Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1999)

Design Temperatures For Thermal Loads In Polyethylene Gas Distribution Piping
Author(s): mer Bilgin, Harry E. Stewart, Thomas D. Orourke
Abstract/Introduction:
Thermal loads in buried piping are a direct result of temperature changes. Gas companies often assume that the CFR requirement for design of mechanical couplings for an instantaneous change in temperature of ?T 100F (55C) applies to all aspects of the PE system. This assumption leads to very conservative designs, and does not represent the range of temperature changes due to pipe installation and seasonal temperature variations in the ground. This paper presents data from measured ground temperatures in the northeastern United States to develop seasonal design temperature ranges. Measurements of PE pipe temperature when exposed to direct sunlight then inserted into cast iron piping are used to assess temperature changes that might occur during pipe installation. Design scenarios are identified that represent reasonable situations for the range of temperatures PE piping would be subject to are identified, and stresses are evaluated for these conditions. Stress superposition methods are used to develop design charts for evaluating thermal loads.
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Document ID: 90FDF73E

Upstream Pipe Wall Roughness Influence On Ultrasonic Flow Measurement
Author(s): H.J. Dane, R. Wilsack
Abstract/Introduction:
In high-pressure natural gas pipelines, installation requirements of modern ultrasonic flow meters usually only specify an upstream pipe length of 10 D, say, without mentioning wall roughness. Since no data were available to support a specification, Measurement Canada and TransCanada PipeLines decided to conduct a series of tests under well-defined conditions. This document reports the results. The tests were carried out at the Ruhrgas test facility Pigsar in Germany, where two 12? Q.Sonic 3-path ultrasonic flow meters (Instromet) were repeatedly calibrated at about 45 bar, while various pipes of different roughness were mounted upstream. Two Ruhrgas engineers measured the wall roughness of the pipes using ISO 9001 certified standard methods. Over the range of conditions investigated, an increase of the roughness Ra from about 5 m to probably 20 m appears to increase the meter reading by about 0.1-0.2 %.
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Document ID: 01AF19D5

Noise Mitigation In Ultrasonic Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Kevin Warner, Klaus Zanker
Abstract/Introduction:
Ultrasonic meters are becoming increasingly accepted for the custody transfer measurement of natural gas. This is reflected in the most recent standards, regulations, and codes of recommended practice, such as the AGA Report Number 9, the Regulations and Guidelines of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, and the UK Department of Trade and Industrys Petroleum Measurement Guidelines. Although these documents encourage the use of ultrasonic meters, they do not provide rigorous installation instructions and it is possible for design engineers to place meters in locations not suitable for ultrasonic measurement. One common concern for operators is the possibility that ultrasonic noise present in the pipeline might interfere with the meter and thereby compromise its performance. Such noise is typically generated at points with significant pressure reduction, such as flow control valves. The effects of ultrasonic noise will be shown in this paper. Additionally, we will discuss a number of actions that can be taken to mitigate noise effects on the ultrasonic meter. Most of these cost little to include at the outset of a project, but can be very expensive to incorporate once all the hardware is in place. A greater awareness of these actions should result in more successful ultrasonic flow meter applications.
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Document ID: 29459758

The Accutest, A Self-Proving Gas Turbine Meter
Author(s): William m. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The AccuTest is a new class of gas turbine meter capable of evaluating its accuracy under actual operating flow rates and pressures without interrupting the normal service of the meter. The meter is specially suited for evaluating the effects of mechanical friction or installation effects. The meter can also detect and warn of all other causes of meter error, such as jetting, pulsating flow, on-off flow, partial blockage, and bent or broken rotor blades. The self-diagnostics includes a warning indicator that alerts of potential problems developing in the metering system. The actual flow rate is electronically corrected for changes in meter accuracy. The self-proving feature of the AccuTest is achieved by building a master meter into the outlet section of the meter housing. The master meter is a second turbine meter cartridge with special design features to significantly reduce the chance of malfunction of master meter compared to the upstream main cartridge. These design features are unique to the built-in master meter and can not be readily extended to the main cartridge. In addition to the self-proving feature, the main measurement cartridge of the meter is enhanced to improve its accuracy, repeatability, rangeability, and reliability through design features that will be discussed in detail later in the paper. A novel patented design feature known as the trailing edge flap was developed for the turbine blades that allows the meter accuracy to be optimized for changes in line pressure.
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Document ID: 1DF1B6BB

Lunlunta Carrizal Gas Storage Project
Author(s): David J. Dowhan
Abstract/Introduction:
CMS Energy, through its subsidiary, CMS Gas Transmission & Storage company (CMS), and YPF, S.A. (YPF) have joined together to evaluate a nearly depleted oil reservoir near Mendoza, Argentina (see Figure 1) for the underground storage of natural gas. When developed this 8 Bcf working capacity storage field will be the first in Latin America.
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Document ID: 1C8193D9

Leakage Detection Surveys Utilizing New Optical Methane Detector
Author(s): Paul D. Wehnert
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Utilities in the age of deregulation and corporate mergers and down sizing are continually looking for ways to reduce operating and maintenance costs. The present means of conducting gas piping network leakage detection surveys is very tedious and time consuming. A new state of the art development in leakage detection is the Optical Methane Detector. The Optical Methane Detector now provides Natural Gas Utilities a much more cost-effective means of patrolling their gas piping network for leakage
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Document ID: AF59B1DC

Qualification Of Flow Conditioning Devices According To The New API Procedure
Author(s): Klaus Zanker, Dale Goodson
Abstract/Introduction:
The new AGA 3/API 14.3 standard on concentric square edged orifice meters suggests that if installation effects can be shown to be less than about 0.23%, then there is no need to apply any additional uncertainty to that of the basic discharge coefficient. This has revived interest in flow conditioners that can assure this performance, without the need for long straight upstream lengths of pipe. A feature of the new standard is that it specifies performance acceptance tests for evaluating other flow conditioners, which were not included in the previous versions of the document. In this paper we will review this procedure, and show results from a device which is being qualified in this manner.
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Document ID: 471FAEA7

Carbon Monoxide In The Gas Industry: Emergency Response And Prevention
Author(s): Paul E. Pirro
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has done a lot to bring the death toll from carbon monoxide poisoning below 50 deaths per year in the past decade 1. As the public and emergency responders gain knowledge about carbon monoxide and recognize the hazards, the casualty rate may continue to drop as a number of CO incidents caused by negligence may be eliminated. Emergency response training is important to prepare responders to mitigate the CO hazard and perform a thorough incident investigation to prevent recurrences. Call-takers should be trained when to recognize severe CO problems during the questioning process, Emergency response is most effective when a CO investigation instrument is available. It becomes the responsibility of CO detector manufacturers, appliance manufacturers, fire departments, gas utilities and oil and propane dealers to heighten community awareness about the hazards of CO.
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Document ID: 456EAF28

Vortex Technology In Gas Transmission/ Gas Distribution Operations
Author(s): Lev Tunkel
Abstract/Introduction:
Vortex Tube based technology has recently emerged to apply the Vortex phenomenon for some particular industrial needs. A Vortex Tube (VT) is a device with no moving parts where an expending gas flow undergoes a temperature division (vortex phenomenon) forming two inner thermal currents: internal-cold and external-hot. In gas downstream operations, with the requirements for sequential pressure reduction of transmitted gas, the vortex technology application looks highly natural: the Vortex Tube, operating under available pressure differential, creates an actually free cooling and heating duty to be utilized for industrial needs. In a conventional VT (Figure 1) which features two openings to discharge the thermal currents separately, the Vortex performance results in creation of two separate flows: one-very cold and dried to a low dew point, another- heated and enriched with vaporized moisture. The difference between inlet gas temperature To and cold fraction temperature T1: To - T1 DT1 as well as the difference between temperature of hot flow T2 and inlet gas flow To: T2 - To DT2 represents the Vortex Tubes efficiency. This parameter depends on the VTs geometrical parameters and generally, is proportional to the Vortex inlet/outlet gas flow pressure ratioP.
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Document ID: 9CFB3B87

Scada Security: Enhancing Con Edisons Gas Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition System
Author(s): Abdo Y. Saad
Abstract/Introduction:
As new and more sensitive features and devices were added to Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, Gas Control saw an urgent need for a more secure system. For this purpose, Application Services designed, developed, and implemented the User Access Security Package (UASP). The UASP made possible the restriction of data entry, control, and display operations by confining these operations to certain users and certain locations. It confines users to access only authorized screens. The UASP also enabled Gas Control to make SCADA information available to other organizations in the company without compromising security.
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Document ID: 46A6B643

Field Study: Annubar Electronic Flow Measurement Using A.G.A.-3 How To Reduce Check Meter Cost And Maintain Accuracy
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney, John E. Paugh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Check measurement of volumetric flow in natural gas pipelines is essential for system pipeline monitoring and control. Although the custody of natural gas is not transferred at a check meter, the calculated flow rate through the meter must be reliable and repeatable while remaining cost effective. Various check meter options are available when check measurement is required. Orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters are often specified at an approximate installed cost of 3,000 to 10,000 per inch. As an alternative to traditional check measurement, four averaging pitot tube meters (called an Annubar Meter by its manufacturer) were installed and studied for a oneyear period. The average cost for the installation was 1,200 per inch.
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Document ID: 1C12C214

Field Study: Comparison Of Multipath Ultrasonic To Orifice Meters At A Storage Pool
Author(s): Jonathan A. Kinney, John E. Paugh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and repeatable gas measurement at natural gas storage facilities is essential for local control, system monitoring, and inventory accounting. Uncertainty in storage gas measurement may not readily appear in short term daily receipts and delivery accounting. However, long term effects of measurement uncertainty may result in storage write-offs, unnecessary capital improvements at a storage facility or system abandonment. Historically, bi-directional orifice meters with straight-edged plates have been installed for storage measurement to reduce capital costs while maintaining the use of a proven measurement technology. Recently, multipath ultrasonic meters have been considered by the industry and have been added to a short list of gas measurement meters suitable for storage applications. But are multipath ultrasonic meters ready to be used at natural gas storage facilities? The following report will describe and report the results of a one-year operating study of one multipath ultrasonic meter in the same measurement system as ten bi-directional orifice meters.
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Document ID: F8E9E922

Corrosion Control Database Project- One Year Later
Author(s): Reagan Monroe Jr
Abstract/Introduction:
The Baltimore Gas Electric Companys decision to implement the Bass- Trigon CPDM Corrosion Control Database was a result of wanting to continually improve the way we do business. The existing system was charged with the management of over 30,000 new test point readings per year, which must be maintained for the life of the pipeline facility. The cumulative data requirements simply became unmanageable by manual methods. A significant amount of review time was required in any attempt to ensure adequacy of the records while still being subject to human error and misfiling. The existing system did not allow for exception reporting and total system comparisons. This resulted in many problem areas going undetected until our only option was main/service replacement.
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Document ID: 8BF8F480

New Ideas And Developments In Distribution Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Ziegler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes many new ideas and developments in distribution measurement and is made possible by the many companies and individuals noted below. Topics for this paper were submitted by the A.G.A. Distribution Measurement Committee members.
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Document ID: 7228AFB8

Continuous Measurement Certainty And Dual Rotor Technology
Author(s): Matthew J. Forcey
Abstract/Introduction:
The aging North American pipeline systems are posing new challenges for todays transmission, distribution, and utility companies. While billions of dollars worth of natural gas are moved through the domestic pipeline system each year, more than 50% of it is moved in pipelines that are 30 or more years old. These aged systems are more susceptible to corrosion, wear, harsh flow profiles, and fluid in the gas stream. These in-line problems are a concern as most meter technologies are unable to measure accurately under conditions of harsh flow profile and contamination even a minor accuracy shift can result in millions of dollars in under and or over billings each year. These problems are exacerbated by a reduction in maintenance budgets at pipeline and utility companies that can allow excessive component wear to develop within meters and unstable meter or upstream conditions to go undetected. Todays gas measurement devices, therefore, must be able to maintain their accuracy despite harsh flow profiles, corrosion, and component wear, while performing self-diagnostics to replace information formerly gathered by maintenance personnel.
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Document ID: E156E22E

External Corrosion Mapping Using The Advanced Tool For Ultrasonic Mapping
Author(s): William A. Kanters, Robert K. Ginzel
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline integrity may be compromised when external corrosion occurs on in-service line pipe. Historically, pipeline operators have been limited by the techniques available to examine the extent of a corrosion feature, relying on the field inspectors experience and judgement. In addition, the techniques available to assess the severity of a corrosion feature can be subject to various discrepancies in measurement and interpretation prior to the engineered assessment. The documentation and data management of these anomaly areas can present limitations affecting or questioning the overall reliability and consistency of additional integrity assessment techniques. The Advanced Tool for Ultrasonic Mapping, affectionately known as ATUM, has been developed as a tool to provide consistent quantification and data management of external metal loss anomalies of line pipe steels.
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Document ID: 0050590B

Improving Pipeline Locating
Author(s): Paul Lashoto, Michael Laghetto
Abstract/Introduction:
Bay State Gas conducted a detailed fact-based analysis aimed at improving locating by instituting best practices in the areas of procedures, technologies, information systems and training. Internal resources were supplemented by consultation with a number of outside experts over the course of the project.
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Document ID: 46DABFE0

Turbine Meters In Dirty Gas Applications
Author(s): Daniel W. Peace
Abstract/Introduction:
Field tests have shown that turbine meters with sealed and permanently lubricated rotor shaft bearings provide long service life, reduced maintenance, and accurate measurements in very dirty gas environments. Considerations that led to the development of meters with these new bearings are provided, (i.e., extraordinary dirt accumulation, grit and debris damage, bearing contamination, and bearing wear). Data defining the minimum expected operating flow rates, pressures, and gas temperatures to ensure optimum accuracy of meters with these new bearings are shared. The Auto- Adjust Turbo-Meter is ideally suited to use these new bearings. An alternative to spin testing for evaluating bearing wear was developed and is described. This new test makes use of periodic measurements of rotor wobble and end play. Finally, it is shown how the Auto-Adjust was able to detect and compensate for accuracy effects despite extraordinary dirt accumulation and bearing contamination or wear.
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Document ID: B83CAD25

The Atlantic LNG Project, Point Fortin, Trinidad
Author(s): Alan D. Hatfield
Abstract/Introduction:
In the small Caribbean state of Trinidad and Tobago near the east coast of Venezuela, one of the most interesting and challenging LNG projects for many years is now complete. Interesting because it has taken a different approach to most recent LNG projects and challenging because many in the industry did not think that the project was possible just a few years ago. The first LNG ship was loaded in April 1999. (See Figure 1.) It is the first single train baseload LNG plant in 30 years and is the first & smallest grassroots export project in the Western Hemisphere in more that 25 years. The liquefaction process is an updated version of the original cascade process used in the first baseload LNG plants rather than the industry leader, the Propane Pre-cooled Mixed Refrigerant Process. The equipment is different too. Frame 5 gas turbines have been used, not Frame 7s as with most other new projects. Similarly, aluminum plate fin heat exchangers, almost abandoned by the baseload LNG industry, have been used for the main heat exchangers.
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Document ID: F6B4E5BB

Precision Natural Gas Measurement Using Coriolis Technology
Author(s): James R.WALKER
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis metering technology is gaining more acceptance in the natural gas measurement community. Over the past ten years, local distribution companies (LDC) and small operators have installed over 8,000 Coriolis meters to sell CNG. Most of these are in dispensers that are routinely verified gravimetrically to within 0.3% by local Weights and Measures authorities. In these technically demanding applications only one flow technology has performed accurately over a very wide turndown without a fully developed flow profile: Coriolis. This exceptional performance can, also, be leveraged in more traditional natural gas production, compression, transportation, transmission, and distribution applications.
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Document ID: BF9B17F2

Gleaning The Maximum Benefit From The D.O.T. Operator Qualification Regulation With Simulation-Based Training
Author(s): K. Alan Rodecker
Abstract/Introduction:
For gas controllers, simulation-based training is the most effective method of complying with the pending U.S. D.O.T. Operator Qualification Regulation, and it has many additional benefits. Simulation-based training is neither new to control rooms, nor is it specific to the United States. What is new and unique, is the opportunity to enhance control room training programs while qualifying staff with regard to the pending regulation. This paper identifies some of the primary benefits of operator qualification via simulation-based training, describes available configurations of a trainer simulator including a brief description of the system components, and identifies some practical considerations that are important to a successful implementation. Further, this paper discusses some of the additional benefits that can be derived from a trainer simulator installation beyond the qualification of gas controllers to perform specific covered tasks.
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Document ID: F3573251

Encryption Secures Scada From Cyber-Attack
Author(s): John Kinast, Jared Smith, Bill Rush
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: AD9EC666

Forecasting Daily Sendout Demand With Artificial Neural Networks
Author(s): Ronald H. Brown, Timothy m. Richardson, John E. Buchanan
Abstract/Introduction:
The Local Distribution Company (LDC) faces many challenges in the business of supplying gas to their customers. The gas supply system of an LDC consists of gate stations, compressors, gas storage, and customers. The LDC must operate these systems to assure delivery of gas in adequate volumes at required pressures under all circumstances. For efficient, economical, and safe operation, the daily gas sendout demanded by the customers must be known with some degree of accuracy. The customer base of the LDC consists of many individual customers, each with unique demand characteristics. Customers use gas for space heating, known as heating load, for heating water, drying, cooking and baking, and other processes, known as base load, and for electric power generation. The customer base is generally divided into three categories: residential, commercial, and industrial. The demand characteristics of these three categories differ significantly. The residential customer demands are typically temperature sensitive, increasing on weekends. The commercial customers are also typically temperature sensitive, but decreasing on weekends. Industrial customer demand is much less temperature sensitive, decreasing significantly on weekends.
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Document ID: 657C11FB

Retail Competition In Gas Supply- Impact Of Unbundling On Operations And Reliability
Author(s): Phillip S. Teumim
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: B984879B

Deploying Best Processes, Practices, And Methods From A Benchmark Study
Author(s): Russell Kopidlansky
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: A4D7795A

The Critical Details Of Good Gas Sampling Technique
Author(s): Eric Kelner
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: F6F1C6F8

Determining Measurement Uncertainty In Natural Gas Energy Value From Fundamental Sources
Author(s): E.B. Bowles, T.B. Morrow, K.A. Behring
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 3659EC3C

Applications And Benefits Of Using Camera Technology To Internally Inspect Polyethylene Main And Service Piping
Author(s): Anita Romero
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry continues to confront challenges related to the operation and maintenance of aging plastic distribution system piping. Ensuring safe, reliable and cost effective natural gas service is essential for promoting natural gas as the energy of choice for all existing and potential customers. The industry must face these challenges and develop innovative solutions to ensure competitiveness in the energy market. Southwest Gas Corporation (Southwest) has confronted numerous aging plastic pipe distribution system problems over the past 10-15 years. Southwest faces these challenges by exploring, developing and implementing innovative and cost effective solutions. This paper outlines two such challenges, including how Southwest overcame the obstacles of developing and applying new technology solutions.
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Document ID: AD17A0FA

PE100 Vs. PE3408: Can Someone Please Explain These?
Author(s): Steve D. Sandstrum
Abstract/Introduction:
This is the second in a series of papers prepared at the request of the AGA-PMC to educate the US gas distribution industry on the history and benefits of PE100 polyethylene resins for gas piping applications. (1) In this paper, we will explore the fundamental differences between a PE100 and a PE3408 polyethylene resin for gas distribution pipe production. Inherent in this discussion will be a brief overview of the standards and protocol by which both materials are defined and how these relate to the usage of each material in gas distribution applications. The discussion shall conclude with a direct comparison of typical PE3408 to PE100 on the basis of the physical properties of the two and the performance guidelines and limitations of both. From this paper the reader should develop a clear understanding of the differences and similarities of these two materials and how they are utilized in the gas distribution industry.
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Document ID: 9AD6BD9E

Lockup Characteristics Of Regulators- Standards And Performance
Author(s): Will Baislev
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas Regulators are used wherever gas is available in order to reduce transmission pressure to a distribution pressure, and then to a final delivered pressure. It has become an increasing common practice for manufacturers to sell to a worldwide market. Standards of Regulator Performance currently differ throughtout world markets the standards themselves are in a period of rapid evolution. This paper will look at the differing requirements for three (3) regulator performance issues: Lockup, Leakage, and Regulation.
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Document ID: DD98C801

The Centaur Project
Abstract/Introduction:
The Centaur project began in January of 1999 as a design for a suitable traceable reference for TransCanada Calibrations high pressure test facility. Its design included, a flow conditioner, multipath ultrasonic meter, reference turbine, and meter tubes with a fusion bonded epoxy coating applied to their internals. Basically the design of the reference run incorporates two different types of metering, the ultrasonic and the turbine, both with different behavior, different sensitivity to flow conditions, pressure and temperature effects (this two type approach is also reflected in the name of the project, a centaur being both a horse and a human). Based on the results of testing to date, at five International class test facilities, the Centaur reference run will become a sleeping standard at TransCanada Calibrations, Winnipeg facility. (See Figure 1.)
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Document ID: 277D616E

AGA Safety Success Stories
Author(s): Mark Higginson
Abstract/Introduction:
Good afternoon, as Dave noted, I am the Safety Manager for East Ohio Gas here in Cleveland, which is a distribution company that is part of the Consolidated Natural Gas, or CNG, system. So hopefully, you will not be confused when sometimes I refer to East Ohio and sometimes I refer to CNG. I have been asked to speak to you today about safety success stories. I wasnt quite sure when Dave called me, if he was asking me to participate because he knew that we had had some success or whether it was simply that I lived in Cleveland and he knew I would be able to be here today. But at any rate, when I considered that request, I felt that the best safety success story I could relate would be how East Ohios safety record, like downtown Cleveland, has improved dramatically over the past five years. In 1993 many parts of the downtown were not in very good shape. The Warehouse District, now brimming with upscale restaurants and nightclubs, just to the west of this convention center, was nothing but partially vacant old buildings and rundown clothing stores. Jacobs Field, home of the Indians, was not open, Gund Arena, home of the Cavaliers, was not open. The waterfront looked nothing like it does today. The Rock n Roll HOF was not open, the Science Center adjacent to the HOF was not open, and certainly no one in 1993 could have guessed that venerable Cleveland Stadium, home of the Browns, would be abandoned, the Browns would leave, the stadium demolished, a new Cleveland Browns team would be born, and a beautiful new state of the art stadium would rise like a Phoenix, from the rubble of the old. Well, five years ago East Ohios safety record was not in very good shape either.
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Document ID: 31219BCB

Epa Regulation Of Air Toxic Emissions From Natural Gas Industry Operations
Author(s): Stanton P. Coerr
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1999 and 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will promulgate national regulations to control air toxic emissions from existing and new sources in natural gas industry operations. EPA will issue the air toxic regulations in order to implement Section 112 of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (1990 Amendments). Section 112 requires that EPA establish national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for emission units at industrial facilities. This paper describes the regulatory context and schedule for the NESHAP for glycol dehydration units in natural gas transmission and storage service and for internal combustion engines and turbines firing natural gas. The paper will present the current status of the rulemakings and the key policy and technical issues related to compliance with the standards.
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Document ID: B4BDF205

Ground-Level Ozone: A Review Of The Science, Regulations, And The Control Technologies
Author(s): Delno D. Malzahn
Abstract/Introduction:
Ground-level ozone has, over the last decade, has been one of most studied, regulated and litigated environmental matters. In recent months, the natural gas industry has requested the DC Appeals Court to review USEPAs Final NOx SIP Call rule. This paper reviews the science of ozone, the major ozone regulatory actions taken by USEPA and their impact on the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with a discussion of NOx control technology for both the natural gas industry and its larger customers.
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Document ID: 285BC4EF

UCAtm/RAPS For Gas Industry Applications
Author(s): Herbert Falk, Kiran Kothari
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the history, technology, and activities that are ongoing in the convergence of the Remote Application Protocol Suite (RAPS) and Utility Communication Architecture (UCA). This convergence allows for a single communication technology to be used for electrical and gas industries.
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Document ID: 0983D78E

Accident Investigation On Customer Premises
Abstract/Introduction:
The investigation of an accident involves many skills, all of which require decisions on the part of the investigator. The ability to take a photograph is one thing. Making correct decisions on what should be photographed is another. Anyone can ask a witness questions. Knowing what questions to ask and how and when to ask them involves decisions regarding the witnesss competence, attitude, etc.
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Document ID: E62CA1BB

Storage Centres And Market Hubs- What Does The Future Hold?
Author(s): Lynn Galbraith
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 3709C2B3

New Advances In Ultrasonic Metering Technology
Author(s): John Lansing
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents recent advances during the past year (1998 & 1999) in both custody and non-custody ultrasonic gas measurement products from Instromet, Inc. The products discussed include the following: Multi-path insertion meters (non-custody) Four inch multi-path custody quality meter Q.Sonic meter with redundant capabilities Two-path custody transfer meter Test data from flow calibration laboratories has been shown for each device type. Field test results have be included whenever possible.
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Document ID: B50D76F4

High Pressure LNG Vaporization Addition
Author(s): John Foster, Jonathan Lauck, Glenn Weidlein, Brian Eisentrout
Abstract/Introduction:
Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. (CB&I) has recently completed the design, procurement and construction of a High Pressure (HP) Vaporization project for Distrigas of Massachusetts Corporation (DOMAC) increasing the vaporization capacity of the existing facility by 150,000 MSCFD and installing an upgraded electrical substation. Critical aspects of the addition were to safely install the required mechanical work and installation of the new 7.5 MVA substation while maintaining daily operation of the facility.
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Document ID: 43A82E5E

Mdpe Transition At Brooklyn Union
Author(s): Perry Sheth
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0B5A1F32

Strategic Alliance Capturing Profitability Through Strategic Sourcing Opportunities
Author(s): Jeffrey W. Lyall
Abstract/Introduction:
Strategic Alliance has been a throw away term within the Natural Gas Industry that has made Gas Company Procurement Departments nervous, and a term that is sometimes misused and misunderstood. Strategic Alliance is similar to phrases like customer focused, total quality, and organizational learning that produce little more than chronic vagueness for todays business manager.
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Document ID: C11813D5

Compressor Station Issues: Year 2000 And Beyond
Author(s): Mike Whelan
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6C85FBDC

Pipeline Efficiency Improvements From Chemical Batch Pigging
Author(s): Robert R. Rauschenberger
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most frequently used method of cleaning natural gas pipelines is the use of mechanical cleaning pigs. This will suffice for removing small amounts of debris and some minor improvements in pipeline flow efficiency can be achieved. However, supplementing pig runs with chemical batches, even though more complex, will generate results far superior to that of pigging alone.
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Document ID: 65CE359E

The Ecoelectrica LNG Import Terminal At Peuelas, Puerto Rico
Author(s): Jeffrey G. Steimer
Abstract/Introduction:
A new LNG Import Terminal is being built on the south coast of Puerto Rico at Peuelas to supply gas to a 500 MW combined cycle gas fired power generation facility. This paper discusses the features of the LNG terminal, and provides an update on the construction progress.
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Document ID: 071EF172

Pipeline River Crossings Inspection
Author(s): P. Paul Guy
Abstract/Introduction:
Construction and operation of river crossing pipelines is tremendously expensive. The consequences of a corrosion failure can cost even more than construction. For these reasons, cathodic protection and coatings have become a universally applied technique for mitigating corrosion on marine pipelines. For the corrosion protection system to be effective, a properly planned program of monitoring, inspection and maintenance is essential. The most widely accepted method of evaluating corrosion protection on pipelines is using potential measurements. Potential measurements on river pipelines have traditionally been recorded only at readily accessible locations such as risers, and test stations located near shore. Monitoring of pipeline corrosion protection only at shore installations provide limited information. It is possible that serious corrosion can be occurring along pipeline even when potentials at a riser or test station satisfy the criteria for cathodic protection. Divers can be used to take potential measurements and inspect the coatings on unburied pipelines, but this procedure is expensive and relies on the divers visually locating the pipeline. In some bays and rivers, using a diver is not practical.
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Document ID: A36277E6

Value Chain Analysis Of Corrosion Control In Natural Gas Transmission Systems
Author(s): Scott Farthing
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a value chain and why is it important? Why should the corrosion professional be concerned about the stuff of business analysis and economics? How can the concepts of a value chain be applied to supporting and achieving the goals in a corrosion control program, while adding value to the corporate objectives? A value chain is any group or series of activities that affects an organizations internal and external customers. It captures the interdependence across these separate organizations and demonstrates the role each play in the addition of value to the total system. One of the key elements for a value chain analysis is to de-emphasize the functional structure of the organization and examine it from a process prospective. In doing so, the emphasis is placed on how work is done, not on what or how much work was done.
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Document ID: 50431F37

Charting The Course For An Unbundled Local Distribution Company
Author(s): Suzanne Sitherwood
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 73518CBF

Inspector/Inspection Practices Of Contractor Construction
Author(s): Rollin R. Launder
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will highlight best practices in inspector and inspection of contractor construction. Consumers Energy was one of the Best Practices companies in A.G.A. BEST PRACTICES BENCHMARKING-INSPECTION OF CONTRACTOR CONSTRUCTION-1998. Based on the experiences of 12 benchmark utilities, more than 50% savings can be realized in the implementation of these best practices.
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Document ID: 3C7BD915

Value Engineering
Author(s): R. Joseph Kuhner, Mark A. Sacchetti
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the principles and concepts discussed in this paper are based on a study of Columbia Gas of Ohios capital expenditures performed by William (Bill) Eckles, P.E. Bills vast experience in the gas industry includes past positions with East Ohio Gas, Michigan Gas Utilities, and New Jersey Natural Gas-where he retired as President. He served on the A.G.A.s Operating committee and was its chairman in 1989. Additionally, Bill has served as Chairman of the Board for the Midwest Gas Association, and was the United States delegate to the International Gas Union-Distribution Section. The examples used in this paper are real projects that were developed by the engineers and operating personnel at Columbia Gas. Without their dedication to implementing the described principles, this paper would not be possible.
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Document ID: 3CDE33C1

Emerging Technologies For Point Of Use Gas Quality Measurement For The Twenty-First Century
Author(s): Daniel A. Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
I am pleased to introduce a low cost fully integrated self contained energy meter that provides all interested parties real time information of gas measurement details over wide area networks like the Internet through open system protocols across wireless communications systems. The device not only detects pressure, temperature and flow to calculate volume but at the same time provides detection of specific gravity, percentage of inert gas and BTU. These measurements are generated from a single in-line solid-state primary sensor connected to ultra low-power micro-miniature electronics. Accuracy is better than plus or minus one therm. There are no moving parts. The system provides not only the measurement components for determining therms but can be programmed to use artificial intelligence for incorporating real time dynamic rate structures based upon time of use demand experience. Control and alarm intelligence is available through infinitely variable outputs. The power supply lasts for twenty-five years and may be thrown in the trash without harming the environment. The system is suitable for use in hazardous atmospheres, requires no recalibration and one size fits all pipe diameters. The price is less than 100. Availability of this new device is the year 2010.
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Document ID: B8B34A23

A Focus On The Economical Advantages Of Domestic Meter Curb-Side Proving And Total Meter Management
Author(s): Gregory A. Germ
Abstract/Introduction:
Recent joint ventures with several natural gas distribution utilities have proved the technology behind domestic curb-side proving. Residential gas meters can be tested in the field as accurately as standard meter shop provers within a controlled environment. These pilot projects have also concluded that many domestic meters require minor repairs for continued service. Many of these minor repairs (such as meter tangent adjustments) can be performed directly in the field using the curb-side prover, or Field Proving Vehicle. With these observations in mind, the focus of attention shifts from confirming the technology behind the curb-side proving concept, to economically justifying its use in periodic change or sampling test programs. This paper will briefly explain the theory and principles behind domestic meter curb-side proving, review its benefits to the existing meter change out practice, and discuss how curb-side proving may be expanded to provide future cost reductions to distribution gas utilities.
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Document ID: C0B3CFF0

Regulator Station Design For Portable Cng Supply
Author(s): Melton A. Huey
Abstract/Introduction:
Washington Gas employees designed and built a skid-mounted regulator station (regulator skid) to work in conjunction with a tube tank trailer, which is a transportable supply of high-pressure compressed natural gas (CNG) used to reduce and/or prevent service interruption during various types of construction projects. The regulator skids main advantage, besides fitting in the bed of a pickup truck, is its ability to adequately heat the gas being offloaded, thereby preventing equipment malfunction and speeding the offloading process. This equipment recently underwent field tests and was hailed as an easy-to-operate, timesaving device.
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Document ID: EE6D6DCD

The Bundled Services Process For Residential Developments
Author(s): Eric Gerstel
Abstract/Introduction:
Incorporated in 1929 as the Philadelphia Electric Company, PECO Energy Company provides retail electricity and natural gas to customers in Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey. The Companys traditional retail service territory covers 2,107 square miles, including electric service to approximately 1.5 million customers in and around Philadelphia and natural gas service to approximately 420,000 customers adjacent to Philadelphia. Nineteen ninety-seven brought tremendous change in Pennsylvanias electric utility industry. For the first time, electricity customers were provided with the opportunity to choose their generation supplier. Knowing that the industry would be in turmoil with marketers wanting a piece of the deregulated energy pie, the Company developed a new strategic architecture. PECO Energy is organized around three key lines of business: power generation and marketing, gas and electric distribution, and unregulated energy and service-related businesses. PECO Energy is marketing its unregulated offerings in this third line of business under the unified brand name of Exelon.
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Document ID: D122C222

Pc Based Control For Engine/Compressors
Author(s): Mike Foreman
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. (TCO) is installing a new PC based control system with distributed input/output (I/O) at the companys Artemas, Pennsylvania Compressor Station as part of a cost reducing pilot project. Columbia Gas Transmission, a subsidiary of the Columbia Energy Group, has taken this step as part of an overall business strategy to seek more efficient ways to conduct business. The company has determined that to compete as the preferred energy supplier, rates must be competitive. The objective is to have the lowest rates. In a changing market place, this requires a new strategy one that reduces the initial cost of installed plant and equipment and will require less money to maintain.
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Document ID: 9D95926E

Is It Just A False Alarm?
Author(s): Ted Williams-
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: ADE7F52F

New Technology: Modular Gate Stations Reduce Project Costs*
Author(s): Thomas G. Quine
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 7B2A9B38


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