Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1998)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1998 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Measurement
Author(s): Edward Ed() T. Ladd Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover flow measurement devices that can be used with Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). It does not define the exact principle of operation for each technology discussed. In dealing with the subject of measurement LNG there must be a basic imderstanding of storage and handling practices for the product. Since the early 1900s industry has produced, in low volume, natural gas in a liquefied state for transportation purposes. During the 1960s high volume transportation has used the dense liquid state of LNG to transport natural gas to other parts of the world. The oil crisis during the 1970s created a wave of exploration in the use of alternative fiiels as a replacement for gasoline. One alternative fuel stands out above the rest to replace gasoline, LNG. Vaporized LNG is one of the most suitable replacements because of its low cost, energy content, and clean emissions when compared with that of gasoline.
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Document ID: 06F8D9BD

Evstallation And Operaion Of Densitometers
Author(s): Don L. Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
A densitometer is an electromechanical device used to measure the flowing density of a stream. Because it measures density, a densitometer is often called a density meter. This paper uses densitometer and density meter interchangeably. The stream is usually a single-phase liquid, but instead could be a single-phase gas or vapor. In the oil and gas industry, a densitometer usually measures the density of liquid mixmres or hydrocarbon products meeting some specification. Other industries use densitometers to measure the density of fluids like milk, vinegar and syrup.
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Document ID: 0C87A74D

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Ivieasurement
Author(s): Sandra L. Kelly
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine flowmeter has been reported as the most accurate flowmeter in industrial use (1) and is currently utilized in a wide variety of hydrocarbon fluids. This paper will review general turbine flowmeter characteristics and various engineering aspects involved in the application and selection of turbine flowmeters for hydrocarbon fluid service.
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Document ID: EFD3E83F

Btu Analysis Using A Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
Amoco is the largest owner of natural gas reserves in North America and is recognized as a major supplier throughout the world. The company, early on, recognized that any successful natural gas marketing strategy, should incorporate the philosophy of developing and maintaining accurate natural gas measurement. This not only assures that anticipated project revenues come to fruition but all efforts to enhance shareholder equity are realized. Most natural gas sales contracts and transportation agreements are based on Therms delivered to the transporter. As a result, natural gas chromalograph surveys are conducted to assure that laboratories and on-stream instruments provide accurate gas analyses for calculation of compressibility, heating value content (Kilo Calories, BTU) and relative density (specific gravity). An on-site survey, which includes the evaluation and documentation of analytical procedures and results, increases the certainty that fimds are exchanged on an equitable basis.
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Document ID: F7F4B6E7

Fundamentals Of Gas Measuremient - IV
Author(s): Juan F. Luongo, Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19. To meet gas industry needs for accurate volumetric flowrate measurement procedures, development of a new highly accurate equation of state for the prediction of the supercompressibility factor and other properties of natural gases has been sponsored by the Gas Research Institute.
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Document ID: 29C35D81

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Natural Gas And Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): John Renfro
Abstract/Introduction:
Extended analysis by chromatography is required when Gas Processor Association (G.P.A.) Methods 2261 and 2177 fail to produce data of individual hydrocarbon compounds heavier than normal pentane. G.P.A. Method 2261 (Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography) individually identifies 3 inerts and hydrocarbon compounds methane through normal pentane. G.P.A. Method 2177 (Analysis of Demathanized Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Gas Chromatography) identifies the same compounds with some variation in chromatogaraphic methodology. G.P.A, Methods 2186 and 2286 are to be used when hydrocarbon compounds heavier than normal pentane are to be identified. As a definition tor this class, the term, heavy hydrocarbon components, will include all hydrocarbon compounds requiring extended analysis for identification. Characterization of heavy hydrocarbons will be discussed in the following topics
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Document ID: D031EA6A

Proving And Certification Tests Of Automatic Sampling Systems For Custody Transfer
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to verify the equipment, installation and operational procedures produce a representative sample of shipments or batches. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system, including the analysis of the sample. This paper will deal with the testing and proving of automatic sampling systems in crude oil service, although the proving test, in various forms, is also applicable for petroleum products as well as petroleum blending systems. The proving test is a culmination of efforts that began in 1978 with the first meeting of the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 8, Section 2, Working Group (WG), The purpose of the WG was to write a standard for automatic sampling of petroleum and petroleum products. The group did many tests in the field and used the results to write the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 8, Section 2, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-4177. These documents were also the basis for the International Standards Organization (ISO) 3171 and the Institute of Petroleum (IP) Petroleum Measurement Manual, Section 2. Part IV.
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Document ID: 1CB92E1C

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Daniel J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance, it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships
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Document ID: 49AE868C

Orifice Meter Gage Line Distortions
Author(s): Ray G. Durke, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In attempts to achieve more accurate gas flow measurements, industry is placing more emphasis on defining and avoiding adverse unsteady flow conditions. Interactions of pulsation energy and piping acoustics are being considered. Industry has put a great deal of effort into replacing relatively long gage line tubing with close-coupled, straight bore manifolds. This paper touches on gage line effects on gas flow measurement. The term gage lines as used in this paper refers to the pressure sensing lines connecting the orifice taps to the transmitter, including valve manifolds, branch connections, and transmitter gas passage volumes.
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Document ID: B0388F80

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc
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Document ID: 548E48E4

Advances In Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): Jerry L. Diven
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is and continues to be in a state of change. This evolution appears to be escalating rather than slowing down. This can be attributed to many things. The major factors affecting this include new regulations and changing market conditions. Other factors include changes in the business environment such as technology improvements and a shift in thinking by many business strategists. It is important that we are able to recognize these influences in our industry and develop appropriate business strategies that will turn potential problems into opportunities. The focus of this paper is specifically on how these changes are affecting Gas Measurement Systems (GMS).
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Document ID: D2701526

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Fred Wensel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will focus on basic RTU communications principles as it applies to Oil and Gas Production operations. Transmission and Distribution systems, and explain data communications fundamentals
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Document ID: 89372443

Field And Laboratory Testing Of Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
Sediment and water (S&W) naturally occur in crude oil. The American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 1, defines S&W as, Material coexisting with, yet foreign to, petroleum liquid that requires a separate measurement for reasons that include sales accounting. This foreign material includes free water and sediment and emulsified or suspended material and sediment. The quantity of suspended material present is determined by a cenuifiige or laboratory testing of a sample of petroleum liquid (see free water). API MPMS Chapter 10.4 states, A determination of sediment and water content is required to determine accurately the net volumes of crude oil involved in sales, taxation, exchanges, inventories, and custody transfers....
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Document ID: 6BDB1BEC

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities By Static Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will describe the procedures to be applied when calculating bulk oil quantities (i.e. volume or weight) held in tankage. The procedures follow the calculation methods recommended by the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. Other classes at the School will have shown you how to collect the required data, this lesson will show the basic calculation procedures to be followed. Careful physical measurements will be neutralized if the same attention to detail is not applied to the calculations. With present day technology it is necessary to more specifically define the rules for calculating petroleum quantities. If this is not precisely stated in the number of digits to be entered and the rules for rounding, truncating and calculating, then different parties will not arrive at the same answers. With the use of computers and scientific calculators it soon became clear that A x B x C is not always the same as C x B x A and that B x C x A may be different to the other two. This class sets out calculation rules for static measurement together with examples of various types of calculations.
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Document ID: 387D45F0

Leak Detection Of Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): J.H. Harry() James
Abstract/Introduction:
Leak detection has always been a major concern to pipeline companies. Unlike leaks that occur in aboveground transportation modes such as highway and ocean tankers, pipeline leaks tend to appear at low points that are typically below ground level and are not readily visible. Underground leaks, if undetected, can result in heavy product losses and may result in severe damage to surrounding environment.
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Document ID: AEA416C7

Technical Applications Of Computers And Software
Author(s): Ryan Muckensturm
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers. PCs. workstation, handhelds, laptops and special purpose computers have become a way of life in the Natural Gas Industry. Your challenge as a user is to find ever increasing ways to apply this and new computer technology to allow you to become more efficient. Computers do make the field users job easier to perform, if time is taken to assure that programming and computers are selected to fill the need.
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Document ID: C4042F15

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence in a liquid or gas piping system is almost never desirable. Unfortunately, turbulence is also almost never absent. So we must plan for it in order to minimize its effects on pipeline capacity, pressure drop, measurement error, noise, and piping vibration. Design engineers and field personnel alike are interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both favor maximum throughput with the least amount of noise. By the same token, both are concerned with finding the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs, or dew point instruments, and for a steady sense point for control
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Document ID: 3E63866C

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Abstract/Introduction:
The API Measurement committee on Petroleum Measurement have issued a Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standard (MPMS) containing all the present Individual Measurement Standards. The manual consists of three volumes with tank calibration being covered in MPMS Chapter 2 - Tank Calibration. This paper will discuss two primary methods currently being use6 to calibrate upright cylindrical storage tanks. Section 2A - Measurement upright cylindrical tanks by strapping method. and the calibration of manual tank Section 2B - Calibration of upright cylindrical tanks using the Optical Reference Line Method.
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Document ID: 0DF7C0EA

Chart Processing
Author(s): Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Analyzing the chart is a thought process. Looking at the chart that came in from the field to look for abrupt changes in the flow pattern, different patterns, high Os. low Os meter clock changes, orfice plate changes and etc. To do a through and efficient job, the chart analyzer has to go research past records, meter reports, and notes from the field, in order to properly analyze the chart. Some of the problems the analyzer has to research and the pattern changes can be attributed to the items listed below.
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Document ID: 933425EC

Gas Service Regulators - Selection, Installation And Operation
Author(s): Jerry Kamalieh
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of pressure regulators should begin with what is expected of a regulator and what it does. Regulators feed gas to appliances at some desired pressure (within limits) and supply significant gas flow to satisfy the demands of the appliance. The regulator serves the appliance. It is as simple and as difficult as tha
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Document ID: 35338D6E

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Eamey
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressure instability. This paper will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: 1C2E9B9D

Design, Operation, And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
To insure correct measurement of a petroleum fluid, the Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) equipment must be properly designed, operated, and maintained. A LACT unit is a collection of skid mounted components and piping designed to accurately measure the quality and quantity of a petroleum liquid. This precise measurement is used to automaticaUy transfer the custody of liquid from one responsible party to another. Therefore, all the components used to measure the quantity and quality must be able to be checked for proper and correct operation. We can compare a LACT Unit to a cash register. Like the cash register, a LACT Unit must be able to prove to the seller and purchaser, the measurement information is correct.
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Document ID: 7CEDF27D

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Daniel J. Householder
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of any measurement system is to provide an exact reading of volume that is transferred. Whether this value is for internal auditing or custody transfer, it is imperative that any errors be removed in the measurement process. When measuring the transfer of liquid products, a method of proving the pulsed outputs from a turbine meter, or positive displacement meter, was developed and approved by API (American Petroleum Institute). This method involved the use of a device that compared the volume that passed the meter with a known volume. This paper will review the Pulse mterpolation methods used to increase the resolution of meter pulses related to small volume proving.
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Document ID: 02ADE5E6

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation testing as it is most commonly referred to in the field, is actually a test to determine the percentage of square root error present at an orifice meter. While the principal of square root error has been known since the early 1960s, it was not until the middle 1980s that an accurate means of determining square root error was developed. Before this time some methods of measuring pulsations, such as the pulsometer, were in use. While these methods were better than nothing, they were inaccurate and quantifying error was difficult.
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Document ID: 70A0CFF0

Trouble Shooting Liquid Pipeline Gains And Losses
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines operated today are multi-dimensional pipelines systems providing multiple services for its many shippers and customers. Pipeline systems may connect multiple origins and destinations, carry various products across long distances with changing profiles, dimensions and directions. Pipelines operated today are complex systems operating on a fine line between profit and compliance. Monitoring pipeline gains and losses employ tools and analysis methods developed specifically to trouble shoot pipeline variances. Examination of pipeline gains and losses require basic statistical analysis as well as intuitive and creative insight into wlial controls gains and losses.
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Document ID: 06CA36AF

Advanced Application Of Flow Computers And Telemeteriing Systems
Author(s): Kevin L. Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
As the natural gas industry has evolved to operate in a competitive, worldwide business environment, demands on automation and measurement equipment have substantially increased. Recentlyintroduced instruments have stepped-up to meet the business demands of the natural gas industry. This paper provides an update on a few key measurement and control instrumentation developments which are applicable to pipelines.
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Document ID: E2509822

Determination Of Hs And Total Sulfur In Natural Gas
Author(s): T. Y. (Tom)Tramel
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide (HiS) and total sulfur, in varying amounts are found in almost all natural gas fields. In some cases, the HS content is so small that the natural gas is referred to as Sweet gas. However, many gas fields throughout the U.S., Canada, and worldwide, produce Sour gas at levels high enough to require HiS and Total Sulfur removal. Removal of the sulfur components is essential to ensure personal safety and pipeline operational integrity.
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Document ID: 07B15222

Application Of Turbine Meters In Liquid Measurement Class 247
Author(s): Kenneth Jenkins, Danny Mcfarland
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used since the early 1900s to measure liquid in a variety of industrial applications. Until the last decade, however, metering capabilities have been unable to provide consistent measurement accuracy. This problem has now been resolved through the introduction of state-of-the-art electronics that have been employed to enhance turbine meter capabilities so that they can provide the accuracy required for oilfield liquid measurement applications.
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Document ID: 8A2F04A4

The Role Of The Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement - An Overview Of Onshore Orders 4 And 5
Author(s): Lonny R. Bagley
Abstract/Introduction:
The Director of the Bureau of Land Management is given the authority by 43 CFR Part 3160 Section 3164.1 to issue Onshore Oil and Gas Orders when necessary to implement and supplement: the operating regulations. The purpose of these orders, is to establish requirements and minimum standards for the measurement of oil and gas by methods authorized in 43 CFR 3162.7-2,3 and to provide standard operating practices for the lease oil storage and handling facilities. Proper otl and gas measurement ensures that the Federal Government and Indian mineral owners receive the royalties due, as specified in the governing oil and gas leases. These orders are applicable to all Federal and Indian (except Osage) oil and gas leases and all wells and facilities on State or privately owned minerals land committed to a unit or communitization agreement that affects Federal or Indian interests.
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Document ID: B2CB1431

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Edwin H. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced.
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Document ID: 36A6A2BD

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment Class 154
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the functionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems.
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Document ID: 35393020

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer Class 119
Author(s): Kenneth P. Cessac
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flow computer has been around since the 1960s and is a microprocessor based device used to perform flow calculations at the measurement site and store the data in memory for later retrieval. The 1980s brought about inexpensive more reliable electronic equipment which made the flow computer more affordable. Even with the price coming down the real need for electronic measurement was brought about by the deregulation of the gas industry and Order 636, open access of the transmission pipelines. Todays flow computers are widely used throughout the gas industry and are rapidly becoming the standard for real-time measurement.
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Document ID: E9000E34

Differential Pressure Zero-Cutoff And Related Issues In Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper attempts to discuss zero cutoff issues and establish some zero cutoff guidelines as they pertain to electronic flow computers that are, generally speaking, industry accepted for custody transfer of hydrocarbon gas. Although the term industry accepted is somewhat of a euphemism, it generally refers to flow computer systems that both satisfy API Chapter 21.1 and have been subjected to testing by an independent laboratory, with stated uncertainties traceable to a national standard. This testing should include the effects of changing ambient temperature on the flow computer and associated transducers.
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Document ID: 74EB457C

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures Class 238
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass measurement calculations are performed on product that has been measured in any of the three following arrangements: Volume meter and density meter setup Direct weighing with scales Coriolis Force Flowmeter The results obtained from the meter system or scale is in pounds. In the oil and gas industry most of our products are sold on a volume basis therefore, the pounds need to be converted to some form of volume such as gallons or barrels. In order for the two parties to negotiate transactions with different products, the product units need to all be on a common basis. The basis conditions used are defined in the agreement or the contract made between the parties in question. If the parties had agreed to perform their transaction in pounds there would be no need to worry about what the base conditions are since pressure and temperature do not impact mass. Some of the reasons for this such as the solution mixing affect and compressibility and the use of volume correction tables are covered in other papers presented at this school.
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Document ID: 2F8789E3

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement III
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of namral gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: AD0A746B

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional() Class 252
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroleum industry has used conventional pipe provers for on line calibration of liquid flow meters for over 30 years. With the widespread use of turbine meters for custody transfer, accurate measurement is more dependent on frequent proving, thus the industry will continue to demand advanced provers and proving techniques. The author will discuss the aforementioned subject with regard to both bidirectional and unidirectional pipe provers. In the last several years, a number of innovations have come to the forefront that enhance the reliability of pipe provers, reduce their size, make them more accurate, and increase their value to the end users
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Document ID: 16C473EF

Installation & Operation Errors In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Walt Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Installation and operation errors may have an effect on measurement accuracy and therefore on company operations. This paper will present information for some types of installation/operation problems for common gas flow metering devices such as orifices, turbines, and positive displacement meters. Flow disturbances are usually categorized as either swirl, asymmetric velocity profile, or pulsation/noise.
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Document ID: B8548870

Fundamental Principles Of Self Operated Regulators
Author(s): Brad m. Frantzen
Abstract/Introduction:
A Gas Pressure Regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure. The basic regulator could be an operator at a control valve watching a pressure gauge. The valve is manually opened to allow the line pressure to achieve the desired gauge setting. The operator then visually monitors the gauge and either opens the valve or closes it to maintain the desired pressure. The problem with this system is it would require fiill-time operators for daily operation and continuous monitoring of the gauge. The regulator products on the market do not monitor the gauge, however, via monitoring the outlet pressure, they do automatically open and/or close the valve to control the outlet pressure at an established value. The manually operated regulator is still employed by gas companies to provide uninterrupted service during repairs or replacement of a regulator on a single feed system.
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Document ID: 484DC1C3

Remote Collection And Transmission Of Domestic Meter Reading Class 169
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
What is called AMR today can be broken down into two alternatives: (1) Automated Meter Reading and (2) Automatic Meter Reading. Utilities started to experiment with these methods of reading meters as early as the late 1960s. With the rapid technological advances which occurred during the 1980s (CMOS electronic components, wide operating temperature ranges, and lithium battery technology), automated and automatic meter reading became economically feasible.
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Document ID: 5C3FEC0C

Effective Use Of Deadweight Instruments
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge Is the most accurate Instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of O.IX to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting Is available for most i nstruments. With the addition of a pressure pump, valves, and pressure connections, the hydraulic Deadweight Gauge becomes a Deadweight Tester and can be used to alibrate pressure transducers and other, less-accurate pressure gauges. The pneumatic deadweight instruments are testers since they deliver air at an accurate pressure using an unregulated supply.
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Document ID: DF683D63

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Drew S. Weaver
Abstract/Introduction:
The mdustry continues to benefit from advancements in instrumentation and computer control systems applied to liquid measurement equipment. These advancements result in more complex and sophisticated requirements for interfacing with the mechanical equipment. Complete compatibility of the instrumentation system with the metering components must be incorporated in the design to assure optimum functionality of the system. This paper outlines design considerations and other factors that should be considered in specification and construction of flow measurement stations for hydrocarbon liquids.
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Document ID: DC97F842

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I Class 125
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that they have a knowledge of natural gas chemistry
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Document ID: 095AB972

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures Class 218
Author(s): Fred Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to provide an overview of metering systems used for the mass measurement of natural gas liquid mixtures. It includes information for turbine, P.D. and orifice metering systems as well as brief segments on Coriolis mass meters and scales. The basic equation and industry standards covering mass measurement will be addressed, as will some of the common operating, mechanical and procedural problems that often degrade the performance of these systems
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Document ID: 5FFDC937

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters Class 181
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotaiy, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industn and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. These four main t-pes of meters can be broken into tvo distinct categories: positive displacement and inferential. Diaphragm and rotar meters fall into the positive displacement category because the have well-defined measTirement compartments that alternately fill and empt as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters
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Document ID: F9CA2DFB

Automatic Tank Gauges Class 203
Author(s): Frank J, Berto
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the main types of automatic tank gauges (ATGs) and the significant changes that have taken place in the last decade. It will describe the changes in APIs measurement standards that allow ATGs to be used for custody transfer. Finally, it will give the authors suggestions for selecting an ATG
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Document ID: 5EFDA384

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are among the most complex instrumentation systems encountered in a meter station. Yet they require less maintenance than some much simpler instrumentation. Modern chromatograph controllers are equipped with remote diagnostics and computer-based chromatograms to aid users in deciding when and why maintenance is required. The information below is presented to aid a user in troubleshooting chromatograph problems by viewing both diagnostic messages and chromatograms.
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Document ID: 0455A72A

Effects Of The Latest Revision Of Ansi/api 2536/aga 3 On Orifice Meter Primary Elements
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Based on the results of a comprehensive lest program, in 1991 API released a revised edition of Chapter 14, Section 3 in 4 part format. The results allowed a new, improved equation to be issued which has reduced uncertainty. Along with the new equation, new, tighter tolerances are required of the mechanical equipment. These specific requirements are detailed in Pari 2 of the Standard, which has become known in the industry as API 14.3.
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Document ID: 37A227B4

Manual Chart Calculations Using 1991 Revision Of A.G.A. #3
Author(s): David E. Pulley
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart volume calculation is the process of calculating units of quantity from data taken from chart recordings and historical records. Prior to 1991 the accepted method to perform manual volume calculations was to use the latest revision of A.G.A. Report No. 3 and A.G.A. NX-19. The recommended formula was Qh C hw Pf where: Qh Quantity rate of flow at base conditions, cu ft/hr C Orifice flow constant hw Differential pressure in inches of water Pf Absolute static pressure in psi A minimum amount of calculating was required to determine factors used in the calculating the orifice flow constant (C). Most Factors could be obtained from tables which were products of average values and contributed to overall measurement uncertainty. The accepted formula was C Fb Fr Y Ffb Ftb Ftf Fgr Fpv Fa.
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Document ID: E349047F

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Introduction A pressure regulator is a selfcontained valve and actuator combination that does not bleed gas to atmosphere. The function is to match demand while maintaining a constant downstream pressure. This paper addresses high pressure regulators (commonly considered) as a psig to psig reduction. Discussed will be both self-operated and pilotoperated designs. We will cover essential elements of regulators, as well as applications, characteristics and criteria used for selecting and sizing high pressure regulators.
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Document ID: 3E80FC7B

Meters For Alternate Fuel Dispensers
Author(s): Michael J. Keilty
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas has been used as a fuel source for motor vehicles since Heniy Otto first demonstrated his methane-fueled engine at the Paris Exposition in 1867. Over the last 40 years, natural gas has been viewed as a viable alternative to gasoline because of its abundant supply and low cost. The economic advantage of natural gas over gasoline has now been supplemented with an additional environmental advantage of low pollutants. Unfortunately, the infrastructure necessary to bring natural gas to the consumer has not yet been developed. Only in the last 10 years has natural gas been considered more than an experimental fuel source for vehicles. The technology of compressing or liquefying, storing, and dispensing natural gas is safe and practical. The application of the technology is now reaching beyond the fleet services and into the retail motor fiiel market.
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Document ID: FE2CDE7D

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Daniel J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper control valve sizing and selection in todays industrial world is essential to operating at a cost-effective and highly efficient level. A properly selected and utilized control valve will not only last longer than a control valve that is improperly sized, but will also provide quantifiable savings in the form of reduced maintenance costs, reduced process variability, and increased process availability. An undersized valve will not pass the required flow, while a valve that is oversized will be more costly and can cause instability throughout the entire control loop
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Document ID: 79A3D25F

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Each serves a different segment of the gas industry and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, These four main types of meters can be broken into two distinct categories: positive displacement, and inferential. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they have well-defmed mea-surement compartments that alternately fill and empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter will read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters. Turbme and orifice meters have no measurement compartments to trap and then release the gas. These meters are categorized as inferenlial meters in that the volume passed through them is inferred by something else observed or measured. In the orifice meter the volumes are determined only by knowing the inlet pressure, differential pressure, plate size, and piping characteristics, all of which infer the flow rates that in turn can be integrated over time to provide the volume.
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Document ID: 0377C851

Compressed Natural Gas Cng() Measurement
Author(s): J. Christopher Buckingham, Edgar B. Bowles
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas vehicle (NOV) market in the United States is currently experiencing a growth period due, in part, to Federal Government mandates requiring staged fleet conversion to alternative fuels. Continued growth of the NGV market will be highly dependent on the availability of reasonably-priced vehicles and on the development of the necessary NGV fueling infrastructure. Ongoing development programs are working on ways to produce more efficient and more economical natural-gas-powered vehicles. Efforts are also underway to design more efficient and less costly compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations.
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Document ID: D73A468F

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will focus on advanced applications of battery powered flow computers for gas measurement and control at oil and gas production, transmission and distribution measurement sites. What is a flow computer? The basic building blocks of any flow computer system is based in two main components, 1. The embedded microprocessor system (main electronics system) and, 2. The external support components. The flow computer is made up of a main electronics board which houses the microprocessor, memory (EPROM and FLASH, or RAM), an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), charger/regulator/power supply system. UART(s) for remote and local communications. and display support circuitry. Connected to the main electronics board is auxiliary systems for battery power, external charger, external transducers for differential pressure, static pressure and temperature measurements, and a display (see figure 1).
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Document ID: 5C6DB637

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Patrick S. Mccurdy
Abstract/Introduction:
Technology advances in the world of semiconductors and microprocessors are increasing at a breathtaking pace. The density of transistor population on integrated circuits has increased at a rate unimaginable just a few years ago. The advantages are many: faster data acquisition, real time control, and fully automated factories, to name a few.
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Document ID: B734D735

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measurement Systems
Author(s): Victor Wegelin
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine Terminal Operators demand fast accurate measurement, with a minimal amount of operator intervention. On-line analyzers and flow computers can provide fully automated NSV tickets, and can improve measurement accuracy a full order of magnitude, to +/- 0.02% from +/- 0.25%, or better. Marine Crude Oil Terminal movements have the following characteristics that affect the way measurements are done: Both ships and terminals are subject to demurrage charges due to delays in cargo transfers. Therefore, the speed of the transfer directly affects the transfer cost. The delivery usually represents a transfer of ownership, and thus requires apphcation of custody rules. The quality of the product may change during the transfer, and will certainly change from shipment to shipment.
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Document ID: DB97350B

Pyonmeter Installation, Operation, And Calibration
Author(s): Michael R. Wells
Abstract/Introduction:
A pycnometer is a scientific apparatus designed to accurately determine density. With proper installation, operation and calibration, a very high degree of accuracy will be obtained. In the chemical, petroleum, and natural gas industries, continuous density measurement has uicreased in importance because of quality control, or because of custody transfer. A pycnometer is the proving standard to which a densitometer is compared
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Document ID: E0DAB792

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatographs
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is clianging from a measurement system based on volume to one based on a volume of energy. As the natural gas commodity is passed from producer to the final delivery customer it is mixed with other produced gases of different energy values causing the final product to be very different from its original composifion. This created a difference between state and federally regulated movement of natural gas. To remove inequities in measurement terms, the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 was passed wliich included as one of its provisions that natural gas was to be bought and sold on the basis of energy content.
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Document ID: 68323CC2

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Mark Smyth, Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the many parameters that must be accurately measured for product quality control, custody transfer, process control, or liquid interface detection purposes is liquid density. Often, density measurement is combined with flow measurement to determine the mass flow rate of a liquid in a pipeline. In this article, we will discuss the principle of operation of vibrating tube densitometers, design suggestions for densitometer installation, and calibrating, or proving, the system.
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Document ID: 2532BF03

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): L. C. Arrambide, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
New technology on measuring and testing of liquid hydrocarbons continues to improve the quantity and quality for custody transfer measurements. However, the cost of these improvements coupled with the shear number of crude oil leases which exist today necessitates that the majority of custody transfer measurement continue to be done manually using the same type gauging equipment which has been used for decades. Gauging equipment has been improved through expanded quality control monitoring from both manufacturers and end users. An increased emphasis from the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards for verification of gauging equipment, against certified test standards which are traceable to the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST), is improving the quality of equipment at the field level.
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Document ID: 33ED7F00

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Keith Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will concentrate on the fundamentals and principles of natural gas pressure regulation by means of a self-operated regulator. In the gas regulators conception it was mainly a device used to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, more is expected from the performance of the pressure regulator. Pressure reduction is no longer the only function needed. The regulator is considered an integral measurement instrument that must to adhere to the stringent codes put forth by the Federal Department of Transportation.
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Document ID: 0F4360FF

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ric Bass
Abstract/Introduction:
To insure the most reliable measurement of gas and other fluids possible, it is important that orifice meter tubes are fabricated in compliance with accepted industry standards. The most common orifice metering standard used is the ANSI/API 2530, also known as AGA-3. This paper will focus on Part 2, Construction and installation Requirements, of the standard, which addresses the methods, procedures and equipment used in the inspection and micrometer measurement of orifice meter tubes.
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Document ID: FD6C3335

Techniques Of Gas Composite Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite sample is gas collected in a sample container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during some specific period of time. In order for this to be true, the sampling system must be installed properly, maintained in working order, and the sample must be subsequently handled properly. The object of the composite sampling system is to gather representative bites or grabs of the gas moving by the sample point and inject diose bites unchanged into a sample container for storage and transportation to an analyzing device.
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Document ID: 0E8C2E97

Positive Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): R. Gary Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
this paper will examine tlie strengths and weaknesses as well as design principles that are fundamental to capillary seal PD Meters. It will also highlight tlie system and die parameters diat must be considered before accurate meter selection can be made. Comparisons will be presented utilizing the six (6) most common PD Meter principles: (1) Oscillating Piston, (2) Sliding Vane. (3) Oval Gear. (4) Tri-Rotor. (5) BiRotor. (6) Nutating Disc
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Document ID: A9597758

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. Meters are rugged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) paformed the first recorded work that used orifices for the measurient of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in the fluid flow measurement, their deigns, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and internationally Ref 1-7. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors.
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Document ID: 21042768

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and now uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which uses the actual mass flow computations. This system has many enhancements over former methods of proving gas turbine meters. Arkla formerly proved its larger turbine meters, having capacities of 60,000 ACFH (Actual Cubic Feet per Hour), with a Roots transfer prover capable of only 10,000 ACFH. This meant the provings were at or near locations on the proving curve where the K-factor (Pulses per Actual Cubic Foot) might be in error for the turbine meters normal flow rate. With the prover Arkla can now prove a turbine meter at the rate it is actually flowing.
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Document ID: FFB74F50

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Bill Gotthardt
Abstract/Introduction:
The vortex shedding phenomenon is nothing new. It occurs in nature. The first recorded observation was by Leonardo Di Vinci more than 400 years ago when he noted the formation of vortex swirls downstream of a rock in a stream of water. At that time, while interesting to observe, the phenomenon was of no practical value. It required modern electronics to make some use of the information. When a flowing medium strikes a non-streamlined object or obstruction, it separates and moves around the object and passes on downstream. At the point of the contact with the object, known as a bluff body or shedder bar, vortex swirls or eddy currents separate from the object on alternating sides. When this occurs - the separation or shedding causes an increase in pressure and a decrease in velocity on one side of the object, and a decrease in pressure with corresponding increase in velocity on the other side of the object. After shedding from one side, the process is reversed and a swirl or vortex is shed on the other side of the object.
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Document ID: B1570F92

Auditing Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Grace Barrett-Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Auditing liquid measurement requires combining a solid knowledge of the measurement process and related business activity with sound auditing techniques. In his 1996 ISHM paper Basic Measurement Uncertainty, Thomas Kegel states, A measurement process consists of the instrumentation, people and procedures that result in the determination of a numeric value for a variable. In auditing liquid measurement, a fourth aspect must be considered - the related business activity of measurement, the documentation of transactions based on a measured value. IIA (Institute of Internal Auditors) standards applied to the measurement process and associated business transactions provide a framework for auditing liquid measurement.
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Document ID: 35D63657

Verification/Certification Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth W. Cicere
Abstract/Introduction:
Every day temporary ownership of millions of barrels of oil are transferred from one entity to another. This is generally referred to as custody transfer. Custody transfer can happen between lease to truck, truck to pipeline, pipeline to pipeline, or any other combination. All that is required are two agreeable parties and some measurement of the oil. The measurement of the oil generally consist of the volume and gravity, and adjustment factors such as temperature and sediment and water (S&W). The equipment used to determine these measurements must be of commonly agreed type and must be of proven accuracy. The equipment must meet certain requirements as set forth by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
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Document ID: 9A20E613

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ken Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted means of measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the Orifice Meter. The primary elements of the orifice meter include the orifice plate, orifice fittings or flanges, adjacent piping and flow conditioner or straightening vanes which make up the Meter Tube. The criteria for design, manufacture and application of orifice meters has existed for many years, but with limited support data. Recent studies from the United States and Europe have proven standards for Orifice Meters to be insufficient to support the uncertainties expected. New data, acquired through extensive testing, has resulted in upgraded standards for design and application of primar gas measurement equipment. These new mechanical standards are established under the API 14..1, Part 2, Specification and Installation Requirements. (AGA Report No. 3, Third Edition).
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Document ID: F2BD17DE

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Accident statistics clearly show that pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardous to life, property and the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planning to install real-time methods for determining when leaks occur. The intent is to detect leaks as soon as possible to permit the operator to shut down a pipeline and minimize the amount of stock loss and potential hazard to the public. Some federal and state regulations require some form of leak detection on pipelines which transport hazardous fluids through populated and otherwise sensitive areas
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Document ID: 99EBFFF4

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards
Author(s): E. L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is for the purpose of reviewing how we have arrived at the orifice meter standards, what is their value and what we can expect in the future. It is of value to review this background since respect for the orifice standards (and other standards) has diminished. This can lead to real chaos for the gas industry. The last way you want to solve your measurement problems is based on personal opinions - this is the purpose of the standards, because it represents consensus data with legal standing.
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Document ID: D928AAE7

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters
Author(s): Cathy Apple
Abstract/Introduction:
Coholis meters provide significant advantages for custody transfer measurement of fluids. The most obvious feature is the Coriolis meters ability to provide a direct mass flow measurement. This makes Coriolis meters ideally suited to measuring products which are commonly accounted for on a mass basis, such as LPG, NGL, ethylene, liquid C02- Using a single Coriolis meter sinq)lifies the metering system by replacing a volumetric flowmeter, densitometer, and flow computer, with a single measurement device
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Document ID: 31E1F958

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is extremely important because a gas regulator is the most critical mechanism for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. A device that controls changeable pressure and flows is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, a pressure reducer, or regulator
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Document ID: 5C99153C

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Prover
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced witli meters aid provcrs. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem witli eidier meters or provers. We will eonline our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe ajid tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced while provmg meters widi different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: 3F9F9958

Update On The GRI/API Chapter 14.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Kendricks A. Behring
Abstract/Introduction:
A joint research effort, to investigate the causes of gas sampling errors, has been initiated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the American Petroleum Institute (API), with support from the Minerals Management Service (MMS), the Gas Processors Association (GPA), and equipment manufacturers. The goal of this work is to collect controlled data to support revision of the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 14 - Natural Gas Fluids Measurement, Section 1 - Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer 1. The research results will also impact GPA Standard 2166, Obtauiing Namral Gas Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography 2.
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Document ID: 9B009F57

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Jimmie L. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
What is high pressure? Any pressure greater than utilization or, as most companies define utilization pressure, 6 inches water column? Does your company consider 10 psig to be high pressure? 100 psig? 1000 psig? As the old saying goes, everything is relalivc. Therefore, each company must decide internally what it considers lo be high pressure. Later discussion will touch on topics generally associated by industry with high pressure meter and regulator stations.
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Document ID: BCB079AA

Measurement Of Large Volumes By Turbine Meters
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Large turbine meters (over 4 inch) have been used successfully to measure large volumes of hydrocarbons including high viscosity crude oils. The lower installation and maintenance costs make the large turbine meter the ideal meter for large volume facilities. Experience has shown that turbine meters can be used for high viscosity crude oils where displacement meters were thought to be the only alternative for good custody measurement.
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Document ID: 0C0137D1

Chromatograph Applications And Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Robert L. Bob() Armbruster
Abstract/Introduction:
To select, install and maintain a gas chromatograph system can be a daunting task. Expected product composition and analytical components of interest must be identified. The best method of sample introduction needs to be considered. From a vast assortment of column configurations, the most suitable combination must be selected. Choices have to be made between various types of detectors. The most effective integration, calculation and reporting systems are needed. After proper selection and installation, it is hoped that the system will perform well with minimum maintenance and troubleshooting
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Document ID: 7F48204B

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wayne T. Lake
Abstract/Introduction:
The concentric, square edge orifice meter has historically always been used for large gas measurement custody transfer applications due to its simplicity of design and operation. Although the entire original Ohio State orifice discharge coefficient data set and subsequently derived equation was based solely on water tests, the orifice meter is not usually considered for liquid measurement. Turbine or displacement meters are normally used for liquid hydrocarbon custody transfer and the primary reason for the use of these meters over the orifice is two fold the turbine and displacement are inherently volume meters (the same quantity basis as the contracts) and they can be conveniently proved in the field providing the buyer/seller of product with a high degree of confidence of very accurate measurement. However, orifice meters may be appropriately applied in a wide variety of liquid measurement applications whereby the orifice meter may in fact be the best solution or fit for purpose primary device in many cases. The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with sufficient background information and resources for making well infonned decisions in selecting orifice meters for liquids, with an emphasis on heavy, viscous hydrocarbon applications such as crude oil.
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Document ID: BAF44A42

Dot Qualifications Training For Measurement Technicians
Author(s): John J. Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
it is hard to believe that this issue of the Government requiring the qualification/trainmg of pipeline workers has been around since 1968. Thats right, we have been looking at this subject for almost thirty years!! The 1968 Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act started it all by briefly mentioning the subject, but as time passed it gained importance. By 1982, a certification or licensing program for pipeline operators was bemg discussed. In 1987, after much urging from many government associated safety orientated organizations, the Department of Transportation (DOT) issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM).
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Document ID: 7EFD2830

Mass Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Steven J. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the late 1970s, Coriolis mass flowmeter technology has changed the way industry views flow measurement. Coriolis mass flowmeters were the first technology capable of measuring mass flow directly, without the aid of peripheral measurement instruments. Coriolis flowmeters provide highly accurate, repealable, and reliable mass flow measurement over a variety of applications, process fluids, and flow ranges. This success continues to accelerate the acceptance and growth of Coriolis technology and has expanded the application of Coriolis mass flowmeters from liquids to gases.
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Document ID: D8CBB149

Effects Of Flow Conditioning On Measurement
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is based on a study by a Chapter 5 Review Group chartered in 1995 by the API Committee on Liquid Measurement to look into the present state of knowledge and technology, with reference to flow conditioning for liquid turbine metering, collect and evaluate existing data, and make recommendations for revising API standards relative to flow conditioning for turbine meters
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Document ID: C169204C

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Leo J. Buckon
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an inch of water? The correct answer to this question has taken on increased importance with the demand for better accuracy and the introduction of digital pressure indicators. For example, lets assume that you have just received your new digital pressure indicator and you decide to verify its accuracy. The manufacturer claims 0.1% accuracy at 100 inches of water. You set up a test using a deadweight tester and a water manometer. After placing a 100 inches of water weight on the deadweight tester, you record a reading of 99.8 inches of water on the digital pressure indicator and 100.2 inches of water on the manometer. Which is right? The answer to this question will be evident after the following discussion of manometers and deadweight testers and their relationship to digital pressure indicators. I will also include a discussion of accuracy and resolution as it applies to digital pressure indicators.
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Document ID: F2F27D75

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem with the advent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural gas and other petroleum products that witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing would become an obsolete practice in the petroleum industry. This however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and arrangements between companies regarding electronic custody transfer, witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will continue to be an integral part of the petroleum industrys future. Even as technology moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measuring device. The meter tube and orifice plate will continue to be the primary measuring device. Due to these circumstances witnessing orifice meter calibration and field-testing will also continue to be important even though some emphasis will be shifted to witnessing field-testing of electronic equipment. The information in this paper is not meant to be an absolute but, to be used as a guide m witnessing and field testing orifice meters. There are many variables in testing that, due to the length of this paper will not be discussed.
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Document ID: B9A62DCF

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Oriflce Measurement
Author(s): Reji George
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice Meters are the most commonly used primary measurement device for natural gas in North America. Over the last five decades, the Gas Measurement Industry has developed a very high comfort level with this measurement methodology. This comfort level with Orifice Meters has resulted in very little improvement in the design of the primary element, but has helped generate vast strides in other areas in the measurement chain - transmitters, flow computers, chromatographs, etc. Thispaper will highlight some of the important ideas to remember when dealing with Orifice Meters and help the industry pay more attention to this primary element.
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Document ID: 08C7651C

Problems Unique In Offshore Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jadde R. Tims
Abstract/Introduction:
I wilt be addressing some major problems and unique solutions with gas measurement on offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will show the major roll safety, transportation, and weather play in the technicians ability to verify the accuracy of the gas measurement facility. Proper operation, design, and installation will ensure accurate measurement
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Document ID: 2D5530A0

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): Ace A. Astala
Abstract/Introduction:
LPG odorizalion with an audit trail is probably one of the most significant things that we do when we are scUing LPG for residential use. The audit trail is one of the ways to insure that the LPG thai you are selling or shipping has been properly odorized and you can go back to tliis if need be at any time. This documentation may be the only records lo show that you or your company has been odorizing the LPG according to your company procedures and the law.
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Document ID: 2ECAFFBB

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph has become the instrument of choice for physical property measurements in natural gas. For portable, on-line and laboratory applications, chromatography is the preferred method
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Document ID: AC9A1158

Computers In Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Brad Foster
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays flow coinpulcrs offer a wide range of capabilities. From lumdling nmlliplc meter tuns and nuilliple procrs in one eoinpnler to sharing eqnipinenf between flow computers, the possible configurations of equipmenl are nearly unlimited!
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Document ID: F2292BAD

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Dead Weight Tester
Author(s): Arthur Calvin
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most diiEcult problems facing the instmmeot engjnoei is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments The deadwdght tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems.
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Document ID: 2108751D

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its base volume, in accordance with industry accepted practices, and traceable to recognized standards. Thus the base volume of a prover (BPV) might be determined in accordance with the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) of the Amercan Petroleum Institute (API), and be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The base volume of a prover (BPV) is its certified volume at standard conditions (e.g. 60 degrees F and 0 psig in U.S. Customary units, or 15 degrees C and 101.325 kPa in international, SI units).
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Document ID: 7EE48305

Heat Quantity Calculation Relating To Water Vapor In Natural Gas
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
How much energy am I getting for my buck? This question is raised time and time again. We ask it fix)m our producers, and our customers ask it from us. As a result, we measure the energy received and delivered, make up receipts and statements, and all is well. NOT! Unfortunately, counting energy units is not simple but it is much more interesting than counting apples. Our industiy hasnt even decided what units of measure to use. Is it Mcf. MMBtu, or MJ? Is it gross or net? Are the reference conditions at a dry or saturated basis?
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Document ID: E1876F95

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): Don Sextro
Abstract/Introduction:
Contracts communicate what each party must do to satisfy the business deal. It is up to each individual involved in developing the contract to clearly communicate each point and cover all important points. Generally, measurement terms and conditions are contained in an exhibit attached to the body of the contract. This paper focuses on the details involved in developing measurement terms and conditions while touching on the elements contained in the contracts main body.
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Document ID: 26F1A0CF

Fxements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jack W. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the ever-changing world of gas contracts. The objective of this paper is to describe the basic components of a gas contract, and to review how the regulation and deregulation of natural gas has changed the nature of these contracts, especially pricing. The contract characteristics over time cm be roughly grouped as follows
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Document ID: E48F8461

Training Gas Measurement Personnel
Author(s): A. S. Buddy() Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be i:ontinually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that diis type of instruction be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills v/ith the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 211093B2

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S.. The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority
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Document ID: 2EAB20A3

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response. Carbon Dioxide CO has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience had been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: D6308F4B

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Constance L. Gibbons
Abstract/Introduction:
Truck loading can be automated with an electronic preset device. The preset can regulate delivery of the product by controlling the pump, flow control valve, and any associated additive injectors. Security of the loading process can be achieved via passwords, permissives, and communications control.
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Document ID: 77D25E3D

Viscosity And Its Application In Liquid Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Marsha Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The requirement to have a continuous measurement of viscosity is being driven by the industrys desire to automate pipeline custody transfer metermg and proving, the quest to initiate energy optimization programs and the need to minimize safety and environmental hazards related to obtaining and handling samples. Although laboratory techniques for viscosity measurement have existed for many years, the availability of rugged, online instrumentation for field measurement is recent.
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Document ID: C59A6527

New Ideas In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Peler P. Jakubeiias
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer liquid nicasurcnient cuipinent represents a major iiuestment of dollars and cents, and also a conunitmcnt to lecluiology. The petroleum industry is coustaiifly seeking to obtain the best alue in technology, in order to operate profitably and be conipetitic. Because measurement stations arc directly concerned with tcxennc sfieains into and/or out of a particular installation. changes in the technology associated with new pioducls must be completely ndd proNcn before the products aie mass produced and used on a bioad basis. Oflen this segment of (he industiy is described as being slow to change. Many new custody transfer products arc deeloped and field proen by joint efforts between equipment maimfactuicrs and end user oil companies. Thorough field eahiatioiL dcelopmeiU. and acceptance by the indiistr of new products usualiy requires several cars,
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Document ID: 6C8B8DC7

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Driven by the price and demand for natural gas liquids, the measurement and sampling of the natural gas liquid product has had to become a precise operation
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Document ID: 176FB6DC

The Calculation Of Quantities Of Liquid Petroleum In Tank Truck And Rail Cars
Author(s): J.R. Dawson
Abstract/Introduction:
There is considerable conion and ignorance within industry concerning the proper methods for calculating both target loading quantities and actual loaded quantities (volume and mass) of liquids in tank cars. API Chapter 12.1.3 (in progress), will be published to meet the need for both an explanation of the factors required for such calculations and a standard method of calculation. It does not include calculation of clingage, nonliquid material, or vapor space equialence. It does address calculation sequences, rounding, and significant digits so that different operators can calculate identical results from the same observed data. Tank truck volumes are calculated in a similar manner.
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Document ID: 40C6BBCA

Real-Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Don Stamp
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods of gas measurement have undergone tremendous change during the last decade. Mechanical dry-flow meters are being replaced by electronic measurement devices that are significantly more precise and contain manageable flow file data bases. This is commonly referred to as electronic flow measurement or EFM. In addition, these devices can communicate remotely utilizing radios, land-line or cellular telephones, hard wire and/or satellite links. This type of communication is called telemetry. The final phase of the real-time measurement equation is the addition of on-line gas analysis data that allows the flow computer to compute its volumes utilizing this information.
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Document ID: 67D3733A

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy. not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement lechs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments
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Document ID: FC4C26A1

Basic Electronic For Field Measurement
Author(s): Gregm. Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper hopefully affords readers a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those that have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 319FC31F

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Joe Incontri
Abstract/Introduction:
There are two major liquid storage tank measurement categories. The first is what I refer to as general process level measurement The second is inventory tank gauging. Both have very different sets of requirements. The primary subject of this paper is measurement methods for liquid inventory tank gauging since it is a complex measurement requirement with regulatory implications and a variety of applicable methods, We will discuss those requirements, implications and specific measurement methods in this paper. We will also outline the principle of operation of several recognized technologies used for inventory tank gauging with a review of their distinct benefits and issues A list of applicable regulatory standards information is also found at the end of the text.
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Document ID: 6F089AAC

Techniques Of Gas Spot Sampling
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
Why cake a spot gas sample? The answer is apparent. In todays unregulated and competitive namral gas industry, accurate measurement is more important every day. Since the composition of natural gas directly affects volumes, reliable sample results are a necessity to ensure accurate volume calculations.
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Document ID: AC7F0F4C

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Raymond J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 30 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating conditions. Traditionally turbine meters were used for the measurement of low viscosity liquids and PD meters for higher viscosities. However, new developments in turbine meter technology are pushing these application limits while increasing reliability and accuracy. This paper will examine the fundamental principals of turbine meter measurement as well as new developments including: smart preamps for real-time diagnostics, helical flow turbine meters for higher viscosity applications, higher performance flow conditioners to increase accuracy, and viscosity compensation to extend the application limits
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Document ID: 275CA87B

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will endeavor to relate actual experience with, and applications of, small volume provers. It is not submitted with any intent to dissuade or discourage the use of conventional ball provers. Furthermore, it must be stated, tlie small volume prover has not replaced the conventional prover each has its own unique place within the industry
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Document ID: B21DD8D3

Energy Measurement Using On-Hne Chromatographs
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Most natural gas custody transfer contracts today use rather than MCF as the accounting units of gas transfer. A BTU is the acronym for British Thermal Unit. One BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5*F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules SI))3. The higher the BTU value, the mQre energy can be obtained from burning the gas. It doesnt take as many cubic feet of gas to heat the hot water tank if the gas is 1090 BTU instead of 940 BTU per SCF. The BTU, then, is the measure of the actual amount of heat energy contained in a cubic foot CF ) of this natural gas. An MMBTU is calculated by:
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Document ID: 4ED99A08

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Hasit Patel
Abstract/Introduction:
Multivariable measurement capability combined with the low cost of ownership is driving the ever-increasing popularity of Coriolis meters in the petroleum industry. This presentation more specifically discusses the use of Coriolis meters in measuring the flow and density for liquids
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Document ID: 209C8A20

Selection And Installation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Thomas E. Mullen
Abstract/Introduction:
Today there are any number of flow computers available, how do you find one thats right for you? Each users requirements differ such that no single selection process can be right for everyone. However, there are certain common items that should be considered in the selection process, some of which are not always obvious. In addition, installation, maintenance and operating costs must also be factored into your selection of a flow computer. The most important thing to remember is that ANY flow computer you select will be a compromise of price, performance, accuracy, reliability and numerous other factors. The difflcult part is deciding how to weigh these factors one against the other in your selection process
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Document ID: A66D6400

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): R. D. Mead
Abstract/Introduction:
Consider the work load placed upon a typical residential meter. For the conditions around this part of the country, a meter will go through approximately 765,000 complete cycles in just one year. That number comes from a common residential usage of 85 Mcf per year and nine revolutions per cubic foot for a typical domestic meter. Let us further assume that the meter stays in the field for at least 10 years. That results in 7.65 million cycles a simple residential meter has to make before it is checked. This should more than justify the honor of being coined, the industrys low mamtenance workhorse. Lets look at the internal workings of a domestic meter, some of the problems it may experience, and some of the ways to test and repair this workhorse.
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Document ID: 79109815

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery.
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Document ID: EA13BA5F

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of a laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are recommended.
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Document ID: C17FA899

The Developing Role Of Helical Turbine Meters
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The petroleum measurement industry is continually searching for the ultimate meter - a meter that is accurate, reliable and inexpensive. One of the latest entries is the helical turbine meter (See Fig, 1). However, it should be noted that this type of meter has been around for many years but did not find wide application outside of Europe until the last two to three years because of the proving difficulty posed by its inherent low pulse resolution. With the advent and API acceptance of pulse interpolation techniques for proving low resolution meters, the helical turbine meter is finding a wider audience.
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Document ID: 57AB0B5A

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of natural gas by orifice meter with a chart recorder is one of the most common ways of measuring natural gas. Developed in the 1900s, It has become the industry standard for the measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
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Document ID: 51A98683

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From Each Other
Author(s): Meha J. Harris, David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Never in the gas pipeline industrys history has the need for accurate, clear and open communication between field and office measurement specialists been more important. Initially there was FERC Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in measurement with reductions in staff A small measurement miscominunication between field technicians and office personnel can make a big splash on a companys bottom line.
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Document ID: B77A3987

Truck Loading Rack Blending
Author(s): Elaine Boubenider
Abstract/Introduction:
Blending at the loading rack has become very popular since the late 80s for various reasons. This paper will discuss these reasons along with the various blending methods and the benefits achieved when implementing blending at the loading rack
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Document ID: 56B994A8

Moisture Analysis In Natural Gas
Author(s): Panametrics, Inc.
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion presents an overview of problems encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content. It provides details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this measurement
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Document ID: 6D54D237

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protectie devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure.
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Document ID: A2FE8E07

Measurement Of Liquified Petroleum Gasses
Author(s): James R. Coals
Abstract/Introduction:
Products currently known as Liquefied Petroleum Gass (LPGs) are hydrocarbon that are a gas at atmospheric pressure and liquid under moderate pressure. These products, which are usually separated from crude oil or natural gasoline, include ethane, E/P mix, propane, propylene, iso and normal butanes, butilenes and mixtures of any and all of the above
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Document ID: C5975A78

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: F2506FB7

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): C. Dan Tarpley
Abstract/Introduction:
To fully appreciate the importance of proper meter proving techniques, you must understand the impact that proving has on the bottom line of your company. Metering systems are the Cash Registers of your operation. Inaccuracies introduced through incorrect meter proving factors can cost you short term, by giving a customer credit for pumping volumes not actually received into your system. Or long term, by not giving the customer credit for all the volumes received into your system and thus losing that customer. At the end of each accounting period it is preferable to conclude with a ZERO balance on the products measured into and out of your system. If not zero, then you must fall between an acceptable range of parameters to ensure fairness to the customer and contmued profitability for yourselves.
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Document ID: C468BF93

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ben Wagner
Abstract/Introduction:
Computer and electronic technologies have for years been increasingly applied to our lives to improve quality and efficiency to virtually every aspect of our job functions. For those of us involved in the Gas Industry this is most obvious m the increasing use of Electronic Gas Measurement (EGM) devices as an alternative to the use of traditional Chart measurement devices
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Document ID: 695DF6C0

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Steve Grundmeier
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure reducing regulator must supply a quantity of flow that matches a downstream usage demand. If the required flow rate is small, the regulator plug or d i should approach its seat and restrict the flow. If the demand increases, the plug or disk should move away to create a larger opening. Ideally, a regulator should provide a constant downstream pressure while delivering the required flow. Therefore, regulators automatically adjust the flow rate to meet the downstream demand
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Document ID: B777E228

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases Fundamentals And Instruments
Author(s): Firuk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for chjiracterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for detcnnining specific gravity ue called gravitorneters. There arc also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate detennination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate.
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Document ID: 9E46E7F9

Temperature And Pressure Transducers
Author(s): Andrew Trawick
Abstract/Introduction:
The physical world which surrounds us is comprised of forces that can be accurately measured and controlled. This paper will deal with two of those forces - temperature and pressure. A discussion will follow which will describe what these forces are, why they are measured, and devices used to measure them.
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Document ID: A3A363AD

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Radhey S. Thakral
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 572355C2

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Hundreds of articles, papers, and books are written about the theory of operation on multipath ultrasonic meters. While I will discuss theory of operation some, this paper has a different approach. I want to share answers to some real life questions about these units and why we need to use them. I will also discuss calibration or verification and maintenance problems that NorAm has had with these devices.
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Document ID: D14965EF

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Rick Baggett
Abstract/Introduction:
The technology advances in the production of plastics, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals has increased demand for Natural Gas Liquids (NGL), thus impacting the pricing of this asset. NGL has become much more valuable, and the accurate analysis and measurement of this asset has become much more important to a companies balance sheet. Proper sampling and analysis techniques are essential to achieve accurate quantitative analyses of NGL.
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Document ID: 7722A592

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has become very popular for the measurement of liquids of low and medium viscosities. Its compact size, high flow rate, low maintenance and superior linearity make it especially attractive for liquid hydrocarbon applications. When a turbine meter is properly applied within a correctly designed flow system, its best performance can be realized.
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Document ID: 636B7B46

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Tom Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
As the world has evolved to the information age, the natural gas industry has experienced a sense of urgency in the accuracy and timeliness of delivery of gas measurement data. From wellheads and pipeline interconnects, to city gate stations and industrial gas users, the data must be delivered promptly and accurately. Since most natural gas company organizations have several functional groups that are dependent on the gas measurement data, systems must be in place that acquire the data and transport it back to a central computer to be verified, edited, and made available to all groups that need it
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Document ID: 1A8B5627

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Keith J. Baedor
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past decade, hundreds of pipeline operators around the world have installed some level of model based Advanced Application Software on their pipelines. In conjunction with the SCADA system, these Advanced Application Software systems have improved pipeline operation, efficiency and safety. Initially, the Advanced Application Software was developed for leak detection capability on pipeline networks where conventional leak detection methodologies proved to be impractical or prohibitively costly. Further, the real time model based systems delivered improved capabilities for the leak detection systems during both steady state and transient operating conditions. With the real time simulation software as the basis for development, the Advanced Application Software has developed into a suite of relatively standard software modules to meet the increasing requirements of pipeline operators.
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Document ID: 5A5953CB

Resolveable Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Unlike sums of money, quantities of oil cannot be measured with the complete elimination of errors or uncertainties. The resulting differences can have definite fmancial impacts. The objective of good measurement is to minimize the errors and uncertainties, and thus the fmancial impact, by measuring to high standards. In the United States, most commercial contracts state that the measurements must be made in accordance with the American Petroleum Institutes Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS). These standards are consensus standards developed to address broad issues, and thus may need to be supplemented by company standards to address specific issues-
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Document ID: 58DB73A9

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving- The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transfened at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: C11C59A3

Natural Gas Sampling Uncertainties And Economics
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The precise measurement of natural gas is a subject of continuing study and discussion. The impact of the precise measurement of gas quality and composition is often considered to only effect the thermal value of the measured quantity of gas. This idea, however, is far from accurate. The precise measurement of natural gas flow rates (quantity) is dependent upon the precise measurement of the composition of the natural gas product stream (quality). These measurements of quantities and thermal values are considered in terms of acceptable levels of measurement uncertainty. In other words, a level of variance exists around the point of absolute accuracy which is considered acceptable to those who are party to the transfer of the product from the custody of one to another. Thus, the term custody transfer quality measurement implies that the determined quantity and total energy content of the product exchanged between parties are within these levels of acceptable variance, or uncertainty, from the absolute point of accuracy, or zero uncertainty.
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Document ID: 6C331808

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to detemiine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often detenmnes the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty) usually a high degree of accuracy is not required. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
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Document ID: 3521658C

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques, And Operations
Author(s): m. Lynn Camp
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair operation, in order to be effective, must operate in an efficient manner and maintain the highest quality possible, to do this, good equipment must be used, techniques that improve efficiency should be practiced and effective cost controls must be employed.
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Document ID: 42F097A0

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatographs
Author(s): Howard M.Sheets
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatography is a method by which natural gas can be separated into its individual components and quantified. it involves injecting a product sample, separating the components, and then identifying and measuring the separated components. Gas Chromatography is a well established method of obtaining gas quality composition in a natural gas stream
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Document ID: FC832200

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Wayland Sligh
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is no different than any other measuring device: it must be sized and installed properly to ensure proper measurement. This paper will attempt to help you avoid pitfalls that may cause you problems or make accurate measurement di ffi cult to achieve.
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Document ID: 63981191

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): Stephen E. Foh
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsors a flow measurement R&D program aimed at improving metering performance in the field. Natural gas industry associations and advisory groups provide continued review and guidance to the GRI program so that priority needs are addressed. This paper summarizes GRI flow measurement R&D projects which include projects on: orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters, energy/BTU measurement, electronic flow measurement (EFM), gas sampling, and distribution measurement. Also reviewed is development of the GRI Metering Research Facility, a high accuracy nahiral gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operatmg conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs.
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Document ID: 9FA9881C

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Linda Lepkowski
Abstract/Introduction:
Because Measurement can be considered the Cash Register of natural gas companies and is vital to the bottom line revenue, performing a measurement audit remains justifiable. The significance of accuracy in measuring gas flow is still of utmost importance
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Document ID: 10557A53

New Ideas In Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Woflford
Abstract/Introduction:
The science of gas measurement has remained relatively consistent for many years. The means by which these scientific applications are accomplished, however, have evolved dramatically. This evolution of systems and applications has increased exponentially in recent years, and promises to continue this rapid evolutionary path well into the fijture.
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Document ID: 0A816091

Measurement Fundamentals Crude Oil And Refined Products
Author(s): Robert A, Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce in the oil industry. One can say, Its the cash register. Furthermore, measurement systems are used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases. Therefore, accurate petroleum measurement is paramount and understanding of the fundamental concepts of petroleum measurement is equally essential. This paper explores the fundamentals behind the measurement of liquid petroleum. The concepts of volume and mass are discussed, the physical properties of petroleum relative to temperature and pressure are explained, and the basic measurement techniques surrounding tank gauging and metering are examined.
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Document ID: 91CD698A

Audit Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jennifer J. Merkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In the current world of Gas Measurement, electronic measurement has quickly become the method ofchoice for measuring natural gas. As quickly as it evolved the importance of how the data was to be reviewed and processed did not evolve at the same pace.
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Document ID: 9D63CEDD

Basic Scada Systems
Author(s): Joe L. Martinez
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic SCADA systems, what is SCADA? The acronym stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. Yes, so - Well a Supervisory Control system is a system that has the ability and intelligence to perform controls with minimal supervision And a Data Acquisitions system has the ability to gather data. SCADA systems are specialized systems used to monitor and control facilities from a remote location. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric and water transmission and distribution industries where facilities stretch out over large areas.
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Document ID: 1EF6B4C5

In-Situ Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): V. C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas custody and allocation measurement, the users typically installed and operated their orifice meters according to ANSI/API 2530 (AGA 3) standard. It is not a common practice now to prove orifice meters in field operation. However, the recent revision of ANSI/API 2530, Part 1, standard for orifice meter flow measurement allows users to prove meters under operating conditions using the actual fluid with the actual orifice plate and recording system in place. The standard recognizes that when accurate measurement is required, any deviation from the standards specifications will result in a higher measurement uncertainty. In fact, recent studies have shown that meter installation effects and meter tube surface roughness operating within the standard specifications can contribute additional measurement bias errors. On-site proving of gas flow meters can be performed at field locations to calibrate out bias errors and improve overall measurement uncertainty.
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Document ID: 88B9BFD6

Evaporation Loss Measurement From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Warren A. Parr
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1950s hydrocarbon evaporation loss from storage tanks was studied to develop emission estimating equations. At that time, the primary driver for knowing the evaporation rate was system loss control. During the early 1990s, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began programs for stricter record keeping and reduction of storage tank emission.
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Document ID: 3C461CDF

Gas Processing Plant Measurement
Author(s): James A. Bieda
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement in gas plants encompasses the same concepts of temperature and pressure base conversions, dry ersus saturated conditions, and volume shrinkage found in field measurement. The volume shrinkage concept becomes more significant in gas plants because the gas composition changes dramatically due to the total or partial removal of several of the gas components as a result of processing.
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Document ID: 99AFDDCA

Water By Distillation Vs Karl Fischer Method
Author(s): R.L. Youngblood
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1859 Col. Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well and by the middle of the 1860s, crude oil was flowing out of the wells in western Pennsylvania. Thus, the humble beginning of the modern petroleum industry. It is assumed that within days of his first barrel of oil, people began to argue over the physical and chemical measurements of the oil the arguments still persist. The three most important characteristics of crude oil, from the buying and selling viewpoint, are sulfur content, density or gravity, and sediment and water. It is the matter of water measurement for which this paper is written.
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Document ID: 2E67CAED

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jed Matson
Abstract/Introduction:
The ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids has been in use in industry for over 30 years. In general these meters are available in two basic types - the Doppler type, and the Transit-Time (or Time-offlight) type. There has been considerable development and advancement of this technology through the 1980s and I990s due to the use of microelectronics, microprocessors and advanced software techniques. This advancement has allowed the ultrasonic flowmeter to be far more available for general use - in fact to be used as a flowmeter, not just as an ultrasonic flowmeter. All this because these advancements have produced lower costs, greater versatility, higher accuracy, and easier installation and maintenance
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Document ID: 92D39ED2

Shipboard Sampling For Accoumtability In Custody Transfer
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic in-line samplers are most often used for custody transfer whenever metenng systems are used. Large pipeline systems, except in the rare absence of flow meters, use automatic in-line samplers almost exclusively. The value of using automatic in-line samplers for custody transfer is widely accepted. However, manual sampling is also extensively used in certain instances. In marginal production leases where oil changes custody by tank measurement only is an example of this practice. A more dramatic example of this practice involves the movement of crude oil from producing load ports to discharge ports by marine tanker vessels. Although many load ports and disports (discharge ports) are now using in-line automatic samplers, there still remain many locations that do not. This paper will discuss the ments of using portable in-line automatic samplers on-board marine tanker vessels.
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Document ID: ADE94CD2

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for Measuremit personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet govemmrait regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A con)any may include items above file minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field persoimel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties applied to companies can be very high if the iuired work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as weather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: 5EDF51C2

Effects Of Cathodic Protection On Liquid Pipeline Measurement
Author(s): James R. Coats
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe that is buried under ground or water has a tendency to have external corrosion. Corrosion is where the strength of metal pipe is eftectively reduced due to the metal molecules combining with other molecules to form a third substance. An example of this is the iron in steel pipe combining with oxygen to form iron oxide or rust, The phenomenon is due to phenomena called free ions, The molecules have either a positive or negative charge, When the molecules come in contact with a molecule of the opposite charge they combine, There are many methods of trying to reduce the effect of corrosion on pipe These include coating the pipe to isolate the metal from the surrounding medium, and to applying electrical charge to the pipe to change the polarity of the ions which eftectively reduces corrosion.
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Document ID: 2E6F7604

Odorants For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Michael J. Usher
Abstract/Introduction:
Modern industry conducts itself much differently than it did at the turn of the century. Public safety and care for the environment has gone from the bottom of the list of goals, right to the very top. This has come about for a variety of reasons, including increased knowledge of the products, processes and services offered together with the hazards associated with them, greater awareness of the effects on the population and environment, and the introduction of legislation to ensure compliance with the standard practices necessary to ensure these goals are met. For the gas industry, one essential way of providing this service to their customers, is by odorization of natural gas.
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Document ID: 4E859414

Isokinetic Crude Oil Sampling
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling technique employed in extracting a representative sample for crude oil BS&W analysis has received more scrutiny in the last several years from concerned oil companies than any other sampling technique. The revenue implications are considerable, if the sample is not accurate. Whether it is pipeline custody transfer, tanker loading/unloading, or refinery input, a representative composite of the oil for laboratory analysis is critical. The design of the equipment should be centered on the concept of extracting a sample from the pipeline, which is truly representative of the product. This is done by taking a sample in isokinetic conditions actually and physically taking a sample from the flowing conditions.
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Document ID: 775ACCA2

A Total Measurement Model
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
In late 1994, BMP Energy Systems (BMP) initiated a project to access the US market needs for natural gas measurement systems. The purpose of this assessment was to specifically identify the clianges occurring in the natural gas industry, the businesi: driveis affecting each segment of the natural gas industry, and to understand the relative effect of these drivers on gas measurement operations. Through the first half of 1995, BMP conducted numerous interviews with natural gas operating companies, software vendors and systems integrators serving the gfis industry. The segments reviewed included: Producers - majors, large independents, and small independents Transmission - gathering, intrastate, and interstate Diiibution - distribution utilities, and LDCs and Measurement Service Bureaus.
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Document ID: 3427A2DE

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels - Including, Limitations Of Shipboard Measurement - The Weak-Link In The Chain
Author(s): Arthur Kay
Abstract/Introduction:
Marine vessel tank measurement is essentially the same as that of shore tank measurement. However, there are two situations that are common to marine vessel tanks that are not common to shore tanks. A marine vessel does not always remain upright or level in the water. However, the liquid inside the tank will always remain level. Therefore, the issues of list and trim must be taken into consideration. Marine vessels are required to discharge all of their cargo, therefore their tanks are empty, or almost empty before loading and after discharge. Caution must be exercised when measuring the small quantities on board before loading, OBQ, and after discharge, ROB.
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Document ID: 7B0C5BFA

Thermometry In Measurement
Author(s): Stephen T. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
Temperature is one of the more critical variables which must be precisely measured to reliably quantify natural gas. This is especially true in custody transfer applications since small temperature measurement errors can have a significant economic impact. The technical aspects of thermometry in flow measurement can best be applied to practical situations by first understanding the relationship between temperature and the fundamental gas laws, and then using this knowledge to design, install, and operate temperature measurement systems. Correct temperature determination is crucial in liquid and gas measurement, and some of the issues addressed here may be applied to both fluids. For the most part, however, gas temperature measurement is the focus of this paper.
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Document ID: 79018D74

Review Of API/ANSI 2530 (AGA #3)
Author(s): Paul J. Lanasa
Abstract/Introduction:
Periodically, natural gas measurement standards are created or revised. In the period of 1990 through 1993 two industry gas measurement standards were revised and a third was created. It is the intent of this paper to discuss to influence the revisions to the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report Nos. 3 and 8 will have on natural gas volume measurement.
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Document ID: F621B12E

Design, Operation And Problems Associated With Prover Detector Switches
Author(s): Wilham R. Young Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate meters to estabhsh a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the knovm prover volume. This volume is the displacement of the liquid between the detector switches on the prover. The displacement is measured either by a sphere or a piston from the activation of the first detector switch to the activation of the second detector switch. This volume between tht detector switches is determined by a calibration procedure known as the WaterDraw method. The detector switches are a very important part of establishing a meter factor.
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Document ID: CD648F65

About Ishm 1998
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 14864692


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