Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1997)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Fundamentals Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Bob Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of and technical problems while operating on a fLat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of tBY Sparison, the New York Gas Light Conpany, founded in 1823, prospered and expanded. They had built their system on the use of gas meters to measure the supply of gas to customers, and a large one to register the quantity made at the station before it is conveyed to the gasometess.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 04332B3D

Fundamentass Of Self Operated Regulators
Author(s): Johnn. Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
Self or direct operated regulators are the simplest and most widely used regulators in the gas industry. The primary use for self-operated regulatoss is residential service. It is also used for farm taps district regulators, instrumem air controllers, relief valves, and other applications. To be classified as a self-operated regulator the downstream measured pressure must be applied directly to the loading element without an intemaediate pilot or other hardware. See figures one and two for examples of typical self-operated regulators.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 684A3040

Over-Pressure Protection Methods, Assessment And Selection
Author(s): Alex Luna
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protection methods and devices have been and continue to be an essential consideration for the gas industry. Safe gas delivery to die customer is the driver. a downstream system from overpressuring. Relief Monitoring Working Monitor Series Regulation Automatic Shutoff 1. Relief: The U.S. Department of Transportation (D.O.T.), Pipeline Safety Regulations, paragraph 192 195 outlines the general requirements
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 106AD3F3

Regulator Sizing Selection And
Author(s): Will Odell
Abstract/Introduction:
A natural gas system consists of a network of various piping systems operating at a wide variety of pressures that allow the movement of gas from the well head to the end user. The movement of this gas is controlled by regulators which reduce the pressure as the gas moves from high pressure systems to lower pressure systems. In addition to reducing pressure regulators can provide safety functions to compensate for failures in other regulators or other system components.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D413E1EF

Oundproofing Reduction And Noise
Author(s): Jamesl. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
Control valve generated noise, resulting from gas pressure reduction (regulation), can exceed EPA or local noise limits or can cause destructive damage to regulating and pipe components. Too often regulation generated noise is an afterthought of station design Its importance is realized only after noise complaints or noise generated damage to regulating components is brought forcefUUy to the designers attention.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2C1BCF76

Monitor Regulators
Author(s): Lance Loehding
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protection devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and cuixent laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas from any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure. Monitor regulator setups are one of the most common forms of over pressure protection for the natural gas industry
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A055D42F

Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Richard J. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry began using Flexible Element regulators extensively in the 1950s. Grove Valve & Regulator Company introduced the original flexible element regulator design, the Rexflo. The Flexflo (See Fig. A), was known as an expansible tube design because a rubber tube stretched over a metal core is expanded to open the valve. American Meter introduced a variation of the design in 1970 called the Axial Flow (See Fig. B).
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CEA36754

Current Design Of Electronic Odorizatio Systems
Author(s): Kenneth S.PARROTT
Abstract/Introduction:
n the one hundred and thirty years, or so that we have known natural gas as a fuel source, the demand for natural gas has grown at an astounding rate. There is virtually no area of North America that doesntt have natural gas provided as an energy source. TTie mediods of producing, transporting, measuring, and delivering this valuable resource have advanced, and improved in direct relation to the demand for a clean burning and efficient fuel. While todayss economic climate detennines the rate of growth the gas industry enjoys, in a broad sense, natural gas is certainly considered to be the fuel of the future.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 8A92148C

Indirect Heaters Design, Maintenanc,, & Operatioh
Author(s): Tim Bailey
Abstract/Introduction:
The presence of water in natural gas streams is a source of potential trouble in the production, transportation, and distribution of natural gas. One of the chief difnculties in the handling and transporting of natural gas is the interruption of service due to liquefaction and subsequent freezing of water in the pipeline system. These interruptions of senice have historically been attributed to the fonnation of ice in lines, valves, and regulators. A more common occurance is the formation of hydrates.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: D557B418

Digital Manometers For Field Calibration
Author(s): Leor Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an inch of water? The correct answer to this question has talen on increased importance with the demand for better accuracy and the introduction of digital pressure indicators. For example lets assume that you have just received your new digital pressure indicator and you decide to verify its accuracy. The manufacturer claims 0.1% accuracy at 100 inches of water. You set up a test using a deadweight tester and a water manometer After placing a 100 inch of water weight on the deadweight tester, you record a reading of 99.8 inches of water on the digital pressure indicator and 100.2 inches of water on the manometer. Which is right? The answer to this question will be evident after the following discussion of manometers and dead weight testers and their relationship to digital pressure indicators. I will also include discussion of accuracy and resolution as it applies to digital pressure indicators.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 80F64749

Measurement & Regulation Facility Design
Author(s): Jim Pugh
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to view the planning, designing, and construciion of measurement and regulation facilities as a progression of tasks and events resulting in a facility design that provides safe, accurate and reliable service to an end user. Facility design involves the cooperative efforts of many people. Those with skills from a diverse collection of engineering disciplines and technical specialties as well as those with skills in field operation,, marketing, purchasing and an assortment of other business
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: A2928BC4

Fundamental Measuremenl Practices
Author(s): Charles Law
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper shall present an explanation of Gas Laws such as the effect of gas pressure, temperature and compressibility on volumetric measurements. The relationships will appear as equations that ultimately reside in measurement instrumentation used to compensate for the effects ofthe gas properties
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: CD1D0D18

Dointhe Rigbt Tbing, Rigbt Dot Operator Qualification Compliance
Author(s): Richard Hinkie
Abstract/Introduction:
If DOT never issued another pipeline safety citation, that would be a very positive sign of our success, said Richard Felder, Associate Administrator Office of Pipeline Safety on a January visit to his office in Washington. Was he suggesting less vigor in enforcement? Or that the industry will suddenly be perfect in its operation?? Or that no incidents will occur from third party damage? Not hardly. What I believe that Mr Felder was describing was a fiiture goal where regulations on the books were clearly necessary and performance-oriented and industry approachdd their formulation and implementation cooperatively In other words, there were no violations to cite.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2DA22B7A

Natural Gas Transportation In The Industrial Market
Author(s): Elaine Kaspar
Abstract/Introduction:
I work for a company that is less than six months old. You may wonder then why Im even giving this presentation. The fact that my Company. Puget Sound Energy, is just a couple months old is very relevant to what were discussing today. PSE was formed in February of this year as a result of the merger of Washington Natural Gas and Puget Somid Power and Light Company. My new Company, which serves 500,000 natural gas utility customess and 880,000 electric utility customers, was driven by the need to compete in a deregulating energy industry.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 7EE01A64

Gas Quality Can Only Be Determined By A Representative Sample
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the newest techniques in the proper collection of a spot gas sample. The method will be outlined, and the equipment used will be discussed. As part of this discussion, the paper covering compostte sampiing with where, how, and why will also be discussed. With the industry in heated discussions over B.T.U,, specific gravity, and compositionll analysis, an accurate sample is a must. Defensible sampiing methods must be used whether a produce,, gatherer, transporter, or end user. The only way to payor be paid con-ectly, or to balance your system or plant, is to know what you are buying or selling
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 39BC7D52

Fundamentals Of Flow Computers And The Influencss From API Chapter 21
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronics in orifice measurement has increased in popularity over the last 25 years. With the need to have accurate information on a more timely basis, electronic flow computers and RTUs (Remote Telemetry Units) have come into their own. Forces from FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) have allowed open access to the pipeline industry for both the producer and purchaser of gas. This action has put pressure on the pipeline industry to account for the natural gas volumes, both inputs and outputs into their respective pipelines
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: EF8F8525

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meters J
Author(s): Fred De Husk
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary element, is defined as the combinaiion of the meter tube, the orifice plate holding device with its associated differential pressure sensing taps, and the orifice plate. Tlie meter tube is basically the pipe and special fittings through which the gas flows. A complete meter tube assembly includes a length of straight upstream pipe, the straightening vanes (if used), the orifice plate holder, and a straight section of downstream pipe beyond the orifice plate.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 2DCFD654

Meter Selection
Author(s): Kent H Ryan
Abstract/Introduction:
Meters are the back bone of any natural gas company. Without meters, it is impossible to track the flow of gas from receipt to delivery. One vsould never know how much gas was flowing through their system at any given time. It would be impossible to know how much a well was producing or a stripping plant was processing
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 887BDBEF

Electronic Transfer Prover
Author(s): Rick Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters: 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 80CCE72E

Meter Set Standardization
Author(s): John W. Radosevich
Abstract/Introduction:
Custom designs VS. standardizaiion Standardized designs eliminate discrepancies, omission,, and excesses in design promote consistency and completenes and minimize time needed for engineering design and file records maintenance. Standardized designs also allow prefabricaiion of assemblies. Prefabricated assemblies take advantage of economies of scale for all aspects of welding, assembly, plating, painting, quality, inventory, paperwork, and speed of response for a new installation.
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: E71314C8

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
The task of a gas meter is the accurate measurement of the volume of gas delivered to the user. With the increasing cost of exploration, production, and distribution of natural gas, increased importance has been placed on the role of the gas meter as the cash register of the gas industry In accounting for gas usage, two types of meters are commonly used: Positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters operate by alternately filling and emptying chambers of known volume By counting the number of times the chambers fill and using the appropriate gear ratio, the volume may be measured in the desired units, Two types of positive displacement meters are diaphragm and rotary meters. Because of this method of filling chambers for volume
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: F91C2DFF

Installation Of Electroncc Correctors
Author(s): Curtis L. Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
TTiis paper shaU serve as a discussion from a user and vendor point of view, with special attention given to proper grounding techniques. Items of interest shall be presented in a question and answer fonnat. Why give special attention to proper grounding techniques? According to AGA Engineering Technical Note entitled Electronic Corrector Guidelines and Recommenddd Practices, dated 9-1-94, the proper grounding of electronic correctors is necessary for two reasons
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: B9A91040

Fundamentals Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to better understand the fundamentals of pilot-operated regulators, it is necessary to review the design features and performance characteristics of spring-loaded regulators Fig I shows the elements of such a regulator. The adjustment spring determines the outlet pressure ofthe regulator. Increasing or decreasing the spring compression will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in outlet pressure. Therefore, as the spring extends or contracts in response to flow rate changes downstream, the spring force changes as well This results in a change in outlet pressure
Go to Download Page
Email Reference
Document ID: 9D2026A7


Copyright © 2017