adding a new dimension of value to the field professional. Technicians will invariably be the link to the success of any changing technology that would survive and thrive in the real pipeline environment. Meter stations must be maintainable and provable. The system and requirements will be examined from that perspective.
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Document ID: E770D2CE

Introduction To Radio-Based Amr
Author(s): Janet Penz
Abstract/Introduction:
If Automatic Meter Reading, or AMR, is relatively new to you and the acronyms and buzzwords associated with it are leaving you in the dust then read on as we venture down the road of radio frequency AMR. There are many systems on the market, but all share the need for a meter module, that interfaces with the meter being read, and a reading device to capture the meter read.
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Document ID: 86FE6919

Rotary Meter Performance Characteristics
Author(s): Kevin C. Beaver
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper highlights several rotary meter performance characteristics. These characteristics profile a rotary meters capabilities in a wide array of applications from production to transmission, and distribution. Most of the characteristics have minimum standards adopted by agencies like AGA or ASTM. Ill identify these standards, and incorporate them-where applicable-into my paper. In discussing these characteristics, I hope to give the reader a better understanding of the capabilities of rotary meters, and how the gas industry assesses these characteristics. Heres the performance characteristics Ill discuss: Rangeability Start Rate Stop Rate Starting & Running Differential Accuracy
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Document ID: 58D181BB

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Ron L. Strong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them.
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Document ID: AD246203

Utilization Of The Below Grade Ball Valve Regulator For Large Volume Regulator Stations Requiring Reduced Noise Levels
Author(s): Michael P. Hogan
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, there has been growing concern within the natural gas industry regarding the effect natural gas regulating stations have on their surrounding environments. In an effort to cut down on excessive noise and pollution, many gas distribution and transmission companies have begun utilizing equipment which reduces the impact on the surrounding environment. The below grade ball valve regulator is a prime example of this environment- friendly equipment. Because of its high capacity, control capabilities, rangeability, and dependability, the below grade ball valve regulator has become the preferred method for controlling gas flow through natural gas regulating stations. It remains the phmary choice for high volume regulations throughout the gas industry. Its long term reliability warrants further consideration for the direct burial of the ball valve regulator as a method of, not only maintaining superior flow characteristics, but also of greatly reducing any noise created in the station facilities.
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Document ID: 5E66754B

Portable Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
The production and custody transfer of natural gas requires accurate measurement of the composition of the gas. Contractual requirements usually define the desired composition, heating value, relative density, and moisture content of the gas being sold. The sale of natural gas is performed on the basis of the heating value per unit volume (kJ/m or Btu/Scf) of the gas. For these reasons, the industry has used instruments to monitor the characteristics of the gas at the point of sale. The following instruments are commonly found In the field and in the laboratory.
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Document ID: 7BE4CA26

Production Optimization
Author(s): Michael J. Zentz
Abstract/Introduction:
All companies in the oil and gas business are interested in optimizing their oil and gas production in order to provide the highest rates of return to their shareholders. Some companies have checks and balances in place to ensure that their production is optimized. Other companies do not have a formal system in place, but do spend countless hours trying to maximize their oil and gas production while keeping operating costs as low as possible. The purpose of this paper is to share some methods utilized by the author in operating oil and gas wells located in the Appalachian Basin.
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Document ID: 11586F64

Introduction To Edi And Gas Measurement Usage
Author(s): Kevin R. Stanley
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Data Interchange or EDI, sounds like a complex concept, but in reality it is simply a documented standard method of exchanging common business documents in electronic form. Two companies, known as trading partners, trade data in an agreed upon standard format. One company extracts proprietary information, transforms it into the standard format, and sends it to the other party who then transforms the standard formatted information into its own proprietary format for incorporation into its computer systems. Still sound confusing. Lets look at the underlying standard of EDI. The ANSI X12 standard.
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Document ID: 64AED492

Orifice Meter Micing Procedures
Author(s): Eric G. Fritz
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary element Is the low tech part of gas measurement and perhaps the most overlooked. The orifice plate and the meter tube are the two parts of the primary element. They both must be installed properly and their critical dimensions must be lnown to insure accurate measurement within limited uncertainties. With the issuance of the third edition of the Standard for Natural Gas Fluids Measurement, API 14.3, the orifice plate bore diameter, dr, and the meter tube internal diameter, Dp are to be stated in terms of their dimension at a reference temperature, T. The new flow equations, which were also put in place with this standard, use the reference diameters to calculate a plate bore diameter (d) and a meter tube internal diameter (D) at flowing conditions. Any error in d or D will setup a biased error in the gas measurement done through the tube and/or plate regardless of how well calibrated or how elaborate the secondary measurement equipment is. Orifice plate micing procedures are discussed here, but the principles apply to meter tube micing as wel
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Document ID: 9A949906

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, w/hich use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices.
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Document ID: 56E1AB9C

From Meter Pen To Volume Statement
Author(s): Steve Sly
Abstract/Introduction:
Demonstration of the chart processing cycle beginning at the chart change and working step by step through the process and concluding with a volume report. For decades, the gas meter chart has been the document used to transact billions of dollars in commerce each year. Even in this age of electronics and computers, the paper chart is an important piece of paper to everyone directly and indirectly involved in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: D3301AEC

The Economics Of Domestic Meter Repair And Temperature Compensation
Author(s): Dave Monte
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past few years deregulation In the gas industry has caused most utilities to reevaluate their companys organizational structure and operating practices. The trend is toward cost reduction, increased outsourcing, revenue assurance and less frequent rate cases. The economics of domestic meter repair are unique in that they offer both cost savings through selective repair and increased revenues through improved measurement accuracy.
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Document ID: C1905E67

Chart Problems: Causes & Solutions
Author(s): Dane Carder
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to advances in technology and the need for more accurate measurement, office personnel must become more knowledgeable and efficient than ever. This cannot be accomplished, however, if office personnel have never been exposed to the whys and hows of field operations. The main thrust of this class will be for this familiarization of different types of chart problems along with their current interpretation.
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Document ID: 57B07648

Electronic Communication In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tushar Shah
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper introduces common interfaces used in gas measurement for electronic data communication. In recent years, the electronic data communication in gas measurement has become a necessity and a reality. In todays competitive environment, It is very important to communicate gas measurement data timely, accurately and reliably. The information may be used for marketer, operations/engineering, safety, or billing. As the gas Industry moves gas from well head to the burner tip, several kind of electronic devices are used along the way for the gas measurement and control.
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Document ID: 392B8F85

Accounting For Appalachian Pool
Author(s): Dennis Bond
Abstract/Introduction:
CNG Transmission is an interstate gas transmission company. In the Appalachian region, marketers (pool operators) buy natural gas from various producer wells. Marketers can aggregate volumes on the CNG Transmission pipeline system within Appalachian pools. These are paper pools used to properly account for the gas behind thousands of receipt meters. By operating an Appalachian pool on the CNG Transmission system, producers and marketers have more flexibility in delivering Appalachian gas to customers behind various Local Distribution Companies. The pool allows the operator to have multiple Appalachian meters or receipt points on one single pooling agreement for each of CNG Transmissions four specific and one miscellaneous aggregation points with the ability to deliver that gas to many different transportation contracts on CNGT.
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Document ID: 22D7DDF2

Self-Operated Regulators Selection, Installation, And Operation
Author(s): Joe Mullner
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: CE5413CC

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Richard J. Golomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Grove Valve & Regulator designed and manufactured the first expandable tube type, Flexible Element regulator during the 1940s. The original regulator was of the end entry design and was used by the United States Navy during World War II. In the late 1940s and early 1950s the natural gas pipeline industry started using the Flexible Element Regulator. The Flexible Element Regulator soon became the most widely used regulator in the natural gas, and liquid pipeline industry.
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Document ID: C7949424

Diagnostic Indicators And Field Verification Of Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Author(s): Kevin L. Warner, Charles W. Derr
Abstract/Introduction:
New for the sake of new and old for the sake of familiarity may in either case promote the waste of resources. It has now been a number of years since deregulation and the move to open sales, transportation and hubs has resulted in fierce competition. Operational cost savings, where practical, are a necessary part of success and indeed, survival. Technician is an overly generalized and many times unappreciated title. Technicians are the field professionals that really make systems for control, compression, dehydration, odorization, and measurement a success or bad venture and highly influence a gas companys prosperity This document focuses on a highly proven before release new technology that offers great savings to gas companies and provides some new challenges to the field professional. Ultrasonic meters are easy to learn and they add some new dimension and value to the users measurement experience. Gas ultrasonic meters, (USMs), are here to stay.
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Document ID: 39E00954

Life Of An Appalachian Gas Well
Author(s): Timothy L. Altier
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas was once an unwanted byproduct of oil production. Since it is the gas that pushes oil and brine to the wellbore, the gas was flared, sometimes in great quantities in order to produce the oil. No effort was made to conserve the gas so, ironically, the field pressure would decline rapidly and most of the oil would be left in the reservoir Its first use as a fuel was in the immediate areas the surrounding oilfields and even then many times it was flared in the town square as a source of lighting and entertainment. No effective transportation system was in place to distribute the gas from the remote fields to metropolitan areas. It was not until after World War II that cross country pipelines were laid and large and reliable supplies of gas were available for residential, commercial and industrial consumers. The natural gas industry as we know it has developed in approximately 50 years. Im sure the wildcatters of the early 1900s would be amazed that today you could buy and sell 100 million BTU of gas from a computer screen In any given day!
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Document ID: 1A0AA173

Decommissioning Of Odorant Facilities And Disposal Of Odorant Materials Via Two Phase Thermal Oxidation
Author(s): Jan Strmen, Damian Rodriguez
Abstract/Introduction:
Issues of safety, liability and environment associated with handling, storage and disposal of odorant waste are becoming very important for operations of natural gas industry This paper is intended to provide information on technologies, equipment and procedures Involved in decommissioning of odorant facilities and thermal treatment of odorant wastes which meets most stringent requirements of Gas Industry. Capable of treating wastes such as soils, drums, debris, rags and equipment contaminated with odorant, system used by Material Resource Recovery Inc. has the ability to treat odorant tanks up to a length of 26 feet.
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Document ID: 8667C6DA

A Comprehensive Training Program For Field And Office Measurement Personnel
Author(s): A. S. Buddy Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper training of our employees is critical to the safety of our employees, the safety of the public, and the success of our companies. A typical measurement technician may be responsible for ensuhng the accuracy of meters that measure millions of dollars worth of gas each month. With the changes in technology that the industry is experiencing, training of both field and office personnel has become a new challenge.
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Document ID: B8366AEA

Leaks And Unaccounted For Gas Reducing The Level Of Leaks And Unaccounted For Gas Through Effective Communication And Analysis
Author(s): Rose Napier
Abstract/Introduction:
The difference between the supply of gas and the requirement for gas is known as unaccounted for gas (UFG). Nearly all companies will experience some level of UFG and will spend significant resources in attempting to control it. Understanding the causes of UFG and communicating them effectively between field and office personnel is essential to this process.
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Document ID: C13ED088

Fundamentals Of Instrumentation
Author(s): Matthew Pawloski
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Natural Gas Industry, the term Instrument has many different meanings. In the broadest sense of the word, an instrument is any device that allows us to determine the conditions inside a gas piping system. For our discussion, we will try to categorize instruments in four ways: Indicators, Recorders, Controllers and Integrators. Indicators can generally be described as devices that make it possible to see inside a pipeline or meter set. Simple examples might be a pressure gauge or thermometer. These might allow a technician to make adjustments to pressure regulation equipment or verify the accuracy of another instrument.
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Document ID: EE5F8056

Freeze Protection For Instrumentation Controls, Controllers, Control Valves, And Measurement Equipment
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas quality and its accurate determination will assist in the prevention of the problems associated with freezing and hydrates in gas service. Measurement is only accurate under ideal conditions. In order for this condition to occur, contaminants must be removed from the meter run and pipeline. One of the contaminants that must be addressed is liquid in the meter run. According to data from Southwest Research Institute, one inch of liquid in a meter run can cause measurement errors in excess of 5%. These liquids may be water or liquid hydrocarbons. These same liquids, coupled with flowing temperature, ambient temperature, or pressure, will cause ice or hydrates to form.
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Document ID: EF8D9CD2

Rotary Meter Temperature Compensation
Author(s): David J. Firth
Abstract/Introduction:
As a child, I visited my Grandmother in Philadelphia. She had a big glass tea kettle. When it was time for tea, she put the kettle on the gas stove I used to watch the water start to bubble. Once it boiled, the water vapor screamed as it flowed out the whistle in the lid. You might have a tea kettle like Grandmas in your kitchen and you might have never given it much thought. However, this simple little bit of household science demonstrates how fluids liquids or gases) react to changes in temperature. Hold this thought. Well return to it in a little while.
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Document ID: A9ED0D47

Rotary & Turbine Meter Installations At Cng
Author(s): John J. Vogel, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Consolidated Natural Gas Company (CNG) and its subsidiaries over the years have increasingly used the rotary and turbine meters for measurement of natural gas. From offshore platforms to distribution, transmission, storage, local production and measurement of internal gas usage, these meters have provided quality, reliable measurement over the years. Each type of meter has its ovyn advantages and disadvantages depending upon the type of installation and service required. There may be occasions vi/here either type of meter may be adequate for the application. It will then be up to the designer to rely on past experience and operational preferences to decide which type will be used.
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Document ID: 70F624C4

Automated Tracking Of Meter Information For Field, Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Deborah A. Dewitt
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas companies today must operate at a faster pace than ever before. With deregulation and increased competition, a company must be able to respond quickly to customer requests with quality answers and products at a minimal cost. To achieve this, an infrastructure allowing employees hands-on access to a variety of information must be in place - with information thats up-to-date and accurate. Systems must improve a workers productivity, make data widely available to onthe- job employees, be flexible to change, assure data validity and support a streamlined work flow process. They must fit into the everyday workplace of the employee and not be a burden or added task.
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Document ID: 50899156

Odorization Advances At Peco Energy
Author(s): John Rafferty, Joseph Carrot
Abstract/Introduction:
PECO Energy is a combination gas and electric utility providing natural gas service to over 415,000 customers in the suburban Philadelphia, PA area. PECO receives gas from Texas Eastern and Transcontinental Gas Pipelines at 18 gate station facilities. In addition, PECO provides peak shaving at their West Conshohocken LNG facility, and their Chester Propane/ Air facility. Odorization is performed by PECO Energy at each gate station, their Propane-Air plant, and their LNG facility. In 1993, PECO Energy embarked on a 5 year project to upgrade their odorization system. This paper outlines the advances made by PECO Energy during the upgrade project.
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Document ID: 7E2E817A

Fundamentals Of Pressure Reducing Regulators
Author(s): Tin T. Truong
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many applications in the gas Industry today that require the use of a pressure- reducing regulator. In the theater of natural gas operations, one can find these simple mechanical devices being used anywhere from a well head to the burner tip. This presentation will cover the basic elements of a pressure-reducing regulator and also explains the operating principles of the two most common types: self-operated and pilot-operated regulators
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Document ID: 9F687B02

Odorization System Design And Monitoring
Author(s): Joseph Glinowiecki
Abstract/Introduction:
In a 2300 square mile area of Central Maryland, BGE supplies electricity and other services to more than one million customers. Ten generating plants that Include two nuclear units are owned and operated by the company. The company has over 6200 megawatts of total generating capacity. Gas service is provided in an approximate 600 square mile area in Central Maryland to over 555,000 customers. Nine gate stations and two gas plants supply storage, distribution and commercial transmission through and around Baltimore. Our Energy Projects and Services, Inc. provide commercial and industrial customers a wide range of customized energy services. In the business line of power services, electrical system enhancements, mechanical engineering, lighting and installation, disthbution energy systems, and provide electric and gas distribution systems.
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Document ID: 5DBC06F4

Theory And Application Of The Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Howard E. Brumbaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography is a well-established method to obtain composition measurements in a gas or vaporized liquid/solid mixture. It physically separates, identifies, and quantifies mixture components in an injected sample. The laboratory gas chromatograph (GC), in use for many years, requires an operator to take a proper sample, fill a syringe, and inject the sample into the GC analyzer. It can perform many different types of analysis on a wide range of products. A lab technician can change out detectors, columns, and other parts to make the lab GC fit the specific application. Lab applications usually change more frequently than process applications.
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Document ID: 211D7418

Proper Operation Of Gas Detection Instruments
Author(s): G. S. Lomax
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the operation, maintenance and calibration for a number of instruments available today for the detection of combustible and toxic gases. The applications for these various instruments vill also be discussed. This will include the investigation of odor complaints on a customers property, leakage survey applications, and other safety requirements.
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Document ID: 15731CFA

Methods And Benefits For Automation Of District Regulators
Author(s): Stephanie Law
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas distribution companies are responsible for operating their system within a safe pressure range. Regulator setpoints are normally fixed for anywhere between 3 and 12 months at a time. In areas where there are extreme seasonal temperature variations, regulator setpoints are often adjusted more frequently to correspond to the changes in demand. These setpoints are determined by evaluating the system demand during peak load. The regulator must be set high enough to maintain system pressure during cold weather periods and peak time of day. Figure 1 shows a typical gas distribution network or grid. Multiple district regulators (DR) are supplying gas to end users signified by circles. The diamonds represent the systems low pressure point (LPP), extremity point, or sometimes called an end point. This point Is where the pressure is always the lowest due to location or piping restrictions.
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Document ID: 1D6F1AF4

The Elusive Cubic Foot II
Author(s): Clem W. Lecure
Abstract/Introduction:
There is an axiom in measurement that says with one meter you have measurement accuracy, witin two meters you have an argument. This is probably never more true than when measuring a cubic foot of gas, since one does not physically see the cubic foot of gas which is being measured. For this reason many of the causes of measurement variations go unnoticed, and therefore, uncorrected.
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Document ID: 16E9BEF4

Ground Free Surge Protection
Author(s): Greg Thomas Shumate
Abstract/Introduction:
The word Ground is so often used in the context of surge protection that it is difficult to Imagine a surge protection device that does not require earth ground. Well, there are some applications where secondary-type surge protection devices do not require earth grounding. Eagle Research Corp. has developed a secondary surge protection system that has saved Mountaineer Gas and a number of other remote-mounted instrument users thousands of dollars in the last couple of years. This system is especially attractive for use with instruments mounted on cathodicaliy protected piping and systems. Grounding cathodicaliy protected equipment shorts out the protection and results in angry phone calls from the corrosion group.
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Document ID: A2825ECD

Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeters For Check And Custody Transfer
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters are increasingly gaining acceptance for measuring gas flow in custody/noncustody applications. Among the advantages are: Wide measuring range, 200:1 size dependent) High accuracy High repeatability Negligible zero offset Negligible pressure drop Generally unaffected by dust and liquid deposits Insensitive to fluctuations of the gas composition, pressure and temperature Low maintenance
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Document ID: E20E03CE


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