Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1999)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1999 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design Class 113
Author(s): Maureen E. Kolkmeier
Abstract/Introduction:
For the purpose of this paper, a basic high pressure station incorporating both regulation and measurement will be outlined. The principles discussed here will handle any inlet pressure over 60 psig. There are three considerations when designing a high pressure regulation and measurement station. The first consideration is purpose. The design should mnform to industry accepted standards for regulation and measurement application, sizing and accuracy. The second consideration is safety. Minimum safety standards are established by Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192 (CFR 192). Moreover, the third consideration is simplification of material. Simplification of material usually leads to a cost effective station, which is easy to operate and maintain. While coving the basic components of a station, ancillary instrumentation and data communication will be introduced. By considering purpose, safety and simplicity all together, designers provide reliable, safe, and economical regulation and measurement of gas.
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Document ID: 84FD5D61

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide C02 has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience had been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: 16D9640F

Characterization Of Heavy Components Class 21
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
Extended analysis by chromatography is required when Gas Processor Association (G.P.A.) Methods 2261 and 2177 fail to produce data of individual hydrocarbon compounds. G.P.A. Method 2261 (Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography) individually identifies 3 inerts and hydrocarbon compounds methane through normal pentane. G.P.A. Method 2177 (Analysis of Demathanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography) identities the same compounds with some variation in methodology. G.P.A. Methods 2186 and 2286 are to be used when hydrocarbon compounds heavier than normal pentane are to be identified. As a definition for this class, the term, heavy components, will include all hydrocarbon compounds requiring extended analysis for identification. Characterization of heavy hydrocarbons will be discussed in the following topics:
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Document ID: 211B7F76

Compressed Natural Gas Cng() Measurement Class 232
Author(s): J. Christopher Buckingham, Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1990s, the natural gas vehicle (NGV) market in the United,:States has experienced a growth period due, in part, to Federal Government mandates requiring staged fleet conversion to alternative fuels. Continued growth of the NGV market will be highly dependent on the availability of reasonably priced vehicles and on the development of the necessary NGV fueling infrastructure. Development programs in the late 1990s are working on ways to produce more efficient and more economical natural-gaspowered vehicles. Efforts are also underway to design more efficient and less costly compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations.
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Document ID: E82830F7

Troubleshootingliquidpipelinelossesand Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Goodmeasurem ent can be assured by continuous monitoring to determine if systems, equipment and procedures are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts.
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Document ID: B7AED32E

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Measurement Class 220
Author(s): Andr H. Boer
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of flow in pipelines is one of the most discussed measured variables in the process industry. Various flow measurement techniques are in use today, each with its own advantages, operating conditions and limitations. In order to select fit-for-purpose instrumentation an understanding of the various techniques is important. This paper discusses the basics of (multibeam) transit time ultrasonic flowmeters and new developments in this area
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Document ID: C5B73E6E

Compressibility Of Natural Gas Class Number 129
Author(s): Juan F. Luongo
Abstract/Introduction:
deviation of a real gas fro-m ideal behavior . The compressibility factor depends on the conditions of temperature (T), pressure (P) and composition (x) of the gas. Because real (as opposed to ideal) gas is measured, the correct representation of the compressibility factor is essential for accurate measurements. The following paper examines what is the compressibility factor, what is the correct way to calculate the compressibility factor and the effect of the compressibility factor in natural gas flo
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Document ID: 2DEA0574

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement Class 287
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The requirement to have a continuous measurement of viscosity is being driven by the industrys desire to automate pipeline custody transfer metering and proving, the quest to initiate energy optimization programs and the need to minimize safety and environmental hazards related to obtaining and handling samples. Although laboratory techniques for viscosity measurement have existed for many years, the availability of rugged, on-line instrumentation for field measurement is recent.
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Document ID: 9465951E

Advanced Application Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement techniques are finally reaping the benefits of the computer and communication technology era. Advances in microprocessors and memory have come from the personal computer industry. New communication alternatives are largely due to the cellular and wireless companies. These new tools along with fresh measurement standards are making flow data systems more powerful, more preditilve, more reliable, and less costly to the end us
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Document ID: C81624F7

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control Class 192
Author(s): Karl Stabert
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic flow computers have become the standard for real-time fluid measurement. Their function is to monitor, measure, control, record, and transmit the flow of fluids from one point to another. The application of electronic flow computers impacts many different groups of people in a company. The groups that will be affected 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) include:
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Document ID: D7E3242B

Applications Of Portable Computers And Software
Author(s): Warren T. Coffman
Abstract/Introduction:
This session evolution of Warren T. Coffman WPI Husky Computers Clearwater, will address the portable computing hardware and software application and todays technology. Information gained from this session will aid in the understanding of the wide variety of field computing technologies that are currently available and in how to specify a hardware platform that is best suited to a particular application environment.
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Document ID: 187E7E98

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Svstems Class 19
Author(s): Fred Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will focus on basic RTU communications principles as it applies to Oil and Gas Production operations, Transmission and Distribution systems, and explain data communications fimdamentals.
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Document ID: 1465887A

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): Greg Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper hopefully affords readers a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those that have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 485FDDAE

Basic Scada Systems
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Founded as the Bristols Manufacturing Company in 1889, Bristol Babcock has served the oil & gas industry for over 100 years. From the original pressure and temperature recorders to todays digital control and multivariable transmitter products, Bristol Babcock has earned a reputation as a pioneer in instrumentation products and systems
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Document ID: D8C7085D

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data Class 135
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
FTziiiJ As the world has evolved to the information age, the natural gas industry has experienced a sense of urgency in the accuracy and timeliness of delivery of gas measurement data. From wellheads and pipeline interconnects, to city gate stations and industrial gas users, the data must be delivered promptly and accurately. Since most natural gas company organizations have several functional groups that are dependent on the gas measurement data, systems must be in place that acquire the data and transport it back to a central computer to be verified, edited, and made available to all groups that need it.
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Document ID: 78F39860

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer Class 119
Author(s): Kenneth P. Cessac
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flow computer has been around since the 1960s and is a microprocessor based device used to perform flow calculations at the measurement site and store the data in memory for later retrieval. The 1980s brought about inexpensive more reliable electronic equipment, which made the flow computer more affordable. Even with the price coming down the real need for electronic measurement was brought about by the deregulation of the gas industry and Order 636, open access of the transmission pipelines. Todays flow computers are widely used throughout the gas industry and are rapidly becoming the standard for real-time measurement.
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Document ID: 2B16D5B8

Real Time Electronic Gas Measurement Class Number 171
Author(s): Joel O. Hodges
Abstract/Introduction:
implementation of real-time measurement of natural gas is applied differently according to the industrial needs of the companies controlling and monitoring the movement of product from the well head to the end-user. Contractual requirements, billing, monitoring line pressure, storage, timely gas control, and delivery of product affect daily/hourly operations of the gathering, transmission, gas control, and distribution companies. The efficiency of movement of product depends on the integrity of timely and accurate measurement that todays flow computer/RTU systems provide.
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Document ID: B7ACB722

Remotecollectionani) Transmissionof Domesticmeterreadings
Author(s): Dean Lightfoot
Abstract/Introduction:
Leaders in the utility industry describe todays marketplace in a variety of ways. The following quotes from leaders in the utility industry provide some insight to the market.
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Document ID: 8E6F9335

Successful Implementation Of A Scada System Class Number 272
Author(s): Larry A. Quick
Abstract/Introduction:
What is SCADA? How does SCADA work? And how does one implement a SCADA system? These and other questions plague many companies today. SCADA is an acronym for upervisory ontrol d Qata Acquisition. It is a system used to monitor and control measurement and regulation processes. A typical SCADA system can be broken into six basic mmponents:
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Document ID: B290F7B9

Temperature And Pressure Transducers
Author(s): Charles W. Doran
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure and Terminology Primary pressure elements and pressure transmitters can be used to measure various forms of pressure. They can be used to measure gauge pressure (psig), absolute pressure (psia) or differential pressure (inH20, psid). These terms are often misunderstood and a good working knowledge of their meaning is essential to
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Document ID: 44B1FD45

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices Class 175
Author(s): Patrick S, Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: 6B8A4DD2

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Williamr. Youngjr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Ameterprweris usedtoealibrate eustodytmnsfermetem toestablishameter fiwtor. The volumethat passesthroughthe meter is comparedto the provervolmneduriugthe timetakenfwa sphereorpistontopaasbetween twu deteetorswitches. The provervolmnemust be aeeurateIydetmminedby a calibration procedureknownas the WaterDrawmethod.
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Document ID: 77A83CBD

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Alan L. Mccartney, Kenneth D. Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
There are various types of meter proving systems used in the petroleum industry. These range from fixed to mobile systems of varying sizes from conventional pipe provers and compact ballistic provers to master-meter proving. Master-meter proving systems use a reference turbine meter in lieu of a calibrated prover pipe volume. These systems are described in detail in API MPMS Chapter 4. To understand the role of flow computers within metering and proving systems it helps to understand basic theory and practices.
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Document ID: 72D44B70

Design, Calibration And Operation Of Field Standard Test Measures
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Atmospheric metal volumetric measures with a top neck and graduated scale, traceable to a recognized national calibration agency such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), are known as fie/d stindards. They are used for the purpose of calibrating liquid meter provers. NIST generally refers to hand held measures ( 10 gallons) which are drained overhead as fast measwws, and to stationary measures ( 10 gallons ands 1500 gallons) which are drained by a bottom drain valve as provers. Since field standards are used in the waterdraw calibration of liquid meter provers (volumetric tank and displacement types), the American Petroleum Institute (API) has adopted the convention of referring to both types of standards as field stindard test meesums. For brevity, field standard test measures will be referred to as fie/d standards or measures in this paper. Norma/ sensitivity measures are those typically used for provers larger than 15 gallons displaced volume. High sensitivity measures are those typically used for provers smaller than or equal to 15 gallons. All field standard test measures must be handled, transported and stored with care to prevent jeopardizing the integrity of their calibrations.
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Document ID: 426B8E81

Des@ Opemtkmand Problems Associated With Prover Detectorswitches ClassNO.292
Author(s): Williamr Youngjr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Ameterprover isusedto cdibmtemetemto establishameterfactor. Thevohnnethatpasses thmughthemeteris compmedtoaknown volumebetweendetedor switchthat is dispked eitherbyasphere orapistonfio mthetimethat the first detectorawitchisacdvatd until the seconddetectorswitchis advated. Thisvolume betweenthe detedor switchesis detmnkdbya calibrationprocedm knownas the Water Drawmethod. Thedetectorawitches areavery importantpat of establishinga meter&c@
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Document ID: 7DB58E7B

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide& Total Sulfur In Natural Gas Class 157
Author(s): Rodney W. Spitler
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, is a colorless and flammable gas at room temperature. H2S has the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. H@ is nearly as toxic as hydrogen cyanide, HCN, and should be handled with extreme caution. Exposure to HZS concentrations on the order of 20 - 50 ppm causes eye irritation. Concentrations slightly higher than 20 -50 ppm will cause upper respiratory tract irritation. Symptoms of HZS exposure include headache, dizziness, excitement, staggering, and gastroenteric disorders. H2S concentrations above 600 ppm can be fatal within 30 minutes through respiratory paralysis. A particular danger when handling HZS is that continuous exposure may lead to olfactory fatigue. If this condition occurs then the user will be unable to smell the characteristic foul odor of H2S. 12)
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Document ID: 8FBA28E9

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Roger Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most dil%cult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the emnomic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 150404F8

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Prover Class Number 240
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters or provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced while proving meters with different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: F5EDDE2C

Lact Unit Proving - The Role Of The WiTNE88 Class 221
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
Anycustody transferinvoives* ormore parties,each of Mlch has a vested interest in the quaiity and quantity determinations used to transfer ownership of a iiquid hydrocarbon. in theory, there is aivvays a buyer and seiier in any custody transfer. Contractual agreements determine who is responsible for actuaiiy performing the measurements invoived in the transfer of custody but ail parties must share accountability. Therefore, aii parties involved in a custody transfer wiii, at onetime or another, assume the important roie of the witness.
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Document ID: 542EFA79

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional() Class Number 252
Author(s): Brendan S. Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Fiow meters need to be calibrated for accurate measurement! To understand this statement simply consider the equipment used and applications where accurate metering is demanded.
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Document ID: C64C26A4

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques Class 236
Author(s): C. Dan Tarpley
Abstract/Introduction:
To filly appreciate the importamx of proper meter proving techniques, you must understand the impact that proving has on the bottom line of your company. Metering systems are the Cash Registers of your operation. Inaccuracies introduced through incorrect meter proving tkctors can cost you short term, by giving a customer credit for pumping volumes not actually received into your system. Or long term, by not giving the customer creditfor all the volumesreceivedinto your systemand thus losingthat customer. At the end of each accountingperiod it is preferableto conclude with a ZERObalanceon the productsmeasured into and out of your system. If not zero,then you must fill betweenan ameptablerange of parametersto ensurethiiess to the customerand continuedprofitabilityfor yourselves. That puts the burden fw accuracy square on the shoulders of those who maintain and calibrate the measurement equipment.
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Document ID: 60140B8B

Proving And Repairing Of Domestic Meters CLASS107
Author(s): Thomas L. Eaton
Abstract/Introduction:
For the next fifty minutes the discussion will be on proving and the repair of domestic meters as done at the Measurement Service Center in Shawnee, Ok. The history of the facility and its evolution to todays operation is a key factor in meter repair quality. The qualifications are projected by the successful repair facility. Meter repair is a supped function of Oklahoma Natural Gas Company that now serves approximately 1.5 million customers in Kansas and Oklahoma. The quality of repair and delivery of the meters is essential. Cost of repair is also a major consideration and continuously evaluated.
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Document ID: 4FCF559D

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters Class 261
Author(s): Mark K. Vandiver
Abstract/Introduction:
meter proving is a physical test used to determine the accuracy and performance of a liquid meter. The test is performed by placing a liquid meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known or base volume, in such a way that all the liquid measured by the meter is also measured by the prover. The liquid measured by the meter is compared to the known prover volume, This ratio is the meter factor:
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Document ID: 5EF75D5C

Theoryand Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems Class 204
Author(s): Brad D. Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
PULSE INTERPOLATION Pulse interpolation, by definition, is the ability to estimate values of (a function) between two known values. Therefore, pulse interpolation enables pulse counts to be made to a fmction of a puLse, thus greatly reducing the rounding - off errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number which always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation
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Document ID: 7E78B8AB

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted, These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of woing tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of new requirements to-ensure the instruments and equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions o
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Document ID: 85A50D9A

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem with the advent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural gas and other petroleum products that witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing would become an obsolete practice in the petroleum industry. This however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and arrangements between companies regarding electronic custody transfer, witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will continue to be an integral part of the petroleum industrys future. Even as technology moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measuring device. The meter tube and orifice plate will continue to be the primary measuring device. Due to these circumstances witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing will also continue to be important even though some emphasis will be shifted to witnessing field-testing of electronic equipment. The information in this paper is not meant to be an absolute but, to be used as a guide in witnessing and field testing orifice meters. There are many variables in testing that, due to the length of this paper will not be discussed.
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Document ID: 676AA5FF

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph Ciass 271
Author(s): Charlie Cook, Karl Stappert
Abstract/Introduction:
The data measured by the on-line gas chromatography is used not oniy to furnish the heating vaiue (BTU / Cu. Ft.), but also to correct the measured gas volumes by providing fuil compositional data as well as the gas relative density.
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Document ID: D86C5912

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph Class 178
Author(s): Steven G. Lakey
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatography is one of the most widely used means of performing chemical analyses in the world. Gas chromatography has become the preferred method of determining the BTU value of natural gas. The analysis also supplies composition data necessary for gas rate and volume per AGA3, AGA7, and AGA8. (Refs. 1,2,3)
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Document ID: 20589298

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids Class 209
Author(s): Rick Baggett
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatographic analysis has become an integral part of the measurement process. Two methods of analysis most commonly employed in the gas industry today are GPA Standard 2177, Analvsis of Demethanized Hydrocarbon Liauid Mixtures Containing Nitroen and Carbon Dioxide bv Gas Chromatomahv, and GPA Standard 2186, Tentative Method for the Extended Analvsis of Hydrocarbon Liauid Mixtures Containimz Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide bv Temerature Promunmed Gas Chromatomauhv. This paper will provide an overview of GPA Standard 2177 and GPA Standard 2186.
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Document ID: 3B8AC577

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint Class 136
Author(s): Robert L, Bob Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
To select, install and maintain a gas chromatography system can be a daunting task. Expected product composition and analytical components of interest must be identified. The best method of sample introduction needs to be considered. From a vast assortment of column configurations, the most suitable combination must be selected. Choices have to be made between various types of detectors. The most effective integration, calculation and reporting systems are needed. After proper selection and installation, it is hoped that the system will perform well with minimum maintenance and troubleshooting.
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Document ID: 86F4E62D

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting Class 174
Author(s): Murray Fraser, Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chromatography (GCS) are among the most complex instrument systems in a meter station. Yet they require less maintenance than most instruments. Modern chromatography controllers are equipped with remote diagnostics and computer-based chromatogramsto aid users in deciding when and why maintenance is required. The information below is presented to aid the user in troubleshooting chromatography problems by viewing both diagnostic messages and chromatograms.
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Document ID: 8FA3483D

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer Class 245
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss automati sampling systems-how they obtain representative samples of shipments, and how to know when a sample is representative.
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Document ID: 85A10A9C

Determination Of Water Vapor& Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Gas ClassNumber111
Author(s): Panametrics,Inc.
Abstract/Introduction:
Moisture analysis is essential to the natural gas industry for a variety of reasons. This article will present a brief overview of problems associated with moisture in natural gas, asweil as different means of controlling the moisture content. Additionally, we will discuss some of the problems encountered with measuring moisture and some of the different technologies used to make the moisture measurement.
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Document ID: EED71E35

Devices For Water Vapor & Hydrocarbon Dew Point Measurement Class Number 159
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The water vapor dew point temperature (moisture content) and hydrocarbon dew point temperature are two of many parameters that must be monitored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value (BTU content), and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also many different instrument types available to measure the moisture content. In this paper, we will discuss the measurement methods and we present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: 756EACEF

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography Class Number 131
Author(s): R. Mark Haefele
Abstract/Introduction:
An increasing number of measurement stations are employing both an electronic flow computer (EFC) and a gas chromatography (GC) on site. This is the next logical step in a progressionof developments thathas taken thisindustryfrom the days of the oil bidness,when gas was flared so the oil could be produced, to todays energy marketing business.
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Document ID: 7455FB8A

Energy Measurement Using On-Line Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Charles F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
The data measured by the on-line gas chromatography is used not only to furnish the heathg value (BTU/ Cu. Ft) but also to correct the measured gas volumes by providing full compositional data as well as the gas relative density.
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Document ID: ABED8AB8

Energy Measurement Using Ultrasonic Flow Measurement And Chromatography The Technicians Perspective
Author(s): Charles W. Derr, Charles F. Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas volume and energy metering stations using gas chromatography and ultrasonic metering are becoming a mainstream field operation and a new challenge to metering personnel. They are easy to adapt to while adding a new dimension of value to the field professional. Technicians will invariably be the link to the success of any changing technology that would survive and thrive in the real pipeline environment. Meter stations must be maintainable and provable. The system and requirements will be examined from that perspective.
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Document ID: 00B7ECF1

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of the quality of natural gas requires a variety of instrumentation, only one of which is the gas chromatography, Contractual requirements frequently define the energy content, relative density, and moisture content of the gas being sold. The sale of natural gas is performed on the basis of the heating value per unit volume of the gas. For these reasons, the industry uses instruments to monitor the quality of the gas at the point of sale or at strategic locations along a pipeline. The following instruments are commonly found in the field and in the Iaboratoty:
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Document ID: 3159CE74

Gas Sampling Methods, And The Fundamental Causes Of Gas Sample Distortion - API 14.1 Research Class 282
Author(s): Kendricks A.
Abstract/Introduction:
The intrinsic value of natural gas (heating value), and the delivery rate (flow rate) both depend, in general, on the measured composition. Heating value is a composition-dependent gas property, and flow rate measured from orifice, turbine, ultrasonic, rotary, diaphragm, and other flow meters require composition-dependent gas properties like density, sound speed, isentropic exponent, viscosity, etc.
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Document ID: E4EDF78B

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of a laboratory to obtain s sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment To obtain this goa the foUowing procedures are recommended.
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Document ID: 82D97716

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas Class 262
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
How much energy am 1 getting for my buck? This questiin is raised time and time again. We ask it from our producers, and our customers ask it from us. As a result, we measure the energy received and delivered, make up receipts and statements, and all is well. NOT! Unfortunately, counting energy units is not simple but it is much more interesting than counting apples. Our industry hasnt even decided what units of measure to use. Is it Mcf, MMBtu, or MJ? Is it gross or net? Are the reference renditions at a dry or saturated basis?
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Document ID: 911A12A3

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Kenneth S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of light liquid hydrocarbons equates to revenue, and in many cases large amounts of revenue. The accounting process commonly requires LPG to be bought by volume. However, most custody transfer applications use the more accurate mass measurement system to determine the percentage of each hydrocarbon component within the pipeline. This is accomplished by metering the volume of product, and multiplying it by the product density at flowing pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: 34C84120

Naturalgassampunguncertainties Andeconomics Class284
Author(s): Davidwoffotd
Abstract/Introduction:
ThepmOisemeasuramanotfnatural gasisaw@Ot of continuingstudyanddiscussion. Theillpactof ale precise measurement of gas quality and compositionis often Considalad toonlyeffeotthethannalvalueof themeasumd quantityof gas. Thisidea,however,is farfmmaoourate. Thepeck mawmmentofnatural gasflowrates(quantity) is@endent upon thepreOise memwmant of the tion of the natumlgas pnxkictsham (quality). Thesemeasumts of quantitiesandthermalvaluesam consideredin tams of aooeptde fevelsof measurement uncertainty. In other weds, a level of vdanoa exists around the point of dxsolute aooumoywtkh is consideredaooaptdde tothosewho an9partyto thetransfer of theproduotflomthe cust of one to another. Thus, the term %ustodytransfet quaMymeasurementinpiies that the datenninedqantity and total anqy content of the pmduot exchanged between parties am within these levels of acoaptable varianoe, or uncertainty, fmm the absolute point of aoouraoy, or zero uncertainty.
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Document ID: 21C81DA2

Proving Tests For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems Class Number 231
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment, installation and operational procedures that produce a representative sample of shipments or batches. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system, including the analysis of the sample. This paper will deal with the testing, proving, and certification of automatic sampling systems in crude oil and other hydrocarbon service. This test, in various forms, is also applicable for petroleum products as well as blending systems.
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Document ID: 56B7C98B

Sampling And Conditioning Of Natural Gas Containing Entrained Liquids Class 303
Author(s): Donald P. Mayeaux
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrocarbon liquids, entrained in natural gas, have been the source of many sampling problems. The primary problem is lack of agreement in the natural gas industry on the fundamental issue of should entrained liquid be included or excluded from sample gas. Standard practices issued by industry organizationsare generally more applicable to natural gas that is free of liquid. The current standard practices provide minimum guidance in dealing with entrained liquids. Most of the current research in this field relates to techniques for sampling rich gas sources that contain no liquid.
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Document ID: 088FDE25

Shipboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer Class222
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic in-line samplers are most often used for custody transfer whenever metering systems are used. Large pipeline systems, except in the rare absence of flow meters, use automatic in-line samplers almost exclusively. The value of using automatic in-line samplers for custody transfer is widely accepted. However, manual sampling is also extensively used in certain instances. In marginal production leases where oil changes custody by tank measurement only is an example of this practice, A more dramatic example of this practice involves the movement of crude oil from producing load ports to discharge ports by marine tanker vessels. Although many load ports and disports (discharge ports) are now using in-line automatic samplers, there still remain many locations that do not. This paper will discuss the merits of using portable in-line automatic samplers on-board marine tanker vessels.
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Document ID: 6A7D097F

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Garrett D. Lalli
Abstract/Introduction:
We sample natural gas for reasons such as plant or gathering system balance and to determine its quality for custody transfer contracts. In the custody transfer application, many contracts are written in such a manner to account for the quality of the gas.
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Document ID: BC0D9197

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling Class No. 160
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no other way to receive proper payment for the natural gas that we purchase, transport, produce, process, or sell except by accurately determining its heating value, specificgravity,and compositional analysis.
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Document ID: 099A683D

Water By Distillation Vs Karl Fischer Method Class Number 217
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
For decades the accepted method for measuring water content in crude oils and other hydrocarbon stocks has been the centrifuge method. The centrifuge method is relatively quick and easy. However, it sometimes is limited in ability to accurately measure water content, particularly if the hydrocarbon stock has a high volubility aspect for water. When maximum accuracy is required and/or high water volubility is encountered in hydrocarbons, a laboratory method called Water by Distillation is often used. The method is described in API MPMS Chapter 10.2 and ASTM D 4006, and has the ability to measure both solution water and suspended water.
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Document ID: 16F27AF3

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability Class 198
Author(s): Vwliam H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 2297F8F7

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines 241
Author(s): Bryanj. Lunger
Abstract/Introduction:
The pressure transients in fluid pipelines are commonly called shock, water hammer, or surge. They are generally originated by shutdown of the fluid pump, shutoff of a flow valve, or by any other rapid change in the fluid flow velocity. Positive pressure surges or spikes can reach dangerous levels within milliseconds of the triggering event. Surge relief devices strategically placed along the pipeline can be made to open and discharge liquidintoholdingtanksas surges startto buildand thusmaintainsafepipelinepressurelevel
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Document ID: 9C2D7BE3

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators Class 193
Author(s): Rick Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
The self-operated regulators are limited in application as to the level of outlet pressure that can be controlled. In addition, diaphragm effects and spring effects still exist in most designs. To obtain better regulation, it is often necessary to use gas- Ioading systems. The simplest type of gas-loading system is the constant loading pressure system illustrated in Figure No. 23. Without gas loading, this regulator would control a very low outlet pressure due to the lightweight of its parts. However, when gas pressure is imposed over the diaphragm, the outlet pressure increases the same amount as the gas-loading pressure. The small pilot regulator is set for a given pressure and the needle valve is opened slightly to cause a constant bleed. Since the small pilot regulator is operated at a constant flow rate, its pressure does not change and this pressure is imposed on the diaphragm of the main regulator.
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Document ID: 987BC397

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers Class 196
Author(s): John Murphy
Abstract/Introduction:
a user of automatic controllers, part of your job may include adjusting and maintaining controllers in your plant. In order to do it properly, you need to know the different kinds of controllers and the kinds of output signals they produce. The controller can be identified several different ways. One way is by power source, for example, the pneumatic controller is a controller that is powered by compressed gas, it is rugged, durable, and works well in a variety of adverse conditions. On the other hand, an electronic controller is a controller that is powered by electricity. An electronic controller can send signals over long distances in relatively short periods of time. Another way a controller is identified is by the process variable it controls. For example, a pressure controller is a controller that controls pipeline pressures. In addition to being identified by its power source and by the process variable it controls, a controller is also identified by the kind of controlling action it provides.
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Document ID: 4C60EF56

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
regulator may be defined as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, it measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: 55556F0D

Gas Service Regulators Selection, Installation And Operation Class 18
Author(s): Mjlliaml. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulatorshave become very familiar itemsover the years and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them on homes, factories, commercial buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. A closer look at these regulators and their operation will allow insight on how they work.
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Document ID: E6C1CD8E

High Pressure Regulators Class 190
Author(s): John m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
gas pressure regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: FE4AC5B9

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators 147
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
Regulators mechanically introduce a restriction into a gas piping system. By matching the flow of gas into the downstream system with the load demand of the system, regulators minimize fluctuations in downstream pressure protecting the pipeline and effecting quality gas measurement.
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Document ID: 981747A3

Over Pressure Protection Methods Class 195
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry uses many different types of pressure regulation equipment to control the flow of gas as it cascades from systems with higher pressure ratings to systems with lower pressure ratings. In the event this pressure control equipment fails, some form of over pressure protection is required to prevent the system with the lower pressure rating or lower MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure) from being over pressured.
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Document ID: 3823472E

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids Class 197
Author(s): Nicole L. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper controlvalve sizingand selectionin todays industrial world is essential to operating at a cost-effective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valvewill notpass the requiredflow,whilea valvethat isoversizedwillbe more costlyand can cause instabilitthyroughoutthe entire control loop.
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Document ID: B0C95035

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques, And Operation Class 106
Author(s): A. L. Eberle
Abstract/Introduction:
meter repair shop must operate in an efficient manner and maintain the highest quality possible in order to be effective. Good equipment must be used, techniques that improve efficiency should be practiced, and effective cost controls must be employed.
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Document ID: 34E9689D

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes Class Number 144
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Improvements in electronic gas measurement technology, communication, and related systems development have had a positive impact on orifice metering. Even so, custody transfer measurement precision requires more than a well designed and manufactured flow computer using a set of smarl transducers and connected to a fast data retrieval system. State-of-the-art orifice meter EGM systems cannot deliver reliable results without correctly designed, fabricated, installed, and maintained orifice meter tubes. Flow calculations specified in Patis 1, 3, and 4 of the ANS1/APl 2530 (AGA-3) orifice meteringstandard are based on experimental test data collected using meter tubes built to specific tolerances. Since individual orifice meter tubes are not usuallyflow calibrated in the hydrocarbonenergy industry, every meter tube fabricated for custody transfer must conform to standard tolerances if uncertainties given in the standard are expected.
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Document ID: 4899C8EA

Program For Training A Measurement Technician Class No. 118 A, S. Buddy() Harris,Jr.
Author(s): A, S. Buddy Harris,Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
introduction Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 70F97C88

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems 104
Author(s): Philipc. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
To audit or not to audit, that is the question. If you believe that gas and liquid measurement is an exact science and not subject to mechanical and human error, then read no further. If on the other hand you agree that machines and people make mistakes it follows that you should have some system in place to protect yourself from these mistakes. The basic purpose of an audit is to insure that you are properly paid for the product you delivered.
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Document ID: 973AFF15

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Grace Barrett-Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing liquidmeasurement requires combininga solid knowledgeof the measurement processand related business activity with soundauditingtechniques. In his 1996 ISHM paper BasicMeasurement Uncertai, Thomas Kegei states, A measurement processmnsists of the instrumentation,people and proceduresthat result in the determinationof a numericvalue for a variable.
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Document ID: ADD9C0E9

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers Class No. 17
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: C54C9802

Effects Of The Latest Revision Of ANS1/APl 2530/AGA 3 On Orifice Meter Primary Elements Class 180
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Based on the results of a comprehensive test program, in 1991 API released a revised edition of Chapter 14, Section 3 in 4 part format. The results allowed a new, improved equation to be issued which has reduced uncertainty. Along with the new equation, new, tighter tolerances are required of the mechanical equipment. These specific requirements are detailed in Part 2 of the Standard, which has become known in the industry as API 14.3.
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Document ID: 6D88704C

Elements Of Gas Contracts #lo2
Author(s): Jack W. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the ever-changing world of gas contracts. The objective of this paper is to describe the basic components of a gas contract, and to review how the regulation and deregulation of natural gas has changed the nature of these cent racts, especially pricing. The contract characteristics over time can be rouuhly grouped as follows:
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Document ID: 3C6CC975

Manual Chart Calculations Using 1991 Revision Of A.G.A. #3 Class No. 101
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart volume calculation is the process of calculating units of quantiiy from data taken chart remings and historicalrecmts
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Document ID: B1A94185

Overview Of API Copm() - Measurement Activities
Author(s): Jason C. Beckstrom
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowthof the National PetroleumWar Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during World War 1. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because under U.S. antitrust law, industry competitors can work together toward mutual objectives using API as the forum.
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Document ID: F5079542

Review Of Apuansi 2530 (AGA #3) Class 133
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period of 1990 through 1993 two industry gas measurement standards were revised and a third was created. It is the intent of this paper to discuss to influence the revisions to the American Gas Association (A. G.A.) Report Nos. 3 and 8 will have on natural gas volume measurement.
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Document ID: 8FC1FE3F

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most Zaki D. Husain GeneralEngineeringDepartment, Texaco,Inc. 4900 Fournace Place, Bellaire, Texas 77401 mmmon meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially in the oil and gas industries. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifice for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and internationally Ref 1-7. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors.
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Document ID: 7BFEA77E

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The CompressedGas Industtyhas a responsibilityto provide an LPG-Propane productintended for domestic use that has beenodorizedto detectablelevels. In additiontothisresponsibilityth, e industryis alsoresponsiblefor insuringthat the documentation provingcorrect odorizationis accurate.
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Document ID: 7BDE5CE0

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing: Instruments & Applications Class 166
Author(s): John E. Rafferty
Abstract/Introduction:
On March 18*, 1938, a natural gas explosion involving unodorized gas destroyed New London, TX High School killing over 200 people. Almost immediately thereafter the Texas Railroad Commssion implemented regulations regarding odorization and odorant level testing.
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Document ID: 15CBCE1E

Electronic Chart Processing & Related Equipment Class 149
Author(s): Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Analyzing the chart is a thought process. Looking at the chart that came in from the field to look for abrupt changes in the flow pattern, different patterns, high 0s. low Os meter clock changes, orifice plate changes and etc. To do a through and efficient job, the chart analyzer has to go research past records, meter reports, and notes from the field, in order to properly analyze the chart. Some of the problems the analyzer has to research and the pattern changes can be attributed to the items listed below.
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Document ID: 4E1BABC6

Effects Of Cathodic Protection& Induced Signals On Pipeline Measurement Class 283
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe that is buried underground or water has a tendency to have external comosion. Corrosion is where the strengthof metal pipe is effectively reduceddue to the metal moleculescombiningwith other molewles to form a thitd substance.An exampte of this is the iron in steel pipe combiningwith oxygento form iron oxide or rust.
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Document ID: D85E0F60

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines Class Number 20
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Accident statistks clearly showthat pipelinesare the safest method for transpotiing hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardousto life, propertyand the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planningto install real-time methodsfor determining when leaks occur. The intent is to detect leaks as soon as possibleto permit the operatorto shut down a pipeline and minimize the amount of stock loss and potential hazard to the public. Some federal and state regulations require some form of leak detection on pipelines which transport hazardous fluids through populated and otherwise sensitive areas.
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Document ID: B7C0B032

Truck Loading Rack Blending Class Number 256
Author(s): David P. Resch
Abstract/Introduction:
The loading of petroleum products at Truck Loading terminals has undergone a great deal of renovation since the early 70s. These changes have taken place thanks mostly to the introduction of electronic instrumentation and control devices, which replaced what was traditionally mechanical equipment at the load rack. Through the 80s and into the early 90s this equipment has been refined and its features expanded to meet the needs of modern truck loading facilities. The electronic preset is responsible for much of this improvement, and while product accountability, reduced operating cost, and improved inventory control continue to be one of the significant benefits of the electronic preset, government regulations will have a large impact on the upgrading effort. The clean air act, which many major metropolitan areas comply with, legislates regulations requiring a certain percentage of oxygenates in the gasolines sold in their area. These regulations may prohibit the petroleum products from being directly delivered in their refined form, and may require that they be blended with products such as Ethanol or Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). Combining this with the requirements of Midgrade and higher performance type gasolines for todays fuel-efficient automobiles, the blending requirements start to multiply. The scope of this paper will focus on the requirements for blending and how todays electronic preset will meet the challenge by offering two types of blending solutions, the sequential (batch) blender, or the ratio (in line) blend
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Document ID: 77AF0D83

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement Class 122
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: E6E84FAF

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): Lori A. Waite
Abstract/Introduction:
We do not live in a static world, so why should we expect conditions at existing meter stations to continue to be the same as the day the stations were designed or installed? The answer is: we shouldnt, and we cant. Flow requirements change for several reasons: well head pressures increase or decrease, well head volumes increase or decrease, area of service by the customer either grows or decreases, the customer may add additional equipment that will require additional fuel, new interconnect points are added upstream of the existing meter station that affect delivery pressures and volumes, and changes in the operation of the pipeline itself. What ever the reason may be, the method and/or equipment being used to measure the gas may need to be changed.
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Document ID: F9C199E4

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations Class 114
Author(s): Edgar Eddy Wallace Collins Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
Edgar (Eddy) Wallace Collins Jr., P.E., MBA Oklahoma Natural Gas Company 100 West 5th Street P.O. BOX871 Tulsa, Oklahoma 74102-0871
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Document ID: A2371398

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas - Transmission
Author(s): Johnhazen
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted for Gas (UAG) is likened to a Bell Weather Tower. As long as the periodic UAG report is within an expected range, life is good. But let UAG exceed our comfort zone, beware, a storm is brewing. Now is the time to pull out all the stops, question those tried and true Operations and Maintenance procedures and resolve the problem immediately.
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Document ID: 0FC820FA

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement Class 116
Author(s): Michael Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas measurement.
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Document ID: EE2268C7

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On The Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Thomas B, Morrow
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1971 E. J. Burgin of Florida Gas Transmission Company presented a paper at ISHM entitled Factors Affecting Accuracy of Orifice Measurement (Primary Element). Burgin noted that A.G.A. Report No. 3 (of that time) claimed that an orifice meter with flange taps and with a diameter ratio, , between 0.15 and 0.7, fabricated and operated in accordance with the specifications in the standard, would have a discharge coefficient value within * 0.5% of the value calculated from the orifice equation. The purpose of Burgins paper was to examine some of the specifications in the orifice meter standard and to review the effect upon measurement accuracy when the specifications are ignored.
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Document ID: 3856225D

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is no different than any other measuring device it must be sized and installed properly to ensure proper measurement. This paper will attempt to help you avoid pitfalls that may cause you problems or make accurate measurement difficult to achieve.
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Document ID: 1829C1C7

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have an understanding of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: B84952B2

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 102A2E5A

Fundamentalsof Gasmeasurement Ill
Author(s): Jamesw. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 72A5B4C9

Fundamentals Of Orificemeterchart Recorders Class 182
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of natural gas by orifice meter with a chart recorder is one of the most common ways of measuring natural gas. Developed in the 1900s, It has become the industry standard for the measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
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Document ID: 33C024CD

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angelafloy
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fidly electronic designs and self-correcting models, Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar.
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Document ID: BA4ACB52

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Thomas Swell
Abstract/Introduction:
All mtay piston meters, commonly known as rot meters, utilize the fundamental 1848 lobed impeller design of the Roots brothers.
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Document ID: 1E90051D

Gas Processing Plant Measurement Class 215
Author(s): Joe Soerries
Abstract/Introduction:
Most people in the pipeline industry know that gas processing plants are only required to condition the gas for eventual sales to industrial or residential customers. This gas conditioning consists of processes to remove gas impurities such as water, carbon dioxide, or hydrogen sulfide along with processes to remove and recover the ethane and heavier hydrocarbons from the inlet gas stream. Most people see a certain volume of gas at a high BTU per standard cubic foot (BTU/SCF) go into the plant through the inlet meter and they see a smaller volume of gas at a lower BTU per cubic foot come out of the residue meter. This paper will explain what happens to the missing BTUS and the dollars associated with those BTUS that the average person never sees again after they go through the inlet meter at a gas processing plant.
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Document ID: D5340837

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurement Class Number 279
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, and positive displacement meters
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Document ID: 02878EDA

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Most petroleum products are measured and sold on a volumetric basis. In other words, product is often sold in U.S. Gallons or petroleum barrels. However, they are nonetheless transferred on a mass basis in actuality. These seemingly contradictory statements can be easily explained by going back to the basics.
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Document ID: 0F46A2C8

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): James Walker, m. Butler, T. Obanion, T. Patten, G. Pawias
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper demonstrates Coriolis mass tlowmeters are being effectively applied in a wide range of mainstream hydrocarbon gas measurement applications. Past ISHM Coriolis papers have focused on operating principles, sources of uncertainty, and testing results. Now its time to observe this innovative metering technology in action from the wellhead to the burner. Measurement engineers now recognize that Coriolis mass flowmeters can economically serve their most demanding gas applications. Further evidence is that the AGA last fall formed a task group to investigate Coriolis technology and publish a technical report. Also, Coriolis metering is included in IOMLS pending TC8/SWC 7 draft gas standard. Several applications will be presented that address why Coriolis flowmeters were chosen as well as the resulting benefits. Properly designed Coriolis meters are linear measurement devices and can provide accurate results independent of gas flow profile and composition over wide ranges of pressure and mass flow rate.
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Document ID: F18198AC

Measurement Information Management Systems
Author(s): Ardis Bartle
Abstract/Introduction:
In the old days, measurement was characterized by a paper-driven process that moved information from the field to multiple systems and users, including measurement, accounting, marketing and back to the field. Since then, gas measurement has come a long way from the days when mercury meters were used to capture measurement information.
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Document ID: A7C006F6

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau, Consultant
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for the Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you wnle you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties amlied to comc)anies can be very high if the required work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as weather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: BDF758D2

Multipath Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeters For Gas Measurement Class 179
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an outline of the theory and methods applied in ultrasonic gas flow metering for custody transfer. The development of a multipath instrument for custody transfer will be discussed, and recent developments will be indicated. Practical applications are illustrated using the Instromet 3-path and 5-path Q. Sonic custody transfer flowmeter.
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Document ID: 01423F38

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes Class No. 184
Author(s): Daniel South
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most widely used method of fluid measurement currently in use. Orifice fittings, developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube, are also commonly used in current meter tube designs. Each of these components must meet specifications of industry standards such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3, and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14 section 3 on Petroleum Measurements Standards to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: 05B592F8

Orifice Meter Gage Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more accurate gas flow measurements, industry is placing more emphasis on defining and avoiding adverse unsteady flow conditions. Interactions of pulsation energy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gage line tubing with close-coupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper touches on gage line effects on gas flow measurement.
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Document ID: 419B4FFF

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery.
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Document ID: 29B71F43

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatography are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments.
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Document ID: 7298B279

Preventionof Freezingin Measuringand Regulating Equipment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas indstfy tea today dictates that mawnmant and control systems whii are utilized am of the highest achiavWe operational integrity, This entails not only that measumts and controls am performed and maintained precisely and miiWy, but also that consideration is given to operationalphenomenawhich may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operationaloccumencawhich fracpantly affects the functkmaiity and patformanceof measurementand regulatingsystems.
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Document ID: C874D162

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jackie R. Tires
Abstract/Introduction:
Some major problems and unique solutions will be addressed with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement.
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Document ID: 1678430B

Thermometry In Measurement
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is one of several critical variables that must be correctly measured to determine reliable natural gas quantities. This is especially true in custody transfer applications where even relatively small temperature measurement errors can have a large impact on the bottom line. The technical aspects of themnometiy in flow measurement can best be applied to practical situations by first understanding the relationship between temperature and the fundamental gas laws. These basic concepts may then be applied to the design, installation, and operation of temperature measurement equipment, and used in flow calculations.
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Document ID: A964A123

Wet Gas Measurement
Author(s): Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When material flowing in a pipe is made up of a mixture of fluid phases the term multiphase is used to classify this type of flow. Multiphase flow comprises a broad range of applications in different industries, Some examples include gas bubbles in flowing liquid, solid particles carried by a gas, and the flow of two immiscible liquids. Often a flowing stream of natural gas contains some level of hydrocarbon liquid and/or water. This is a form of multiphase flow often called wet gas.
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Document ID: 93F66B8F

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement Class 200
Author(s): Tony Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
Densitometers have numerous applications in the hydrocarbon industry for flow measurement, interface detection, quality control, and concentration measurement. Densitometers can measure most single phase fluids including light to heavy crudes, refined products, and supercritical fluids like ethylene and carbon dioxide. The limiting factor for potential densitometer applications is typically not the fluid, but the installation requirement, the calculation requirement, or the design specification of the densitometer.
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Document ID: 77991C39

Applications Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement Crude Oil Production Class 247
Author(s): Didier Pabois
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid turbine meters have been used throughout the industry for many applications,
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Document ID: 080A32E0

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement Crude( And Product Transportation) Class Number 247
Author(s): Raymond J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine Meters were developed for the rocket industry in the 1950s because a compact meter was needed to accurately measure exotic fuels over extreme operating pressures and temperatures. By the late sixties the petroleum industry recognized the potential of turbine meter technology for highly accurate measurement and in 1970 published API Standard 2534 Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meter Systems. After this publication turbine meters gained broad acceptance for custody transfer for petroleum liquids such as liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs), refined products and light crude oil. With the introduction of helical turbine meters in the 1990s, turbine meter applications have been expanded to higher viscosity crudes, waxy crudes and other troublesome turbine meter applications.
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Document ID: FA8D7083

Applications Of Tutbine Meters In Liquid Measurement Truck( Loading) Class Number 247
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter is a natural and perfect device to be utilized in truck (batch) loading applications. It simply creates pulses as the rotor responds to fluid flow by interrupting the magnetic field provided by the pickup coil.
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Document ID: AACB4B0E

Automated Truck Loading Systems Class 248
Author(s): Hasit Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent trends at truck, rail and ship loading terminals have drastically increased automation requirements. Historically, terminals have been the most obvious places for continuous development. This development has been chartered by safety, accuracy, accountability, security or regulatory (environmental or custody transfer) requirements.
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Document ID: ABFA6505

Automatic Tank Gauges Class 203
Author(s): Joe Incontri
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two major liquid storage tank measurement categories: l Process level measurement. . Inventory tank gauging. Both have very different sets of requirements. The primay subject of this paper is measurement methods for liquid inventory tank gauging since it is a complex measurement requirement with regulatory implications and a variety of applicable methods. We will discuss those requirements, implications and specific measurement methods in this paper. We will also outline the principle of operation ofs veral recognized technologies used for invent & tank gauging with a review of their distinct benefits and issues. A list of applicable regulatory standards information is also found at the end of the text.
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Document ID: B510A5BC

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Dynamic Measurement Class 243
Author(s): Peter W Kosewicz
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Petroleum industry as hydrocarbons are purchased, sold or transferred there are two key elements that must be determined. These elements are the quantity and quality of the hydrocarbon in question. This paper will address one of those elements, the determination of the quantity of the hydrocarbon in the transaction.
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Document ID: BB3BCB67

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Static Methods Class 226
Author(s): Bob Dix
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the procedures to be followed when calculating either a volumetric or a mass quantity of crude oil, petroleum products, and petrochemicals contained in or transferred to or from static tanks or marine vessels. The procedures are in conformance with the API Manuai of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), Chapter 12 Section 1, Part 1. The procedures are intended to encourage a uniform approach to calculations where different parties using the same input data are able to reconcile quantities.
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Document ID: 97B8B56B

Calibration Of Storage Tanks Class 199
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 99DD74E8

Computer Applications In Liquid Measurement Class 250
Author(s): Alan L. Mccartney, Kenneth D. Elliott,
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many control and communication functions in liquid measurement, many of which involve the use of computers or microprocessors. This paper focuses on the measurement aspect and explores issues and concerns involving modern flow computers.
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Document ID: 354BAC88

Crude Oil Gathering By Truck - MERING Vs. Tank Gauging Class 300
Author(s): Dale A. Bohman
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements made for the custody transfer of crude oil at lease stock tanks are at present petformed by manual gauging. API Chapter 18 describes the methods for obtaining quantitative and qualitative values for volumetric measurement of tank contents. The second edition, published in April 1997, very specifically describes the process for taking measurement readings to determine the amount of merchantable oil transferred from the tank to the transporting truck. Delivery of the same transfer of product is more accurately measured by a metering system than by tank gauging. The significance of factors affecting the volumetric measurements obtained by metering and tank gauging are discussed. These factors include variations in operating conditions, such as temperature, pressure, viscosity, and air, as well as inherent accuracy considerations for self-checking features, volume resolution, linear measurements, and tank measurements.
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Document ID: A1EF6710

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of L.A.C.T. Units Class No. 234
Author(s): Craig A. Francisco
Abstract/Introduction:
The Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (L.A.C.T.) unit is designed for the automatic transfer of ownership of crude or condensate between the buyer and seller.
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Document ID: 96282891

Determination Of Net Oil For Well Performance Measurement Class 302
Author(s): Robin Dutton,
Abstract/Introduction:
Although there are several techniques for measuring net oil and water cut from a producing oil well, each method has its particular requirements and limitations. Various technologies have been used in this application and their characteristics are briefly discussed. Coriolis meters have been used successfully in over 4000 sites to date. Their popularity indicates that their requirements and limitations are not overly restrictive, and that their applications as net oil computers are not too complicated for field personnel. This paper details the use of Coriolis meters in this application and explains how their requirements for well performance measurement can be met by using a new electronics platform.
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Document ID: 610AEAA6

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement Class Number 246
Author(s): James Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroieum measurement industry continues to demand a iiquid flow meter that is accurate. That is, the meter must have a high degree of repeatabiiity, linearity and stability. Meter repeatability is the abiiity of the meter to reproduce the same meter factor given the same conditions. iJnearity is the abiiity of the meter to have a meter factor within a percentage deviation from maximum flow in comparison to minimum flow. Stability is the meters abiiity to reproduce the same meter factor time after time for some given iength of time, given operating conditions are the same. The purpose of this paper is to examine the design, construction and accuracy theory of positive displacement (PD) meters for liquid measurement.
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Document ID: 1CE08D7E

Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Measurement Class 264
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, governmental authorities and the general public. In fact, accurate measurement of hydrocarbon fluids has a high impact on the Gross National Product of expoding and importing countries, the financial performance and asset base of global companies, and the perceived efficiency of operating facilities. The need for accurate hydrocarbon measurement is obvious. As a result, accurate unbiased hydrocarbon measurement is an essential goal of any responsible organization.
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Document ID: EF527457

Ethylene Measurement Class 242
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
An ethylene transportation system consists of a pipeline network and salt dome storage facility linking producers and consumers. Since producers and consumers are not equipped with on site storage, the systems are designed with maximum flexibility to satisfy the continually changing demands of the operations (Figure 1).
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Document ID: 6B8129C9

Aporation Loss Measurement From Class No. 239
Author(s): Warren A. Parr, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was studied to develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was system loss control. During the early 1990s, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began programs for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission.
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Document ID: 2FE58394

Fundamentals Of Liquid Measurement - I Class Number 235
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
If 1were buying a barrel of oil from you, 1would want the liquid to be as cold as possible. On the other hand, you, as the seller, would like the liquid to be as hot as practicable. Why? Because liquids expand with increased temperature and shrink with lower temperature. So, when I buy a barrel of cold oil, I actually get more oil for the price of one barrel, and when you sell a barrel of hot oil, you actually sell less oil for the price of one barrel.
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Document ID: C4A88DA5

Fundamentals Of Liauid Measurement II Class 294
Author(s): Michael J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of the quantities of oil which have been received, transferred, or dispatched through storage tanks are an integral part of todays custody transfer operations by Static Measurement Systems. The accurate measurement of these parcels of oil depends upon many factors, one in particular being the accurate calibration of the storage tanks involved. It is of the greatest importance that the calibration of any tank is carried out with the greatest attention to detail. Any errors made at the calibration stage cause errors in the final tables, errors that will always act in the same direction. These are called systematic errors.
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Document ID: B86BD61B

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid turbine meter design has changed little from the original Potter design developed in the 1960s. Although originally designed for low - accuracy water flow measurement, its application into the aerospace industry called for higher accuracy and reliability as well as simplicity in design.
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Document ID: F30843FC

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Steve Odom
Abstract/Introduction:
The definition of Custody Transfer Measurement: Provides quantity and quality information used for the physical and fiscal documentation of a change in ownership, and/or a change in responsibilities for commodities. Quantity is determined by gauges taken and the temperature at the time of gauging. Quality is determined by the gravity and the sediment and water percentage of the liquid. American Petroleum Institute guidelines, company preferences, and accepted industfy practices may determine the methods and procedures used. The end result will be the same, and the physical and fiscal transfer will change ownership and responsibility of the liquid.
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Document ID: A9F4B423

Installa Tion And Opera Tion Of Liquid Densitometers
Author(s): Robert E. Mcgregor
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid density measurement is oruoial to the operation of todays automated pipe lines. Density inputs are required for custody transfer, batch detectiin and some leak deteotbn systems. This paper will disouss liquid density measurement, installation suggestions and how to troubleshoot densitometers.
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Document ID: 4291B439

Marine Crude Ojl Terminal Measurement Systems Ckss 23
Author(s): Victor Wegelin
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine Terminal Operators demand fast accurate measurement, with a minimal amount of operator intervention. On-line analyzers and flow computers can provide fully automated NSV tickets, and can improve measurement accuracy a full order of magnitude, to +/- 0.02% from +/- 0.25%, or better.
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Document ID: 83439325

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement Class 254
Author(s): Steven J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the late 1970s, Coriolis mass flowmeter technology has changed the way industry views flow measurement. Coriolis mass flowmeters were the first technology capable of measuring mass flow directly, without the aid of peripheral measurement instruments. Coriolis flowmeters provide highly accurate, repeatable, and reliable mass flow measurement over a variety of applications, process fluids, and flow ranges. This success continues to accelerate the acceptance and growth of Coriolis technology and has expanded the application of Coriolis mass flowmeters in many industries, including petroleum.
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Document ID: 3AA33B34

Measurementaccuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging Class 229
Author(s): C. Stewartash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required but if the volume is to be used only as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty), a high degree of accuracy is usually not required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
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Document ID: 404AF045

Measurement Losses By Shrinkage
Author(s): J. H. Harry James
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity balance and custody transfer accuracy have been the focus of measurement specialists since the industry began trading and transporting liquid hydrocarbons. Even with the best volumetric measurement equipment, unaccounted for discrepancies still were occurring. Temperature, pressure and meter factor corrections were not enough to explain these discrepancies.
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Document ID: FAEB4791

Measurement Objective Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks Class 275
Author(s): Lonnie D. Galyean
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the types of tank gauging methods available. It will cover some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type and it will cover the methods selected by ARCO Pipe Line Company for use on sump tanks as well as large storage tanks in its Mid-Continent Operations group.
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Document ID: D4E43F52

Measurement Of Large Liquid Volumes By Turbine Meters Class 219
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Large turbine meters (over 4 inch) have been used successfully to measure large volumes of hydrocarbons including high viscosity crude oils. The lower installation and maintenance costs make the large turbine meter the ideal meter for large volume facilities. Experience has shown that turbine meters can be used for high viscosity crude oils where displacement meters were thought to be the only alternative for good custody measurement.
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Document ID: C5697A65

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels 263
Author(s): Robert W. Goldstraw
Abstract/Introduction:
Alargequantity of petroleum is moved to, from and within the United States annually on board tank ships and barges. To be certain that as much of the petroleum as possible is accounted for during these marine custody transfers, most of these cargoes are measured both in the delivering and receiving shore tanks and on board the ship or barge at both the loading and the unloading ports.
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Document ID: B8A87839

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will endeavor to relate actual experience with, and applications of, small volume provers. It is not submitted with any intent to dissuade or discourage the use of conventional ball provers. Furthermore, it must be stated, the small volume prover has not replaced the conventional prover .....each has its own unique place within the industry.
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Document ID: 8785698F

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement Class 20
Author(s): James E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, governmental authorities and the general public. n fact, accurate measurement of hydrocarbon fluids has a high impact on the Gross National Product of exporting and importing countries, the financial performance and asset base of global companies, and the perceived efficiency of operating facilities. The need for accurate hydrocarbon measurement is obvious. As a result, accurate unbiased hydrocarbon measurement is an essential goal of any responsible organization. Fiscal measurement involves the use of standard proven equipment and procedures.
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Document ID: 906D2B8A

Resolving Liquid Measurement Problems Class 260
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer measurements of liquid can be performed in either a static or dynamic manner. All custody transfer measurements should be performed with the utmost of care as they form the cash register for the parties involved. This paper will discuss the various areas where measurement differences occur and how to resolve these differences. Industry standards such as those published by API (American Petroleum Institute) and ASTM are good resources for determining the proper techniques to utilize.
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Document ID: D084BD55

Statistical Controlof Meterfactors-A Simplified Approach
Author(s): R.G. Dodson
Abstract/Introduction:
Anyone involved in measurement has or should have a need to know how their measurement equipment is performing. A meter control chart is a very effective tool for communicating the health of your metering system to interested persons.
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Document ID: 62D154D7

The Calculation Of Quantities Of Liquid Petroleum In Tank Truck And Rail Cars Class 291
Author(s): J.R. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
There is considerable confusion and ignorance within industry concerning the proper methods for calculating both target loading quantities and actual loaded quantities (volume and mass) of liquids in tank cars. API Chapter 12.1.3 (in progress), will be published to meet the need for both an explanation of the factors required for such calculations and a standard method of calculation. It does not include calculation of clingage, nonliquid material, or vapor space equivalence. It does address calculation sequences, rounding, and significant digits so that different operators can calculate identical results from the same observed data. Tank truck volumes are calculated in a similar manner.
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Document ID: 22EC488C

The Developing Role Of Hellcal Turbine Meters Class No. 289
Author(s): Michael P. Frey
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer measurement is a driving force behind the development of new technologies in the metering industry. With the ever changing cost associated with the exploration and development of our natural resources reserves, it is essential that these raw materials be measured both accurately and efficiently.
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Document ID: 41E1434E

About Ishm 1999
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 926753C0


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