Measurement Library

American School of Gas Measurement Technology Publications (1997)

American School of Gas Measurement Technologies

Calibration Standard Gases
Author(s): Ronald C. Geib
Abstract/Introduction:
Calibration standard gases are essential to quantitative analytical measurements in petrochemical processes, natural gas, environmental compliance, and health and safety programs. The calibration gas standard establishes a known analyzer response to a certified chemical component concentration which enables the conversion of sample responses to a concentration with a determinable accuracy. In consideration of the criticality of calibration standard gases to valid measurements in chemical processes and monitoring programs, the objective of this paper will be to provide an in-depth review of how calibration standard gases are manufactured, certified, and properly maintained.
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Document ID: D1C1AF3B

Chart Auditing Procedures And Techniques Used In Auditing Meter Charts
Author(s): Tom Tauer
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas chart auditing can be one of the more interesting and rewarding segments of chart processing. While performing a valuable service for the customer or person requesting the audit, it can give the auditor a chance to use his or her chart expertise that could become stagnate with only routine chart processing. The chart auditor becomes part accountant, part detective, and part mathematician. The purpose of the chart audit is normally to insure that the volumes have been reported as accurately and objectively as possible. Production companies and operators have a responsibility to lease owners, state agencies, and themselves to report volumes that are truly representative of the amount of gas that passed a particular point.
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Document ID: 68B4EEDE

Field Inspections And Calibrating Measurement Instruments
Author(s): George E. Brown III
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper details methods and equipment used for checking volume recording and correcting devices that would normally be connected to positive displacement, rotary and turbine meters in lieu of a direct reading/compensating index. The scope of equipment types that are applicable to these procedures are as follows: 1. Volume and Pressure/Temperature Recording Gauges 2. Mechanical Pressure/Temperature Volume Correctors 3. Electronic Pressure/Temperature Volume Correctors 4. Electronic Flow Computers
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Document ID: 5B32A467

Communication Between Office And Field
Author(s): Duane A. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry today is constantly changing, with increasing demands on offlce and fleld personnel. Initially there was FERC Order 636 that forced the gas measurement departments into the electronic age. Next came corporate slashing that has required the gas measurement groups to perform at the same level of integrity in measurement with reductions in staff of up to 60%. To meet these demands requires timely communication between the office and field employees. Both of these locations (field and office) have been impacted with increased work loads and constant upgrades in equipment and software. With all of this occurring, it is very easy to overlook one of the key links to accurate measurement and that is communication.
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Document ID: 013EC368

Fundamentals Of Energy Determination
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents fundamental information necessary to understand and appreciate the concept of total gas energy in a natural gas pipeline. That is, to be able to converse with peers within the natural gas industry and understand basic concepts and terminology. Discussed is the historical transition from volumetric measurement to total gas energy including some of the basic terminology, physics, measurement as well as the reasons for changes in methodologies. Included is the industries acceptance of new concepts and regulations involving custody transfer as well as the instrumentation and systems involved in traditional and newer, more progressive forms of gas measurement.
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Document ID: DCE2B6A1

Fundamentals Of Orifice Metering
Author(s): Greg m. Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the fundamental components used in orifice measurement. The general concepts of head meters, which include the orifice, have been known for centuries. The orifice has been in commercial use since the early 1900s. The device is used to create a differential pressure which relates to the velocity of the gas from which a flow rate can be calculated. As the flowing gas passes through the restriction in the line caused by the orifice plate, the difference in the upstream and downstream pressures can be measured at set points, call taps, and a flow rate at the point can be determined.
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Document ID: D14F0615

Field Experience With Electronic Calibrators
Author(s): Claude A. Winslow
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic pressure calibrators in the gas industry has added new concerns and issues in pressure measurement. With the onset of electronics, new and strange words began appearing. Readings appeared that perhaps didnt match the old reliable standby calibration methods. Terms like sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, traceable standards, and correction factors gave the technicians a challenge when performing their calibrations. One can add to this already complicated list, the effects that temperature has on the test instrument and how that effects the accuracy of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 1F2241E0

A New Perspective On Measurement
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
We have all heard various slogans and words about measurement such as Measurement is the cash register, Measurement is a necessary evil, Measurement is an inexact science, etc., and there may be some truth in them. Unfortunately, the measurement persons perspective of measurement has not changed much with time. We recognize that new technology and a new business environment have complicated our lives, but the overall view has been very narrowly and technically focused. We talk about the technical defensibility of what we do without taking responsibility for its economic impact. We revise technical documents, and we get carried away with the best accuracy at any cost. We apply the latest and greatest supercompressibility calculations to six decimal places to calculate a few MCF of gas which flow through an oversized meter run that has not been checked in a long time. The bottom line is: We cant see the forest for the trees.
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Document ID: CE78720A

Contract Compliance How Todays Contracts Meet Customer And Government Requirements
Author(s): Cindy Suarez
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of changes in governmental regulations and customer needs, contracts are continually changing. There are many different government agencies and types of customers as well as many types of contracts. For example, some of the types of gas related contracts include sales, purchases, transportation, storage, gathering, processing, and interconnect agreements. Each of these different types of contracts may have specific governmental regulation requirements. The primary government agencies that regulate gas related transactions are the Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) and the various state commissions such as the Arkansas Public Service Commission (APSC) or the Texas Railroad Commission (RRC). The interstate transactions are governed by FERC while the intrastate transactions are governed by the respective state commission. These governing bodies impact gas contracts by developing policies and guidelines by which the regulated company must follow. The company complies with these guidelines by filing an operating plan describing the process they will use to implement the policies. Specifically, interstate pipelines must file a FERC gas tariff explaining how they will operate their pipeline. FERC has a policy of not allowing undue discrimination. So, pipelines must explain the procedure they will follow to allocate capacity among shippers in their tariffs so as to show that they will not undully discriminate amongst shippers. The contracts that are written with the customers refer back to the filed tariff in order to incorporate the FERC regulations and requirements.
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Document ID: 78A8AF08

Design Considerations For Orifice Meters Per API 14.3
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has been the preferred method for measurement of a variety of fluids for decades. The criteria for design, manufacture and application of orifice meter has existed for many years, but with limited support data. The standard for orifice metering is commonly known as AGA Report No. 3.
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Document ID: 724B7832

H2S, Total Sulfur, And Sulfur Chromatograih Systems
Author(s): D. Marshall Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
Sulfur is a non metallic solid. Although most people in the hydrocarbon industry tend to think of sulfur as a problem related to corrosion, catalyst poisoning, and personnel safety there are many beneficial uses for sulfur. Sulfur is used to help man in drugs, matches, gun powder, insecticides, and many industrial uses. Sulfur can be found as a nearly pure element or in many compounds with other elements. Believe it or not sulfur is even an essential requirement of the human body. It is necessary for proper growth in both plants and animals. Sulfur can be found in common foods such as eggs, onions, cabbage, radishes, and many others. Sulfur is definitely present in everyones favorite...beans!
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Document ID: 904ABDF7

Electronic Equipment Classification In Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Brad R. Erickstad
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electrical equipment in hazardous locations is not new and weve witnessed the safe use of electricity such industrial locations for many decades. However, growth in the use of electronic equipment in natural gas hazardous locations has grown dramatically over the last ten years. Semiconductor and microprocessor technologies are driving more and more electrical and electronic devices out of the shop and office and into areas which may have significant concentrations of natural gas. Common sense tells us that a mixture of natural gas in air combined with electricity is not a safe combination. Nevertheless, the question is asked: Can such a marriage work and be safe? The answer: Certainly. Is it difficult for the average end-user to determine the suitability of such a marriage? No, not necessarily, but like a real-life marriage, a lot of questions need to be asked before making any commitments. Hazardous locations, as marriages involve legal questions some people prefer to ignore and, of course, others have differences of opinions. New and unfamiliar technologies are being used in hazardous locations and this is causing confusion for new-comers. Misapplication of some technologies has raised safety concerns.
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Document ID: 3D2A112A

Networked Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): Steve Ogorman
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many design considerations associated with the development of systems that can measure gas flow and transfer the data to a central location. A systems perspective is required when considering the use of electronic gas measurement to satisfy the business and operational challenges that are present in todays gas industry. It is essential to understand the functions of individual components and how they will become integrated into a complete, networked system. Financial tools are often used to evaluate different component selections. As well, a proposed analysis can be utilized by designers to approximate the uncertainty associated with any measurement system.
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Document ID: 3FDE2A55

Meter Selection For Various Load Requirements
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas meters have become known as the CASH REGISTER* of the natural gas industry, With todays comipetitive energy markets and the environment of FERC order 636, natural gas measurement has become on increasingly important issue. It is therefore the duty of measurement departments, to select equipment and design installations that are both efficient and economical.
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Document ID: 85A622A8

Multi-Path Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter International Approval Andhistory
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a brief outline of the theory applied in multi-path ultrasonic gas flow meters.The history of multipath meters for custody transfer and recent developments, including test results will be presented for the Instromet 3 and 5- path Q.Sonic custody transfer flowmeter.
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Document ID: 9592E9B2

Portable Gas Chromatograph
Abstract/Introduction:
The production and custody transfer of natural gas reqxiires accurate measurement of the composition of the gas. Contractual requirements usually defme the desired composition, heating value, relative density, and moisture content of the gas being sold. The sale of natural gas is performed on the basis of the heating value per unit volume (kJ/m3 or Btu/Scf) of the gas. For these reasons, the industry has used instruments to monitor the characteristics of the gas at the point of sale. The following instruments are commonly found in the field and in the laboratory: Gas Cliromatographs Gravitomelers Moisture Analyzers Densitometers Hydrogen Sulfide Monitors Oxygen Monitors
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Document ID: 210FFB18

D.O.T. Mandated Training
Author(s): Jim Gorman
Abstract/Introduction:
Training is nothing new to our industry. The need for training has been around for as long as Companies have sold gas commercially. Companies have always trained employees to perfomi different job functions so why all the concern over the proposed mandated training? Probably fear of the unknown is our highest hurdle too clear. Currently the proposed D.O.T. Mandated Training is being shelved in favor of a negotiated rulemaking process. With the rulemaking process in place, it will be just a matter of time before some version of mandated qualified training is in place. What form will this mandated training take? I posed that question to the Missouri Public Service Commission. Their response was that they could not predict what the fmal rule would look like. They suggested that we examine the Federal Register dated July 2,1996, for information on the negotiated rulemaking process.
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Document ID: 11664477

Report On API Egm Standard
Author(s): Brent E. Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
Since this report references both itself and the 21.1 standard, the following nomenclature has been adopted to make it clear which document is being referenced. report - references this document, the one you are now reading. standard references the 21.1 standard, unless otherwise noted. section and subsection both refer to portions of the API 21.1 standard. document is a generic term that could be referencing either document. Hopefully the context will make it clear which document is being referenced.
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Document ID: 9DC4A471

Methods Of Gathering Egm Data
Author(s): Roland Rollins
Abstract/Introduction:
The choices of communication options presently available are: radio/microwave (RS-232), telephone (land line and cellular), wire or diort haul (RS-48S), VSAT (very small aperture), LSAT, or a combination of these. LSAT is a DC powered satellite system in which the dish need not be aligned with the satellite. It was first used in the trucking industry. The following table highlights the main capabilities and limitations of each type of commimication option available. A combination of methods often is needed, so dont overlook a mixed system.
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Document ID: E1DFBDC2

Spot Sampling Techniques
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
Why take a spot gas sample? The answer is apparent. In todays unregulated and competitive natural gas industry, accurate measurement is more important every day. Since the composition of natural gas directly affects volumes, reliable sample results are a necessity to ensure accurate volume calculations. Spot samples are exactly that, a cylinder filled with natural gas and representative of only the gas flowing at the time the sample is taken. A spot sample for lab analysis is usually taken on lower volume stations as opposed to larger volume stations that use a proportional to flow contmuous sampler or an on line gas chromatograph. This paper will deal only with spot samples and techniques. Another type of spot samplmg that has became widely used m the natural gas industry is the glass tube - suction pump method. This procedure is used to obtain quick readings on natural gas to see if it contains high dew points, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. This presentation will touch briefly on techniques for using this method.
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Document ID: 9D4DE352

Computer Applications In Chart Processing
Author(s): Russel W. Treat, Sharon Stinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas business has been undergoing an incredible amount of change in recent yeans, and the gas measurement department has not been exempt. Significant changes in regulation and market dynamics continues to drive much of this change. At the same time, newer, less expensive, more flexible and more powerful computer systems are enabling companies to adapt and make necessary changes. As the cost of computing continue to fall, and as systems offer more perfonnance and flexibility, we can expect that the only constant will be constant change.
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Document ID: A8F41BE1

Fundamentals Of Gas Laws
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry a standard unit of measure is required. In the English system it is the standard cubic foot. In the metric, it is the standard cubic meter. This standard unit is the basis of all exchange in the gas industry. When the unit of purchase is the energy content (BTU) we achieve it by multiplying the BTU content of a standard cubic foot times the number of cubic feet delivered to the customer. So we must obtain standard cubic feet or meters. A standard cubic foot is defined as one cubic foot of gas at a pressure and temperature agreed upon by the buyer and seller. Common standard conditions are 14.73 psia and 60 Fahrenheit. The gas passing through a meter is rarely at standard conditions. It is necessary to convert the gas in the meter from the metered conditions to standard cubic feet. The tools we have for relating volume to pressure and temperature are Equations of State or, simply, the Gas Laws.
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Document ID: E1F41C51

Training In The Volume Processing Office
Author(s): Judy T. Pawlik
Abstract/Introduction:
In order for a gas company to be a success, it is important to have a knowledgeable and proficient Gas Measurement team in place. To be successful in Measurement, one must be diligent and have a good eye for details. Our department used to be very assembly line oriented. Each person had a certain task to do, and usually learned that one task very well. However, if a person was out for any reason, this created a void because no one was really capable of performing his or her tasks, or at least not as efficient as the one who did this task on a daily basis. We now realize, to make the most efficient use of all manpower, everyone must be multi-skilled. Being a multi-skilled team has other benefits as well. One begins to further understand the entire process.
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Document ID: DCD454C6

Fundamentals Of Gas Chemistry
Author(s): John Chisholm
Abstract/Introduction:
The chemistry of natural gas is primarily the chemistry of compounds of carbon. This is often referred to as organic chemistry. This defmition came from the early days of chemistry when carbon compounds were all associated with living organisms. Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon and hydrogen.
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Document ID: 93388C38

Using Cellular Digitized Packet Data Cdpd() In A Scada System
Author(s): Dean Gordonwood
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1992, eight cellular service providers came together to form a consortium, the purpose of which was to develop a specification of a standard for the transmission of digital data packets over the cellular network. The companies forming this consortium are: Ameritech Mobile Coirmiurucations, Inc. Bell Atlantic Mobile Systems Inc. GTE, Mobilnet Inc. Contel Cellular, Inc. McCaw Cellular Commimications, Inc. NYNEX Mobile Communications PacTel Cellular Southwestern BeU Mobile Systems These companies came together to address the need their customers had to send small messages over the cellular system at a reasonable cost.
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Document ID: 0BCF1760

Effects On Entraiked Liquid On Orifice Measurement
Author(s): C. V. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
In the measurement of natural gas in field operations using the conventional orifice meter, all of the factors used in the calculation of flow are based on the assumption that the gas is dry. This condition is rarely the case in field measurements. The A.G.A. Committee Report No. 3, (1), does not give any information or data regarding the effect water and/or distillate may have upon gas measurement by the orifice meter. It was in this area of gas measurement that graduate-engineering students at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas have conducted research operation in the laboratory and in the field.
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Document ID: 3671770F

Low Power Flow Computers
Author(s): Don Saiyards
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, like the computer industry in general have been changing rapidly over the past few years. Faster, more powerful microprocessors, which provide even more capabihty at less cost, now make it possible to design small, low power systems with more functions than ever before. Software packages, both man machine interface and central data management and communications programs have become powerful, efficient tools for operating and managing field production and pipeline systems. These systems are often integrated with sophisticated computer graphics programs which simplify monitoring and control operations throughout computer networks. In addition to the original need for custody transfer measurement, flow computers are now being used as small SCADA systems, often performing multi-tube and tube switching operations, flow control, tank monitoring, compressor monitoring, and total MMBTU calculation.
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Document ID: 2F2E152A

Fundamentals Of Natural Gas Safety
Author(s): Linton T. Lipscomb
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas: A combustible mixture of methane and higher hydrocarbons used chiefly as fuel and raw material. To safely produce natural gas and natural gas products, a basic understanding of the hazards of the material itself and the processes required to bring it to market is essential. Lets start out with the hazards of natural gas as it is in its raw field gas state:
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Document ID: DD13FDF2

Qualification Of Pipeline Personnel
Author(s): Stephen J. Cansler
Abstract/Introduction:
The pipeline safety regulations carmot be fully effective in preventing and mitigating pipeline accidents unless personnel understand the regulations and have the knowledge and skills needed to perform their jobs safely. It will be the operators responsibility to ensure that such personnel are qualified to perform operating, maintenance, and emergency response fiinctions which are the essential steps in making the regulations effective. Also, employees will need to be knowledgeable about safety-related elements, such as flammability, toxicity, pwtential ignition sources, and to be able to recognize and appropriately react to abnormal and emergency conditions. In accidents clearly recognized as involving human error, circumstances often indicate that a lack of training has been a significant factor in the accident. On July 2, 1996, Reseai-ch and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) withdrew the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Qualifications of Pipeline Personnel. RSPA believes that an alternative method of rulemaking can provide a better forum to establish communications between the interested parties and a consensus on a new rule. There were 131 conmients received, 111 from pipeline companies, 8 fiom pipeline-related associations, 4 from state and federal agencies, and 8 from other interested parties. The following provides a summary of the comments.
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Document ID: 1E6C34AF

Opebation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): Gary Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The OGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American Westcott and Foxboro) charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter.
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Document ID: 7E946731

Field Testing Of High Pressure Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Maurice Barnes, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of a field meter station in natural gas operations should be verified directly under actual operating conditions by a master meter or prover. In recent years, new provers have been developed for operation at high line pressure and flow rates. This paper evaluates turbine meter dynamics, effects of gas composition on 3rover accuracy, and two prover technologies available for field proving of high pressure gas turbine meters.
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Document ID: 39DD1DA5

Economics Of Electronic Measurement
Author(s): Harry J. Workmon
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last 10 years, gas measurement has gone through a period of incredible change. Since the early 1900s, mechanical recorders have dominated the gas measurement industry but, since 1985, the advent of low powered flow computers has been changing the way we do business in the gas industry. There are over 50,000 flow computers in daily operation in the United States from a variety of manufacturers. This fundamental change in a basic process has produced impacts on the economics of the gas industry in several areas.
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Document ID: FCD7B009

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): L.K. Bryant
Abstract/Introduction:
Websters Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary defines accuracy as: 1: Freedom from mistake or error: correctness 2a: conformity to truth or to a standard or mode: exactness b: degree of conformity of a measure to a standard as a true value. Accuracy is an interesting word in the gas industry and in particularly in the world of gas measurement. The quest we all seek to obtain is the perfect cubic foot. To seek that perfect cubic foot of natural gas we must begin with a standard. A standard is something accepted as the norm or model for the industry, as a starting point. The standard for the gas industry in orifice measurement is the AGA Report No. 3 and No. 8. In positive and displacement measurement it is the AGA Report No. 7.
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Document ID: BB21347E

Meter Change-Out And Routine Testing Programs
Author(s): Don Yarbrough
Abstract/Introduction:
With the understanding that the gas meter is the cash register, it is important that the accuracy of that meter is maintained. This sets up the need for routine inspection. Routine inspection will be determined based upon the number of various types of meters a company may have. Any company will need to take the following condi t ions into account: 1. Number of meters 2. Type of meters 3. Test Intervals 4. Company labor expenses 5. Contract labor expenses These conditions along with historical test data will allow each company to develop the testing procedures best suited for their company.
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Document ID: 5D8F1FF6

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Christopher J. Wykle
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will concentrate on the fundamentals and principles of natural gas pressure regulation by means of a self-operated regulator. In the gas regulators conception it was mainly a device used to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure Today, more is expected from the performance of the pressure regulator. Pressure reduction is no longer the only function needed. The regulator is consider an integral measurement instrument that has to adhere to the stringent codes put forth by the Department of Transportation.
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Document ID: 1695D95F

Basic Electronics For Field Measurement
Author(s): D. R. Looper
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper hopefully affords readers a broad brushed overview of electronics basics and how they are utilized in todays increasingly technical world. There are references to established formulas and relationships as well as a discussion on some state-of-the-art technology. The latter is often short changed in these types of presentations and it seemed a good idea to hit some of these basics, too. Perhaps the discussion herein will prove at least informative to those that have limited exposure to computer technology. This understanding is more and more vital to the successful implementation of computerized measurement and automation systems in our Natural Gas Industry.
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Document ID: 19883C29

Sample Conditioning
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the analysis of an on-line analyzer is of the utmost importance to the companies that use these numbers in quality and volume calculations. An on-line analyzer can only analyze a sample that is delivered to it by its sampling system. This paper will cover the important points of the typical sampling systems. Regardless of how expensive an analyzer might be. or how qualified the operator, the accuracy of the result will be dependent on the sampling system.
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Document ID: 892C4380

Application For Telemetry In Gas Transmission An Overview Of Scada And Telemetry, And Its Use In The Transmission System
Author(s): Joe L. Martinez
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will present the basic concept of Telemetry and how it applies to SCADA systems. Lets start with what is Telemetry? Telemetry can be defined as the process of where data from a measured device is being transmitted to a distant location by any variety of media, e.g. radio, telephone, etc., which leads us to what is SCADA? The acronym stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. A Supervisory Control system is a system that has the ability and intelligence to perform controls with minimal supervision And a Data Acquisitions system has the ability to gather data. SCADA systems are specialized systems used to monitor and control facilities from a remote location. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric, and water transmission and distribution industries where facilities are stretched out over a large area.
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Document ID: 256C0992

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): James P. Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter was introduced to the natural gas industry in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with 125 pound working pressure cast alununum bodies that allowed for a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 oz. inlet pressure. Due to the quick acceptance of this new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, the development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been rapid. Today, gas turbine meters are available in the following sizes and working pressures as illuirtrated in Table 1:
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Document ID: D0C4E9D2

A.G.A. Report No. 8 And Its Effect
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is currently implementing extensive changes in orifice flow calculations for natural gases. The technical basis for these calculations is provided by the results of cooperative worldwide research carried out in recent years. The technical documentation for the calculation methods appears in the most recent versions (1992) of American Gas Association (A.G.A.) Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids and No. 8, Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Gases, and Chapter 14 of the American Petroleuin Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. It shoidd be noted that Section 2 of Chapter 14 of API MPMS is equivalent to A.G.A. Report No. 8 (Reference 1). Also, it should be noted that the following are equivalent documents: (1) Section 3 of Chapter 14 of API MPMS, (2) A.G.A. Report No. 3, (3) GPA 8185, (4) JKPI 2530 and (5) ANSI/API 2530 (Reference 2).
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Document ID: 40786BEB

AGA Calculations - Old Vs New
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: F4D324BE

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): Jimmie L. Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
What is high pressure? Any pressure greater than utilization or, as most companies define utilization pressure, 6 inches water column? Does your company consider 10 psig to be high pressure? 100 psig? 1000 psig? As the old saying goes, everything is relative. Therefore, each company must decide internally what it considers to be high pressure. Later discussion will touch on topics generally associated by industry with high pressure meter and regulator stations.
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Document ID: 3E3F3814

Fundamentals Of Rotary Metering
Author(s): Todd A. Reeves
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built in 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966, this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS* Meters. Rockwell International entered the market in the early 1960s with a rotating vane design known as the ROTO-Seal* Meter, and in the late 1960s Singers American Meter Company introduced still another rotating design known as the CVM gas meter. There are several foreign competitors who also manufacture a lobed rotary meter.
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Document ID: CB08F1C1

Fundamental Principles Of Positive Displacement Meters
Author(s): Don Jones
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1792 the process of manufacturing gas from coal was introduced in England. Not surprisingly the first gas meters were developed in England after the founding of the first gas company in London in 1808. In 1817 the first gas company was chartered in the city of Baltimore and gas was introduced commercially to the United States. In those so called good ole days, meters were unknown and gas was sold more or less on an hourly basis by contract. Gas company inspectors would tour the city at night and rap on the walk or curbs outside of the homes to indicate to gas light customers that their contract time had expired and the lights were to be extinguished. If the customer ignored the warning, the inspector would turn off the service.
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Document ID: 73291243

Lightning Protection And Grounding For Remote Flow Computers
Author(s): Clifford R. Pelchat
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methods that can be used to protect electronic equipment from electrical surges caused by lightning. Probably everyone reading this article can share an experience where damage to some electronic device was caused by lightning. Lightning can strike utility structures a great distance from a meter installation and still cause major damage to the electronic instrumentation. These strikes can cause surges on telephone lines, AC electrical lines, and sometimes, buried steel pipe lines. At limes these surges can reach several thousand volts. Protection is generally achieved by diversion and shielding or by hmiting the amounts of currents and voltages that can pass through the equipment. 1 will discuss a typical installation and the steps that you can take to provide proper grounding, (diversion), and some of the methods and devices that are used to limit current and voltage.
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Document ID: DE8F8280

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Recorders
Author(s): Jerry Koch
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will cover the fundamentals of an orifice recorder. For many years the orifice recorder has been the most widely used measurement device in the natural gas industry. It is used to account for the gas volumes moved through the orifice meter for custody transfer and allocation purposes, as an event logger, and as an aid in trouble shooting system problems. The accuracy and repeatability of the orifice recorder are extremely important because inaccuracies can result in substantial losses or gains in income to the parties involved.
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Document ID: 6A1411E3

Operations Of On-Line Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs used in Energy Measurement and Control Systems are designed for minimum amount of maintenance. With the Introduction of Microprocessors, Advanced Electronics and Self Diagnostics, the reliability of measurement devices has incRiased considerably. As new devices are introduced, chromatograph manufacturers incorporate these devices into their system to increase reliability and reduce maintenance. A typical Chromatograph for BTU measurement is illustrated in Figure 1. In order to properly maintain and troubleshoot a chromatograph, you must have complete manufacture documentation, wiring diagrams and a digital volt-OHM-milliammeter along with normal hand tools. If you are not familiar with repairing printed circuit boards, rely on the manufacturer to repair these boards.
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Document ID: A4777CC3

Fundamentals Of Egm - Electrical Installations
Author(s): Michael D. Price
Abstract/Introduction:
The areas of gas measurement and communications have seen substantial changes in the last few years as the natural gas industry adapts to effects of the economy, low gas prices, warm winters and government deregulation. Every company has studied, debated, hired consultants, and finally determined how gas flow data is to be measured and collected. All gas companies have hundreds and even thousands of points which must be accurately measured. Data is retrieved from very remote and rugged locations. Climate conditions can range from humid off-shore platforms to desert conditions with both temperature extremes included. No commercial power is available, allowed or even desired at these locations making the solar-powered electronic gas measurement equipment the ideal method of gathering flow data.
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Document ID: 93B0F3C8

Egm Data Editor Requirements
Author(s): Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industrys adoption of EGM as a means of increasing the speed and accuracy with which measurement information is obtained, has created the need for an electronic data management system. These systems, if not properly designed and implemented, could potentially render the entire process useless. Therefore, it is essential that the system add fimctionality that complements the power of the hardware. With proper implementation, such a system will not only facilitate operations in todays fast paced, post-FERC 636 environment, but also will establish a foundation for meeting tomorrows measurement challenges.
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Document ID: 6CE3640B

Periodic Inspections Of District Regulator & Relief Valves
Author(s): Jerry Bowins
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections of District Regulator Stations and over pressure protection devices are essential in complying with Federal and State regulations. In order to understand the functions of a District Regulator Station a overview of the pipelines system is necessary Pipeline companies bring the gas from the well head and into a gathering system. A Gathering system is the system which a pipeline uses to transport gas from a current well site to a transmission line or main. From the gathering system, it goes to a station where the pipeline may do several functions which may include compression, dehydration, processing and regulation. At this point the pressure is lower or equal to the MAOP of the pipeline system. The gas leaves this station at the pipelines operating pressure. This gas goes through the pipeline to the City Gate Station, where the pipeline lowers their pressure below the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of the line inside the City Gate Station.
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Document ID: 8D37098B

Environmental Considerations In Gas Measurement Devices
Author(s): Sandra m. Stanish
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement devices have been around since gas has been commercially bought and sold. The need to develop meters that could accurately measure consumption of gas under various conditions has challenged the industry to continuously Improve the design of its meters. As utility and transmission companies begin replacement of older metering devices, they will need to conduct an environmental evaluation of the materials that were used in the operation or maintenance of these older metering devices. The passage of several federal regulations in the 1970s to control exposure to toxic substances and reduce the health and environmental risks associated with these substances requires owners and operators of these devices to determine if such toxic substances are present before removing or disposing of them. Some states have passed regulations that are even more stringent than the federal regulations with respect to the release or disposal of some toxic substances.
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Document ID: C2DB90AB

Pulsation Reduction By Acoustic Filters For Metering Applications
Author(s): Larry E. Blodgett, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
Because of the adverse effects of pulsations on orifice and other types of flow meters there is for many installations, a need to eliminate or decrease the amplitude of pulsations in the piping. This task has been the primary domain of acoustical piping designers who have had both theoretical and practical field experience in such areas. The most common and effective treatment for pulsation control is the design and installation of acoustic filters. However, most filters designed by novices are not effective and are costly to operate because of pressure drop losses. This paper discusses the basic principles and considerations in acoustic filter design.
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Document ID: 18F3FF78

Constant Pressure Sample Cylinders
Author(s): David J. Fish
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has used single cavit Standard Cylinders for many decades, for the purpose of obtaining samples for laboratory analysis. In early years, the spot sampling method was used where by the gas was introduced into the cylinder until it reached line pressiure. and then was transported to the laboratory for calorimeter or chromatograph analysis. As the known qualit of the gas (BTU value) became more important, tests were conducted to determine if the gas was being altered by the procedure used to fill cylinders. It was determined that contaminates such as air were being introduced to the collected sample and a new filling method was needed. The fill and purge method was adopted and after sometime it was determined thai retrograde condensation was occurring by this process and thus a newer method was created. This newer method is known as the GPA method using a manifold for filling the Standard Cylinder, This GPA method reduced the negative effects of the filling only procedure. The manifold allows gas to be trapped in the cylinder at full pressure, rather than simply dead ended into the cylinder, i.e. zero pressure up to line pressure.
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Document ID: 71314941

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): E. D. Woomer, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
In the arena of measurement within the natural gas transmission pipeline industry there are problems that are truly unique to the offshore environment. These problems involve design, installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment. They also involve personnel issues. While this written paper will discuss some of these problems unique to offshore measurement, it could by no means address all of them. What we truly need are workable solutions to these problems. Therefore, in the classroom lecture for this topic, the attendees will be participants by bringing forth problems that they have encountered and they or other attendees will offer how they have dealt with such. This format should result in a lively and informative group discussion.
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Document ID: 8CB2A0EB

C6 - Electronic Vs. Mechanical Correcting Devices Two( Approaches For Volume Corrections On P.D. And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Warren m. La Mar
Abstract/Introduction:
Today we are here to discuss the electronic volume corrector versus the mechanical volume corrector. First a small bit of history, as you can see from this chart, (Figure 1) in the mid 1920s the meter mounted chart recorder came into existence. Around 1930, the mechanical volume corrector or volume correcting index came into being. These mechanical correctors used several methods of applying pressure and temperature correcting factors, based on Boyles Law for pressure and Charles Law for temperature, to the uncorrected metered volume.
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Document ID: 898C2D14

Determination Of Specific Gravity Equipment, Methods And Calculations
Author(s): Thomas Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The intent of this paper is to familiarize the reader with the term specific gravity, or more accurately, relative density. Calculation and some approaches to measurement and instrumentation are also presented. In 1985 AGA replaced the term specific gravity with relative density. This change has been reflected in virtually all national and international standards committees. Relative density is simply described as: the ratio of the weight of a sample gas relative to the weight of a reference gas at the same pressure and temperature conditions. In the natural gas industry this comparison is made between dry air and a sample gas. For example methane (CH4) has a relative density of 0.55392, ethane C2H6) is 1.0382. Both are ratios compared to dry air. Since methane relative density is a fraction of air, which is 1, then it is obviously lighter than air. On the other hand, ethane has a relative density greater that one so its measurement is heavier than air. Typical relative densities of natural gas range from 0.5 to 0.75.
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Document ID: AD8B41D4

Training Gas Measurement Personnel
Author(s): A. S. Harris, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays technology in the field of gas measurement is constantly changing, and the training of its measurement technicians is of the utmost importance. These technicians must be continually educated in order to possess the most current knowledge of the latest equipment on the market today. Also, it is essential that this type of instruction should be taught in a controlled environment where the technicians can leam and develop the necessary skills with the least amount of interruptions from external sources.
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Document ID: 2C560E31

Choosing The Compleat Gas Measurement System
Author(s): Richard L. Cline
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the discovery of oil and gas and the advent of ccatimercial conveniences which use oil and gas, companies have been confronted with the need to accurately measure the oil and gas bought and sold in the marketplace. And, as usual, the technology available at the time was brought to bear on the measurement process. All gas companies must, of course, deal with gas measurement and are positioned somewhere on the automation curve. As time moves forward, so does the technology. New products and measurement techniques are constantly being offered to improve the gas measurement process. Unfortunately, adopting the new technology always brings with it a price. And the price is not only cost, but an ever increasing difficulty in making intelligent decisions and choices.
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Document ID: ECC7F76E

From Pen Tip To Volume Statement
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate and reliable gas measurement depends on a combination of efforts and investments. In large companies these efforts include the legal department for contracts, the engineering department for specifying equipment and the purchasing department for buying that equipment. The field service department must then install the eqioipment. By the time the meter pen tip records the first gas production, there will have been literally dozens of people involved, from land men and geologists to drilling and production people. Regardless of compemy size there is always a major investment of time and money before the eictual measurement process begins. It is the measurement departments job to deliver the results of all of the hard work and money invested.
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Document ID: 436FF90A

Fundamentals Of Self Averaging Pitot Tubes
Author(s): John Perry
Abstract/Introduction:
Just because a flow measurement device is complex and/or expensive does not automatically mean that it is the best or most accurate. Often the most simple device is just as good and accurate and frequently even better. Economic pressure encourages the emergence of better all-around devices with greater reliability and accuracy. These and other factors have brought to the fluid flow measurement industry the Multiport Averaging Primary Flow Measurement Device. The refined version of the basic pitot tube, the same as the orifice and other head-type primaries, is based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation, and Bernoullis theorem. Thus, an extension and improvement of proven concepts and devices makes available to the industry a primary flow measurement device that offers many benefits, including a simple design, with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 7C27B549

Networked Gas Measurement Systems
Author(s): Steve Ogorman
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many design considerations associated with the development of systems that can measure gas flow and transfer the data to a central location. A systems perspective is required when considering the use of electronic gas measurement to satisfy the business and operational challenges that are present in todays gas industry. It is essential to understand the functions of individual components and how they will become integrated into a complete, networked system. Financial tools are often used to evaluate different component selections. As well, a proposed analysis can be utilized by designers to approximate the uncertainty associated with any measurement system.
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Document ID: 4617E73A

Unaccounted-For Gas
Author(s): Mike Haydell
Abstract/Introduction:
Unaccounted-for gas can be defined as the difference betwisen the amount of gas purchased and the amount of gas sold through a measured gas distribution system. This difference is commonly described as a percentage of gas purchased: PERCENT UNACCOUNTED-FOR GAS. Unaccounted-for gas figures can be either positive (more gas purchased than sold) or negative (more gas sold than purchased). In either case, it is important to determine what factors are contributing to the unaccounted-for gas and eliminate them. We are concerned about unaccounted for gas for two reasons safety and economics. Concern about unaccoimted-for gits for public safety include: leakage, third party damage andl gas theft. These factors contribute to unaccounted-for gas that can adversely affect the safety of our customers.
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Document ID: B5BEEA06

Gri Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): John G. Gregor, Edgar B. Bowles, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement research, development, and commercialization (RD&C) program aimed at improving metering performance in the field. This paper summarizes some a major accomplishment of the research program, establishment of the GRI Metering Research Facility (MRF), a high-accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs. The MRF, located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), supports a variety of GRI-sponsored research and third party test/calibration activities. GRI MRF Program research includes projects on: orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters, gas sampling, and distribution measurement. Through a portfolio of projects addressing priority research needs, the GRI measurement program provides significant benefits to the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 9FCFF1B0


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