Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1998)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Application Oftelemetering In Natural Gas Distribution
Author(s): Dale P. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) has become an integral component of the operations of a natural gas distribution company, Where once telemetry was primanly employed for pressure monitoring, now it is just as critical that businesses have accurate and timely data both of their customers and of their suppliers.
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Document ID: 287F00A8

Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS. Unaccounted-for gas figures can be either positive more gas purchased than sold) or negative more gas sold than purchased). In either case, it is important to determine what factors are contributing to the unaccounted-for gas and eliminate them. We are concerned about unaccounted for gas for two reasons safety and economics. Concern about unaccounted-for gas for public safety include: leakage, third party damage and gas theft. These factors contribute to unaccounted-for gas that can adversely affect the safety of our customers. Economically, unaccounted-for gas represents lost revenues that are not recoverable. It is gas purchased from a supplier but not sold to customers (positive unaccounted-for gas).
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Document ID: DEF620EB

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3- 1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 19E9CE26

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Eric D.Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas measurement today is accomplished through the use of two different classes of gas meters. These are inferential type meters, which include orifice and turbine meters, and positive displacement meters, which include diaphragm and rotary displacement meters. The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer that volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on it. The positive displacement type meters are so-called because they measure the actual volume of gas displaced through them. The rotary positive displacement meter has been in existence for over 75 years. Its reliability, rangeability, longterm accuracy, and ease of installation, maintenance and testing have made this meter a favorite among public utilities for industrial and commercial applications. It has also gained popularity in the production and transmission markets. This paper will present basic operating principles of rotary gas meters, sizing of meters, accuracy and rangeability, installation of meters, maintenance and testing, meter instrumentation and finally a brief glimpse at the industry trends in rotary gas metering.
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Document ID: 436CEB16

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integration
Author(s): Gary L. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMC Chart Integrator, Model 362, is a digital computer based system for translating orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data on integrated flow (chart extension), average pressure and flow time. It is designed to accommodate American/Barton and Foxboro charts, as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Integrator can be fitted with pens for a third chart geometry if required. The operator places the Chart Integrator pens on the appropriate lines on the orifice chart while applying pressure to the foot control, the chart will begin to rotate. The rotation and motion of the pens simulate the action of the meter. At the end of the chart the Chart Integrator computes and prints the extension, pressure and flow time for that recording. The operator will then place the chart into the pnnter and the chart extension, average pressure, flow time and current date will be printed onto the back of the chart for validation. At chart validation the extension and the number of charts validated are recorded in the Chart Integrators memory as a batch total. This batch total can be printed and cleared upon demand by the operator at any time.
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Document ID: 79D037B0

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): E. D. Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the arena of measurement within the natural gas transmission pipeline industry there are problems that are truly unique to the offshore environment. These problems involve design, installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment. They also involve personnel issues. While this written paper will discuss some of these problems unique to offshore measurement, it could by no means address all of them. What we truly need are workable solutions to these problems. Therefore, in the classroom lecture for this topic, the attendees will be participants by bringing forth problems that they have encountered and they or other attendees will offer how they have dealt with such. This format should result in a lively and informative group discussion.
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Document ID: 802A12E6

Spot Sampling Techniques
Author(s): Royce Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The most important thing in taking a sample is where and how it is taken. A sample can be taken as a spot, composite, or as a continuous sample connected to a chromatograph. A sample should be taken on the longest piece of pipeline available. Unfortunately this is usually a meter tube. Not that this is a bad place to take a sample but swirls can be created inside a meter tube. This can cause the flowing stream to create aerosols from the liquid collecting on the walls of the pipeline. The aerosols can be picked up by the sample causing a higher BTU reading.
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Document ID: EA1133D8

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) ve achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet.The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws. The Gas Laws serve two purposes. They allow the conversion of a gas stream from metered conditions to standard conditions. They also provide an understanding of what the gas is doing and why This paper will briefly present the Gas Laws and the physical properties of gas which the Gas Laws describe.
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Document ID: D63A1551

Design Considerations For Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ray Kendrick
Abstract/Introduction:
The 1991 release of API Chapter 14, Section 3, Part 2 is essentially an update of the 1985 ANSI/API 2530 (AGA- 3) document. This standard is the result of an intensive test program involving 11 laboratories, utilizing 3 test fluids and collecting in excess of 10,000 data points. The results suggest certain changes from the previous document and allowed the authoring of a new equation. This paper will cover basic overall orifice meter tube design guidelines as well as indicating some of the changes noted in the latest API 14.3 document.
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Document ID: 8B5F4A6E

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity / Relative Density Of Gas
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean. Specific Gravity is formally defined as the ratio of gas density to air density when both are at standard conditions of 0 Degree C and 760 mm. Over the years the definition evolved to become the ratio of gas density to air density at the same temperature and pressure, Relative to each other. Hence, the term Relative Density. This is the most commonly used definition today. The fixed or Specific requirement of temperature and pressure, (0 degree C and 760 mm), had been removed over the years. The American Gas Association in 1985 officially replaced the term Specific Gravity with Relative Density. However, both terms are still used synonymously.
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Document ID: 03841CAC

Communication Between Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on office and field personnel. Initially there was FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in measurement with reductions in staff of up to 60%.Then GISB (Gas Industry Standards Board) made its way into the gas measurement department through proposed standardization. To meet these demands requires timely communication between the office and field employees. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with Increased work loads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication. By the time that a gas day has started at a meter site on a chart recorder or an RTU (Remote Transmitting Unit) until the volume has been calculated or verified in the corporate office, anywhere from 1 to 30 days can pass with as many as 8 to 10 people handling each individual volume record. With this many people involved covering that span of time, communication becomes a vital part of the measurement process.
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Document ID: CB432B95

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Jimmie L. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
What is high pressure? Any pressure greater than utilization or, as most companies define utilization pressure, 6 inches water column? Does your company consider 10 psig to be high pressure? 100 psig? 1000 psig? As the old saying goes, everything is relative. Therefore, each company must decide internally what it considers to be high pressure. Later discussion will touch on topics generally associated by industry with high pressure meter and regulator stations.
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Document ID: 4284E607

Egm Auditing
Author(s): Kenneth W. Blackburn
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been stated that measurement is the cash register in the exchange of natural gas. The natural gas business is based on the buying and selling of this commodity. Measurement is responsible for balancing the input buying) and output (selling). Errors, on either side of this equation, effect the balance the entire business is based upon, Add the fact that natural gas measurement can be extremely complicated, auditing not only becomes desirable, but necessary. As it implies, auditing an electronic gas meter (EGM), requires careful examination of large amounts of data, in order to verify volumes and to verify the cash register. An experienced auditor is the most valuable tool in this process. In order to maintain the scope of this paper, a general knowledge of natural gas measurement and EGM fundamentals will be assumed.
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Document ID: 4FA68CB0

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included Is the industries acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the Instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: BA051453

Training Chart Personnel
Author(s): John R. Legg
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last decade the natural gas industry has seen a significant increase in the use of electronic measurement equipment. Where time is of essence, EGM is by far the most accurate and versatile measurement device available today. Because of the economics involved, EGM cannot be justified for all measurement points, thus the orifice chart is still widely used throughout the natural gas industry. There are four (4) factors which determine the success or failure of any chart processing department. Each of which will be discussed in this paper. 1. EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS & TRAINING 2. ACCURACY & TIMELINESS 3. ECONOMICS 4. VALIDITY OF DATA
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Document ID: E74E8552

Meter Change-Out And Routine Testing Programs
Author(s): Don Yarbrough
Abstract/Introduction:
With the understanding that the gas meter is the cash register, it Is important that the accuracy of that meter is maintained. This sets up the need for routine inspection. Routine inspection will be determined based upon the number of various types of meters a company may have. Any company into account: need to take the following conditions 1. Number of meters 2. Type of meters 3. Test Intervals 4. Company labor expenses 5. Contract labor expenses These conditions along with historical test data will allow each company to develop the testing procedures best suited for their company. There are many procedures for testing meters. Most of the devices used to test meters are designed to be stationary this creating the need for a shop area. For a company with a small number of meters this is not feasible. Although some provers are portable they are expensive and are generally used to test larger volume meters.
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Document ID: E557D79C

Electronic Vs. Mechanical Correcting Devices Two Approaches For Volume Correction On P.D. And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Warren m. La Mar
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are here to discuss the electronic volume corrector versus the mechanical volume corrector. First a small bit of history, as you can see from this chart, Figure I) in the mid I920s, the meter mounted chart recorder came into existence. Around 1930, the mechanical volume corrector or volume correcting index came into being. These mechanical correctors used several methods of applying pressure and temperature correcting factors, based on Boyles Law for pressure and Charles Law for temperature, to the uncorrected metered volume. Also, in some instruments, the ability to apply the Supercompressibility factor in a limited fashion using some fixed values for specific gravity, nitrogen percentage, and carbon dioxide percentage is possible. One method illustrated here is the cam and drum type. By using a counter wheel or stylus the distance traveled during rotation is equal to the appropriate multiplier and advanced the corrected index by this value.
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Document ID: 6B81096A

Lessons Learned From The AP114.1 Gas Sampling Research Project
Author(s): Kendricks A. Behring II
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas sampling is a process critical to the measurement of gas value. Improper sampling can distort the composition of natural gas, which indirectly affects flow rate measurement through gas properties and directly impacts heating value measurement. Thats why the American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) Chapter 14.1 worling group initiated a consortium research project - to document the causes of gas sample distortion and to implement procedures that work. Tiie working group will use these research results to revise the industry standard for gas sampling, the API MPMS Chapter 14 - Natural Gas Fluids Measurement, Section 1 - Collecting and Handling of Natural Gas Samples for Custody Transfer 1. The project is funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), API, and the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS), and is being performed at the GRI Metering Research Facility (MRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. Equipment manufacturers have also provided support for the project. An intehm GRI technical report 2 has been published to summarize work completed in 1997.
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Document ID: 1F5DD337

Electronic Transducers And Transmitters
Author(s): Steve Paetz
Abstract/Introduction:
This session covers the electronic transducer and transmitter. Webster defines a transducer as a device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power (usually in another form) to a second system. Microphones and speakers are one of many types of transducers. In our field of work, we know it to be a device that can transform pressure, tank levels, temperature, etc. into an electrical signal. Usually attached to a transducer is a transmitter. The transmitter is a device that amplifies, scales, and converts the transducer signal for a receiving device such as a control room computer, RTU, or PLC. Lets first turn our attention to the transducer and particularly the pressure transducer.
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Document ID: 641148E2

Effect Of Entrained Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): V. C.Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents the results of a study to show that a small amount of liquid entrainment in an orifice meter can affect the accuracy of gas flow measurement. A series of tests, sponsored by Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, was conducted under controlled conditions at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc., (CEESI) air flow calibration facility to study this effect. Eight-inch orifice meters were selected for the experiments. The tests were conducted at 600 psig over the orifice Reynolds number range from 4 to 9 million using two horizontally mounted orifice meters. Water was injected at a controlled rate upstream of the orifice meter to simulate field conditions. It was found that the presence of a small amount of liquid in the gas stream caused the orifice meters to read a lower gas flow measurement by as much as 1.7% depending on the beta ratio and the liquid rate. Field data results comparisons to laboratory data indicate that the field performance of orifice meters have higher metering errors than laboratory results. A wet and dry meter comparison field test conducted at Chevron showed that the wet gas measurement was approximately 3% lower than the dry gas meter.
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Document ID: F9253B7A

HS And Sulfur Related Compounds Detection And Determinations
Author(s): Mohamed Jawad
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen Sulfide detection and measurements has evolved exponentially over the past twenty years. One of the early methods was spot measurement of the gas stream using the so called Dragger tubes. These tubes are made with different scales for different concentrations by companies such as Dragger and Sensodyne. This method was quick and fairly inexpensive. The main problems encountered using this method are the lack of accuracy and not having continuous monitoring to the gas stream. Furthermore, this procedure requires a dedicated person to perform this measurement in a regular basis. In the Eighties many company started to use the microprocessor based system to provide a continuous and accurate detection and measurement of the HS level in the monitored gas stream. Since then the use of microprocessor has evolved exponentially with new technology emerging in an incredible speed.The methods of detection vary significantly depending upon the media used as the sensing element. The most common methods are the thin film Solid-state Sensor, electro-chemical sensor, lead acetate tape, and infrared analysis.
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Document ID: CA8847C5

Requirements Of An Egm Editor
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement Information is obtained, has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, If not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add functionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges. A good EGM data editing software package should provide a suite of tools to facilitate accurate, timely data processing. It should do this in a structured, feature rich, well designed environment utilizing a graphical user interface (GUI).The program should include functions to do the following: import the data recognize, review, and correct anomolies report export and provide advanced ad hoc query capabilities. Other considerations should include the developers commitment, resources, and long term strategy, vis-a-vis electronic gas measurement, as well as industrys overall acceptance of the package.
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Document ID: 97E41623

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design. There are many small compressors such as well-head gathering compressors that cannot justify the cost of a thorough acoustic analysis in order to protect the nearby orifice meter from excessive pulsations and accompanying square root error. This paper will make an effort to demonstrate design procedures related to a specific type of acoustic filter to be used to reduce pulsations in most simple metering applications. The specific filter is a symmetrical in-line low pass filter. The important elements of this filter can be summarized in the following points:
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Document ID: D971C238

Fundamentals Of Understanding Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Kevin L. Warner, E. Loy Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
The advantages of ultrasonic flow meters are well known - no line obstructions, large turndown ratio, bidirectionality high accuracy - and ultrasonic meters are now widely used within the gas industry in a wide variety of applications. Ultrasonic meters are available in several different configurations ranging from high accuracy multipath spoolpiece meters to single path hot-tapped meters. While all of these meters operate on the same basic transit-time principle, there are significant differences in their operational aspects. This article is intended to review the basic concepts of ultrasonic flow meters, to clarify the differences listed, and to explain how ultrasonic meters should be specified.
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Document ID: 6F475C1D

Operations Of On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
On line Chromatography has at least two definitions today. The most common is that the Chromatograph, commonly known as a GO, is on-line when it extracts a sample from a continuously flowing line, injects this sample and analyzes it for composition and then perhaps calculates Btu, SG, Relative Density, and/or Wobbe index or other parameters. This data is used on site or at a remote location to calculate volumes for custody transfer of the natural gas. This is the definition that will be used in this paper. The other definition of on-line is that the Chromatograph data is fed or downloaded to a flow computer(s) or RTU(s) on the flowing stream that was analyzed at the measurement site. This definition is illustrated in picture, Fig. 1 and the diagram in Fig. 2, Seen below. Most gas composition analysis data, however, can be applied to more flow measurement sites than just the one where the gas is extracted from the flowing stream. This Is because the gas stream will not change in composition unless there is another source of gas orthere is drastic change in temperature or pressure. Some companies use what they call Zoning to assign a particular composition or Btu to a set of flow computers. With either definition, the gas analysis information must be applied to the gas volume somewhere to produce thdUnergy amount that the meter station is flowing. After all what the natural gas Industry is selling is energy, not volume. When natural gas is burned, the following chemical reactions are the primary ones that take place
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Document ID: 0D5AE28C

Training Gas Measurement Personnel
Author(s): A. S. Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can learn and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 9164AE41

Odorization In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Steve Farnan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1900s, manufactured gas had a natural gassy odor due to by-products found in the gas. As technology improved and cleaner natural gas replaced manufactured gas, the need to odorize natural gas evolved. In its infancy, the gas industry was without regulations and procedures until the explosion at the New London Elementary School in 1937 which killed hundreds of children and teachers. Since that time, regulations have been passed by both the federal government and individually by the states. The intention was, first and foremost, to increase public safety and awareness. Now we are required to follow, at a minimum, the Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 (49CFR) part 192.625. Some of the requirements demand the following:
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Document ID: C7DA581B

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER of the natural gas industry. With todays competitive energy marlets and the environment of FERC order 636, natural gas measurement has become an increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments, to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: 9187850B

Terminology Used In Instrument Accuracy
Author(s): Claude A.Winslow
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms used with calibration instruments became a study within themselves with the development of the digital calibration instruments used by the gas and gas liquid industry. To begin our study of terms used with measurement instruments a short refresher on gas laws might help to understand something about the outcome or differences seen from the calibration output and the actual flowing outputs from the measurement equipment whether pneumatic or electronic. What relation does pressure and temperature have on volume? The determination of the volume or mass of gas existing at a given set of pressures and temperature conditions is fundamental to gas measurement. The relationships of the values of pressure and temperature quantities and the relationship with each other are known as gas laws. With gas costs increasing the accuracy of measurement is directly related to the accuracy of the conditions making up measurement and the gas behavior. The three most common gas laws are: Boyles Law V,P, VP with temperature remaining constant, or the volume of gas is inversely proportional to pressure using Charles Law. Charles Law states VT - VT,, with pressure held constant. With the pressure constant the volume of gas varies directly with temperature. The Combined Law pV/T PjV/T, shows the results common where temperature and pressure conditions affecting the gas will change. Because of this change, and the need to determine the new volume under the varying conditions, consideration must be accounted for with the effects of both Boyles and Charles Law. There are other gas laws affecting the properties of gas and gas measurement, but for this paper the three laws are brought to the readers attention only to add depth to the understanding of accuracy terms.
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Document ID: 1517706B

Economics Of Electronic Gas Measurement
Author(s): Tom R. Cheney
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers and electronic technologies have greatly impacted the way everyone does their business. For those of us who work in the oil and gas industry, the use of electronic gas measurement devices (EFM) is an example of this impact. With the use of the EFM, and associated electronic equipment, we not only have the option to measure gas volumes but to retrieve required data instantly and enhance production through well automation. As in any business, before the decision is made to upgrade or change from the standard method of measurement using the typical dry flow chart recorder, the economics of such a decision needs to be evaluated. You will find that the economic justification of using EFM is often difficult to quantify.
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Document ID: AA65FD8A

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): T. Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
To fully understand measurement accuracy, it is first necessary to look at the measurement process from a business standpoint. All business transactions, such as purchases, sales, transportation, exchanges, compression, and treating fees are based upon the gas volumes recorded during a predetermined time period. Company departments cannot complete their functions until volumes are reported. It is critical to the business process that these volumes be as accurate as possible. Many people have been striving for years to refine the measurement process to make it as accurate as possible. Unfortunately, there are still limitations to measurement accuracy. This paper will attempt to examine some of these limitations.
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Document ID: 54EAEBBD

Periodic Inspections Of District Regulator & Relief Valves
Author(s): Jerry Bowins
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspection of District Regulator Stations and over pressure devices are essential in complying with Federal and State Regulations. In order to understand the functions of a District Regulator, we must start with the City Gate Station. Some pipeline people call City Gates, Town Border Stations. City Gate Stations are where distribution companies purchase natural gas from the pipeline. The gas is measured and odorized here. Measuring devices are usually installed by pipeline companies. Odorizers are installed by distribution companies. Pipeline companies bring the gas from the well head and it goes into a gathering system. The gathering system is where a pipeline transports gas from a current production facility to a transmission line or main.
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Document ID: 349F542A

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Roland Rollins
Abstract/Introduction:
The choices of communication options presently available are: radio/microwave (RS-232), telephone (land line and cellular), wire or short haul RS-485), VSAT very small aperture), LSAT, or a combination of these. LSAT is a DC powered satellite system in which the dish need not be aligned with the satellite. It was first used in the trucking industry. The following table highlights the main capabilities and limitations of each type of communication option available. A combination of methods often is needed, so dont overlook a mixed system.
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Document ID: FA2F2D5E

Field Inspection And Calibration Of Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
Timely, diligent field testing and calibration of gas volume recording and correcting instruments ensure that measurement information fairly represents actual volumes. The instruments save a company capitol and operating costs because they can record or integrate volumes at pressures and temperature above the normal pressurebase conditions specified in contracts for volume calculation. This allows the company to use smaller and fewer meters. Recording and correcting instruments normally are connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The compensating instruments include: Volume and pressure/temperature recording gauges Mechanical pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic pressure/temperature volume correctors Electronic flow computer
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Document ID: 7C46BB27

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts and investments. In large companies these efforts include the legal department for contracts, the engineering department for specifying equipment and the purchasing department for buying that equipment. The field service department must then install the equipment. By the time the meter pen tip records the first gas production, there will have been literally dozens of people involved, from land men and geologists to drilling and production people. Regardless of company size there is always a major investment of time and money before the actual measurement process begins. It is the measurement departments job to deliver the results of all of the hard work and money Invested.
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Document ID: A1842E5D

Grl Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): Charles E. French
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRl) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization (RD&C) program aimed at improving metering performance in the field. This paper summarizes some of the recent accomplishments of the research program at the GRl Metering Research Facility (MRF), a high-accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs. The MRF, located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, supports a variety of GRI-sponsored research and third-party test and calibration activities. Current GRl MRF research includes projects on orifice and ultrasonic flow meters and gas sampling methods. Through a portfolio of projects addressing priority research needs, the GRl measurement program provides significant benefits to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 48266EE8

Fundamentals Of Orifice Recorders
Author(s): Micheal Bealer
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association defines the orifice meter as the complete measuring unit consisting of a primary and a secondary measurement device. The orifice meter body, tube and orifice plate are considered the primary measuring device. This primary device is equipped with pressure taps that allow for the hook-up of a secondary device to sense the output signal of the primary orifice meter. The secondary device is some type of recorder or datalogger that allows for the recording of the events (i.e. signal levels and changes) that are created in the primary device. For many years, the most widely used secondary device of the natural gas industry has been the circular chart recorder. The repeatability and accuracy are important factors when determining the volume of natural gas that is moved through a given measurement point within a given time frame.
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Document ID: D5D43082

Fundamentals Of Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
A Pressure Regulator is a device that controls the flow of gas from a higher pressure system to a lower pressure system while attempting to maintain a constant system pressure. Pressure regulators are used throughout the gas industry to control the many different pressures used to move gas from production wells to the point of use in home and industry. The two main types of regulators used in the gas industry are pressure reducing regulators which control the flow of gas to maintain downstream pressure, and back pressure (relief) regulators which control upstream pressure. Both types of regulators are also used as over pressure protection devices as monitor regulators and relief valves to prevent the system at the lower pressure from being over-pressured. These types of regulator are available in two designs: Self Operated and Pilot Operated. A good understanding of each type and design is necessary to oversee the operation, maintain, or trouble-shoot these devices.
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Document ID: 52A46AD6

Training - Its The Law!
Author(s): Stephen J. Cansler
Abstract/Introduction:
The Federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Law requires the DOT to regulate the training of all hazardous materials (HAZMAT) employees. The hope is that the training will increase the HAZMAT employees safety awareness and be an essential element in reducing HAZMAT incidents. Who is a HAZMAT employee? The answer to this question lies in the definition which is found in 49 CFR 171.8: HAZMAT EMPLOYEE means a person who affects HAZMAT transportation safety including an owner-operator of a motor vehicle which transports HAZMAT a person (including a self-employed person) who: Loads, unloads, or handles HAZMAT. Tests, reconditions, repairs, modifies, marks, or otherwise represents packaging as qualified for use in the transportation of HAZMAT Prepares HAZMAT for transportation Responsible for safety of transporting HAZMAT Operates a vehicle used to transport HAZMAT
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Document ID: C8E69A01

Report On API Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
In September of 1993 API published a new section of the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards titled Chapter 21 Flow Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems, Section 1 Electronic Gas Measurement. This report provides an overview of the API 21.1 document with the intent of serving as a primer and something of an introduction to the publication. The 21.1 standard was developed by representatives from the American Petroleum Institute (API), American Gas Association (AGA) and Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies with input from equipment manufacturers and others.The 21.1 standard represents the first API publication in the field of electronic metering systems. Work on the sandard began much earlier than 1993 with initial meetings taking place as early as mid 1989. Early on, ground rules were established that served as mission statements guiding the efforts of all involved in the publication of the standard. Those ground rules are summarized as follows:
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Document ID: E61984D8

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate, economical measurement of process fluids. Orifice metering satisfies most flow measurement applications and is the most common flow meter in use today. The orifice meter, sometimes called the head loss flow meter, is chosen most frequently because of its long history of use in many applications, versatility, and low cost, as compared to other flow meter available. The orifice meter consists of a primary element and secondary element(s). The primary element includes a section of straight run pipe with a constrictive device, most commonly and orifice plate, which causes change in energy. The energy changes in the form of a loss in static pressure and Increased velocity through the orifice.The secondary element senses the change in pressure, or differential pressure. This differential pressure combined with correction factors for the primary device and physical characteristics of the fluid being measured allows computation of rate of flow. Proven flow factors and established procedures convert the differential pressure into flow rate. These factors and / or coefficients are based on measurable dimensions of the primary device, such as the pipe inside diameter and the orifice bore diameter, along with the physical properties of the fluid being measured, such as specific gravity, density, and viscosity.
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Document ID: FF5B2F41

Lightning Protection And Grounding For Remote Flow Computers
Author(s): Clifford R. Pelchat
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methods that can be used to protect electronic equipment from electrical surges caused by lightning. Probably everyone reading this article can share an experience where damage to some electronic device was caused by lightning. Lightning can strike utility structures a great distance from a meter installation and still cause major damage to the electronic instrumentation. These strikes can cause surges on telephone lines, AC electrical lines, and sometimes, buried steel pipe lines. At times these surges can reach several thousand volts. Protection is generally achieved by diversion and shielding or by limiting the amounts of currents and voltages that can pass through the equipment. I will discuss a typical installation and the steps that you can take to provide proper grounding, (diversion), and some of the methods and devices that are used to limit current and voltage.
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Document ID: 30BD0190

Pulsation Effects On Orifice Metering Considering Primary And Secondary Elements
Author(s): Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of orifices for commercial flow measurement has a long history dating back more than 50 years. Orifices are extensively used in the United States natural gas, petroleum and petro-chemical industries and are important as one of the most practical ways to meter large volumes of gas flow. These meters are very reliable and cost effective and if properly used, can be relied upon to give accurate results. Proper use normally requires the steady flows for which orifices were intended and for which the orifice coefficients were developed. In actual field installations, flow is often not steady but subject to the periodic changes in pressure and velocity that are referred to as pulsation. Pulsation can be caused by compressors, pressure regulators, control valves, fluctuating loads, or by flow-induced phenomena within the piping. It is known and well recognized that pulsation causes errors in orifice meter results. In fact, A.G.A. Report No. 3 on Orifice Metering of Natural Gas, which is also ANSI/API 2530, clearly states that: Reliable measurements of gas flow with an orifice cannot be obtained when appreciable pulsation...are present at the measurement point.
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Document ID: 96101250

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety
Author(s): Linton T. Lipscomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material. To safely produce natural gas and natural gas products, a basic understanding of the hazards of the material itself and the processes required to bring it to market is essential. Lets start out with the hazards of natural gas as It is in its raw field gas state: 1. Flammable/Explosive 2. Hazardous Impurities a. Hydrogen Sulfide b. Benzene c. CO, d. Liquid, Petroleum Gases (LPGs)
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Document ID: 3A23D360

Low Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
As the natural gas industry has evolved to operate in a competitive, worldwide business environment, demands on automation and measurement equipment have substantially increased. Recently-introduced instruments have stepped-up to meet the business demands of the natural gas industry. This paper provides an update on a few key measurement and control instrumentation developments, which are applicable to pipelines.
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Document ID: 5082A762

Maintaining And Troubleshooting Gas Chromatograph Systems
Author(s): Charlie Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Chromatographs are among the most complex instrumentation systems encountered in a meter station. Yet they require less maintenance than some much simpler instrumentation. Modern chromatograph controllers are equipped with remote diagnostics and computer-based chromatograms to aid users in deciding when and why maintenance Is required. The information below is presented to aid a user in troubleshooting chromatograph problems by viewing both diagnostic messages and chromatograms.
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Document ID: C0C8D67A

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Angela Floyd
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Turbine Meters have developed greatly since their introduction to the US 1963. From the mechanically gear driven version, meters have developed into fully electronic designs and self-correcting models. Although these technological developments have greatly improved the application of the meter, the meters basic design and principles have remained very similar. As an inferential meter, the gas turbine meter competes with the rotary and diaphragm positive displacement meters. Like these meters, the turbine meter is versatile and accurate over a wide range of flowing conditions. Unlike these meters the turbine meter provides less pressure drop for equivalent flow rates. It also provides a digital pulse output for input with flow computers and local readout devices. Accuracy, the meters ability to measure as close to actual flow as possible, are typically in the +/-1% range or better. Repeatability, the meters ability to give the same readout under similar flowing conditions, is listed as +/- 0.1 %. The meters ability to hook up with local pressure and temperature correctors as well as offsite flow computers allows the full versatility of the meter to be utilized to provide corrected flow output and higher accuracys across its flow range.
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Document ID: 7CF0EB3D

Fundamentals Of Positive Displacement Diaphragm Metering Construction, Installation, Operation, And Maintenance
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded In 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority. By comparison, the New York Gas Light Company, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometers. The pattern of operation used by this New York company was quickly copied by other companies throughout the east coast, including the Baltimore company. Seeing the success, New York businessmen formed new gas companies in Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, etc. and the new U.S. gas distribution industry began to flourish.
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Document ID: 165035D3

Traceability Of Test Instruments Selection, Applications, And Use.
Author(s): Leo J. Buckon
Abstract/Introduction:
Is a measurement being made good and is it as good as the measurement that was made yesterday, a week ago, or a year ago? The question of what is good measurement is asked all the time. This paper reviews what constitutes a good measurement. In addition it discusses the means that have been established to give the individual doing the measurement confidence that it is a good measurement. First, it discusses test instrument selection. The paper looks at characteristics of a test instrument such as accuracy and repeatability. It discusses the effect of temperature on accuracy and how traceability is important to the ultimate goal of making a good measurement. Second, it looks at the measurement process and the factors that influence the collection of data for measurement assurance. Finally, it reviews both National and International Standards for maintaining documented traceability.
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Document ID: 09A26159

Using Cellular Digitized Packet Data Cdpd() In A Scada System
Author(s): Dean Gordonwood
Abstract/Introduction:
INTRODUCTION In 1992, eight cellular service providers came together to form a consortium, the purpose of which was to develop a specification of a standard for the transmission of digital data packets over the cellular network. The companies forming this consortium are: Amerltech Mobile Communications, Inc. Bell Atlantic Mobile Systems Inc. GTE, Mobilnet Inc. Contel Cellular, Inc. McCaw Cellular Communications, Inc. NYNEX Mobile Communications PacTel Cellular Southwestern Bell Mobile Systems These companies came together to address the need their customers had to send small messages over the cellular system at a reasonable cost. In July 1993, the first release of the specification for Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) was issued. By the end of the third quarter of 1996, CDPD had been deployed in to more than 60% of the Metropolitan Service Areas around the United States and covers almost half of the U. S. population. As the deployment of CDPD continues, using it as a means of communication in a real-time SCADA system is becoming a viable alternative to current methods of data communication. This paper will describe what CDPD is, how a CDPD system works in general, the components of a CDPD network, its use in an installed SCADA application and the advantages and disadvantages of CDPD as opposed to other technologies.
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Document ID: 4CFF4E1A

Fundamentals Of Multi-Port Averaging Pitot Tubes In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gregory Livelli
Abstract/Introduction:
The availability and cost effectiveness of natural gas make it a major source of energy. Its distribution and transportation involves many aspects of moving natural gas from producing locations to storage locations and then to end-users. Often, a system will also include hundreds of compressor stations, which move gas through the pipelines and maintain pressure in storage fields. Delivery of gas, when and where needed, requires extensive knowledge of flow rates throughout the system. Reliability of these measurements dictates decisions to redirect flows, increase or decrease storage and add or reduce the number of compressors running. The traditional measurement of natural gas has been the orifice plate however, the averaging pitot tube (APT) has proven an economical preference in many applications. APTs are used at many locations along the pipeline for check metering, balancing and line packing. At storage fields, the APT helps determine flow rates, leakage rates and migration rates. Within the vicinity of the compressor station, APTs are invaluable in maintaining the efficiency of turbines and maximizing equipment uptimes.
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Document ID: 36B86DB3

Chart Auditing Procedure And Techniques Used In Auditing Meter Charts To Verify Original Volumes
Author(s): Fred R Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Chart auditing is intended to verify the accuracy of original volume calculations. The audit procedure for gas charts used in custody transfer is established by contract. This procedure allows that within a time certain period after the flow charts are originated, the party or parties financially interested in the resultant volumes are allowed specific audit rights on the determination of the original volumes. These rights are to receive the gas charts of interest along with pertinent data sufficient that the auditor may independently develop volumes to compare to the original ones. A specific tolerance of computed volumes is contractually allowed. If this tolerance is exceeded in specific areas as discovered by the auditor, a challenge to the original volume determination may be made. The audit process goes a long way to insure proper oversight in the area of volume determinations.
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Document ID: DE488F3B

A New Perspective On Measurement
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
Everything we do must have business relevance or must add value.This is true not only for measurement process, but for every process we are involved in. One must constantly question our action and not fall in the trap of thats the way we have always done it. This paper provides a new perspective on measurement in light of changing business environment, competition, and technology. We have heard words such as Measurement is the cash register, Measurement is a necessary evil, Measurement is an inexact science, etc., and there may be some truth in them. We recognize that new technology and a new business environment have complicated our lives, yet our overall view remains very narrowly and technically focused. Measurement gurus talk about the lechnical defensibility of what we do without taking responsibility for its economic impact. We revise technical documents, and we get carried way with the best accuracy at any cost. We apply the latest and greatest supercompressibility calculations to six decimal places to calculate a few MCF of gas flow through an oversized meter run that has not been checked in a long time. The bottom line is: We cannot see the forest for the trees.
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Document ID: B30D5769

Field Experience With Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Claude A. Winslow
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators In the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. With the onset of electronics, new and strange words began appearing. Readings and terms appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration readings or methods, and terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, stability, and traceability surfaced. Technicians began using correction factors to achieve standard conditions. These correction calculations gave the technicians challenges when performing their calibrations. Technicians began seeing the effects to temperature on their test instruments and how temperature effects the accuracy of the gas measurement. When using electronic pressure calibration equipment, technicians will make their job easier if they look carefully for instruments that are traceable, precise, accurate, sensitive, and repeatable. The American Petroleum Institute Chapter 21, gives good advise and recommendations in this area.
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Document ID: E4485CE3

Computer Applications In Chart Processing
Author(s): Russel W. Treat, Sharon Stinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas business has been undergoing an incredible amount of cfiange in recent years, and the gas measurement department has not been exempt. Significant changes in regulation and market dynamics continues to drive much of this change. At the same time, newer, less expensive, more flexible and more powerful computer systems are enabling companies to adapt and make necessary changes. As the cost of computing continue to fall, and as systems offer more performance and flexibility, we can expect that the only constant will be constant change.
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Document ID: CD09FABA

Automating Gas Measurement
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of commercial conveniences, which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marletplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves fonward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only measured in dollars, but in ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices. So how does a company, with the need to progress on the automation curve, sort through the many options available today? The effort requires a continuing education process.The decision maler must understand not only what the available technology can do for his company today but must understand its future impact on the company.
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Document ID: B074A0B3

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. NorAm Pipeline Service developed and now uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas ctiromatograph which uses the actual mass flow computations. This system has many enhancements over former methods of proving gas turbine meters. NorAm formerly proved its larger turbine meters, having capacities of 60,000 ACFH (Actual Cubic Feet per Hour), with a Roots transfer prover capable of only 10,000 ACFH.This meant the provings were at or near locations on the proving curve where the K-factor (Pulses per Actual Cubic Foot) might be in error for the turbine meters normal flow rate. With the prover NorAm can now prove a turbine meter at the rate it is actually flowing.
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Document ID: 3EF7ABE7

Application For Telemetry In Gas Transmission An Overview Of Scada And Telemetry, And Its Use In The Transmission System
Author(s): Joe L. Martinez
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present the basic concept of Telemetry and how it applies to SCADA systems. Lets start with what is Telemetry? Telemetry can be defined as the process of where data from a measured device is being transmitted to a distant location by any variety of media, e.g. radio, telephone, etc., which leads us to what is SCADA? The acronym stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. A Supervisory Control system is a system that has the ability and intelligence to perform controls with minimal supervision And a Data Acquisitions system has the ability to gather data. SCADA systems are specialized systems used to monitor and control facilities from a remote location.They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric, and water transmission and distribution industries where facilities are stretched out over a large area.
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Document ID: A1822A67

A.G.A. Report No. 8 Natural Gas Z-Factor Uncertainty
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Savidge
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry is experiencing a number of changes with regards to its gas measurement technology. The changes are the result of years of research efforts by the gas industry through the Gas Research Institute and other organizations. A.G.A., A.RI., G..PA, ISO, and GRIs technical committees have guided the development and implementation of the R&D results through their recommended practices, reports, and standards. One of the research results has been GRIs basic research work on the Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases. This work is embodied in two industry documents: (1) A.G.A. Report No. 8. and (2) ISO Standard 12213 on Compressions Factors. A.G.A. Report No. 8 has received widespread industry acceptance as both a domestic and international standard. The original goal for this work was to improve the basic equation of state tool used to compute compressibility factors and other important thermophyscial properties of natural gas mixtures. Its utility permeates multiple metering technologies and is used in standards for orifice meters, venturi meters, turbine meters, and ultrasonic meters.
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Document ID: 650F658D

Constant Pressure Cylinders
Author(s): Brad Barnes
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate sampling of natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons equates to revenue, and in many cases a large amount of revenue. One of the major links in the sampling process is the sample container or sample cylinder. Over the last few years, the Constant Pressure Cylinder has become the storage cylinder of choice. Principally due to its unique design, the cylinder can store the sampled product at a constant pressure throughout the sample period and in final lab analysis.
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Document ID: 4A565042

D.OT. Mandated Training
Author(s): Jim Gorman
Abstract/Introduction:
Training is nothing new to our industry. The need for training has been around for as long as Companies have sold gas commercially Companies have always trained employees to perform different job functions so why all the concern over the proposed mandated training? Probably fear of the unknown is our highest hurdle too clear. Currently the proposed D.O.T. Mandated Training is being shelved In favor of a negotiated rulemaking process. With the rulemaking process in place, it will be just a matter of time before some version of mandated qualified training is in place. What form will this mandated training take? I posed that question to the Missouri Public Service Commission.Their response was that they could not predict what the final rule would look like. They suggested that we examine the Federal Register dated July 2, 1996, for information on the negotiated rulemaking process.
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Document ID: C21CB909

Devices For Field Determination Of H2O In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys J. Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
With todays focus on gas quality, an accurate and reliable means of determining the water vapor content of natural gas is of great importance. This paper will discuss several different sensor technologies available to perform these tasks. This paper will also address key issues in assembling a proper sampling system to provide a representative gas sample to the sensing device.
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Document ID: 2FD171DD


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