Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1996)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1996 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people should have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc. To understand the fundamentals, one must be familiar with the definitions of the terms that are used in day-to-day gas measurement operations. They also must know how to convert some values from one quantity as measured to another quantity that is called for in the various custody transfer agreements.
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Document ID: 4598D1B0

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Transmission
Author(s): G. B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Several thousand years ago the writer of Ecclesiastes replied, There is nothing new under the sun. In some ways that could be said of gas loss from a transmission line. There are really just two possibilities. The gas has escaped through an unwanted hole in the pipe or it has been in custody of the pipe and has not escaped.
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Document ID: 4089261D

Selection, Sizing, And Operation Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Alan H. Glenn
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is a valve controlled by an external actuator and is used to open, to close, and to throttle or modulate flow. The valve is an important part of the disposition of energy because it dispenses energy, dissipates energy, or distributes energy. Other devices, such as pressure regulators and variable speed pumps, can sometimes be used to eliminate tlie need for a control valve. However, this is often not possible or practical so the sizing, selection, and operation of control valves is an important, but often neglected, part of the design of many systems.
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Document ID: C41892E2

Federal Qualification Training Requirements For Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Lynn Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Training can have a major impact on productivity, safety and economics in the workplace. Many factors are contributing to an incrsed emphasis in training of measurement technicians. Some of these Actors include: government regulatory requirements, deregulation and competitive pressures, reorganization and a changing workforce. Effective training of operations technicians can make the difference between maintaining system integrity and losing the system, safety and serious injury, or profit and loss.
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Document ID: E7555920

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Fred R. Rodman
Abstract/Introduction:
The inspection and dimensional verification of orifice meter tubes is necessary to ensure conformance with accepted industry standards which are written to help produce the equitable measurement of namral gas and other fluids. It is a well-documented fact that orifice meter tubes fabricated to specific standard dimensional tolerances produce more precise results than those which are not. Therefore, it is recommended that all orifice meter tubes are inspected immediately following fabrication to help ensure dimensional correctness.
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Document ID: 4286494F

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques And Operations
Author(s): m. Lynn Camp
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair operation, in order to be effective, must operate in an efficient manner and maintain the highest quality possible. To do this, good equipment must be used, techniques that improve efficiency should be practiced and effective cost controls must be employed.
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Document ID: 06C60861

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Allen N. Chandler
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for quality measurement has increased dramatically in the past several years. Deregulation of market pricing structures, open access markets, increased exploration and drilling costs, fierce competition, and new regulatory requirements have all influenced todays approach to quality measurement methodologies. In fact the terminology has evolved from gas volume measurement to total energy measurement. Today, not only is the volume of gas a consideration but also the quantity of energy the gas produces.
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Document ID: D6C89CB4

Advanced Chemical Tracing And Fingerprinting Of Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Roman Bielski John Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
Fingerprinting has several meanings. Websters Dictionary defines a fingerprint as an impression of a finger tip left on a surface. When we talk about something really important as, for example, crude oil, two meanings of the word can be applied The first one refers to the unique features present in the given oil which can be used to track down the origin or source of a given oil The second one refers to an added label which is unique for a given oil.
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Document ID: 4178C456

Basic Measurement Uncertainty
Author(s): Thomas m. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
When a measurement is made there are two important values associated with the result of the measurement process. The first is the numerical value of the variable being measured, the second is the uncertainty associated with that numerical value. This paper describes an analysis procedure to determine the measurement uncertainty by: 1. Presenting a simplified step by step procedure. 2. Illustrating the use of the procedure to a typical measurement process with real world problems. 3. Briefly discussing some of the more complex aspects of uncertainty analysis
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Document ID: 9D55F048

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: 859DE587

Effect Of The Latest Revision Of Ansi 2530(AGA #31 On The Primary Orifice Metering Element
Author(s): Douglas Watkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant improvements in the equations which govern the measurement of natural gas using orifice meters, have necessitated changes in the primary devices used to gather the data. These changes have been incorporated into the new revision of the API 14.3 Part 2 Third Edition (AGA-3, ANSI 2530) and are detailed in the following discussion.
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Document ID: 94E0D301

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement R&D program aimed at improving metering performance in the field. Natural gas industry association and advisory groups provide continued review and guidance to the GRI program so that priority needs are addressed. This paper summarizes some of the major flow measurement R&D projects within the GRI Gas Operations Division. These activities include projects on: orifice, turbine, and ultrasonic meters, energy/BTU measurement, electronic flow measurement (EFM), gas samplmg, and distribution measurement. Also included is development of the GRI Metering Research Facility, a high accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operatmg conditions for the industrys research, calibration, and testing needs.
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Document ID: 0CDB816B

Determination Of Specihc Gravity Of Gases: Fundamentals And Instruments
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravi tometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate.
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Document ID: FFB8FF30

Influence Of The Latest Revision Ansi 2530 (AGA #3) On Flow Computer Software
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-31985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 92D27894

Natural Gas Vehicle Ngv() Measurement
Author(s): P. F. Rowley, K. Kriha, C. F. Blazek
Abstract/Introduction:
Environmental concerns and recent legislation, such as the 1990 Clean An- Act, have produced increased growth and development of alternative fueled vehicles. One of the most promising alternative fuels for vehicle applications is natural gas. Natural gas is inherently clean burning. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have demonstrated the ability to meet the stringent ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards. Natural gas also has a lower cost than conventional or other alternative fuels. In addition, natural gas is an abundant and secure energy source. NGVs include vehicles operating with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). Compressed natural gas is currently being used for a wide range of vehicles: from fork lift trucks to passenger cars to transit buses. LNG is typically used for more heavy duty applications such as transit buses, heavy-duty trucks, and locomotives.
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Document ID: AFBCF20A

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Hiisain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are tlie most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. Meters are nigged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use under extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovanni B. Ventiiri 1746- 1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifices for the measurement of fluid flow.
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Document ID: C316DE18

Design Of Electronic Odorant Injection Systems
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
The advancement of electronics has had adramatic impact on the way we live and the way we do business. Every aspect of the energy industry has been affected from the way it is discovered to Ifae way it is delivered. The single most important thing done to natural gas or LPG prior to delivery is to make it safe to use. The process of accurately injecting odorant into the flowing product stream accomplishes the ultimate goal of any industry and that is to provide a safe product to the people who use it.
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Document ID: 04F3E87D

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): Ace A. Astala
Abstract/Introduction:
LPG odorization with an audit trail is probably one of the most significant things that we do when we are selling LPG for residential use. The audit trail is one of the ways to insure that the LPG that you are selling or shipping has been properly odorized and you can go back to this if need be at any lime. This documentation may be the only records lo show that you or your company has been odorizing the LPG according to your company procedures and the law.
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Document ID: AE4E1E54

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Edwin H. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced.
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Document ID: 56138E28

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): James A. Bieda
Abstract/Introduction:
Btu reduction in gas plants refers to the measurable amount of energy removed from the gas stream during processing. The unit of measure is the Btu (British thermal unit) and it can be calculated for any gas stream by measuring the volume and analyzing the composition.
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Document ID: 6161DE1F

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge f l ow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: 4C19B114

Leak Detection On Pipelines
Author(s): John A. Luopa
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Nevertheless, current North American statistics indicates that liquid petroleum pipeline leaks occur at the rate of about one (1) leak per year per thousand miles of line.
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Document ID: 8B71D151

Truck Loading Rack Blending
Author(s): Joseph A. Fehce
Abstract/Introduction:
In November of 1994. a survey of North American marketing terminjils indicated that 45% of those responding ire doing some type of blending at the truck loading rack. The types of blending used consisted of sequeniial or batch (52%), ratio or in-line (35%). sphish 10%)indheader(3%).
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Document ID: 190FE2C1

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past(, Present And Future)
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
Standards are developed in order to provide uniformity of action, improve efficiency, and to minimize litigation. If standards did not exist, one would have to know the dimensions (diameter, depth, thread pattern, etc) of the socket prior to purchasing a replacement light bulb. Can you imagine the difficulties that would exist between companies if the purchaser had a set of company standards which requires that the orifice plate be installed with the sharp edge downstream and the producer had a set of company standards which requires that the orifice plate be installed with the sharp edge upstream.
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Document ID: 09C51942

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From Each Other
Author(s): Steve Gage, Susan Burks
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays world with cellular phones, pagers, electronic mail, voice mail, fax machines and radios, the quote lack of communication should never have to be used. Even though the means of communication is readily available, measurement professionals in both the field and office must be continually aware of the importance of maintaining a two way dialogue.
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Document ID: F50A88CF

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation testing as it is most commonly referred to in the field, is actually a test to determine the percentage of square root error present at an orifice meter. While the principal of square root error has been known since the early 1960s, it was not until the middle 1980s that an accurate means of determining square root error was developed. Before this time some methods of measuring pulsations, such as the pulsometer, were in use. While these methods were better than nothing, they were inaccurate and quantifying error was difficult.
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Document ID: ECD9B297

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Dean Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice measurement has changed significantly from the days the Romans began using it in the aqueducts. The changes have been designed to improve the accuracy and ensure improved repeatability. Flow laboratories, such as Southwest Research Institute, have spent millions in developing very accurate conditions for orifice measurement. This research has proved orifice measurement is very accurate. Unfortunately, we are unable to design all measurement stations similar to the stations at the flow laboratories. Also, we cannot maintain the good, clean, dry gas used in the labs. What happens in the real world when conditions are not perfect? What are the effects of abnormalities on measurement accuracy and what can be done to eliminate or reduce these abnormalities?
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Document ID: 5FCCBB0C

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jack W. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
The early long-tenn contract was typically for twenty or more years (sometimes life-of-lease), usually at a fixed price or with only small price escalation, and the buyer was a pipeline company. As undersupply was experienced in the 1970s, contracts with high prices and high take-orpay commitments were routine. In the 1980s as prices fell, the spot, or 30-day interruptible contract, became common, and the buyers were end users at the far end of the pipeline or brokers who bought from the Seller at the wellhead and resold to the end users
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Document ID: CE7B79D3

Field Experience With Pens, Charts And Ink
Author(s): Bruce V. Roberts
Abstract/Introduction:
Over 80% of the natural gas wells in the United States today rely on mechanical chart recorders and circular charts as the only means of measurement. This figure, which could be as high as 300,000 wells, does not include worldwide gas production, which along with domestic production, should increase by about 25% over the next 20 years.
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Document ID: 9A291E2E

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Mark V. Birchmore
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its introduction in the late 1960s, the vortex shedding meter has come full circle in its acceptance into the industrial market place. Originally touted as a universal meter that could be successfully applied on almost any application, the early history of the vortex meter was marked by significant user dissatisfaction in its actual performance. Only after years of application experience and a redefining of the meters performance and application capabilities has the vortex meter arrived at its present position in the market as a reliable and accurate metering technology.
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Document ID: 02B9BE7F

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The first gas company in the U.S., The Gas Light Company of Baltimore, Maryland, founded in 1816, struggled for years with financial and technical problems while operating on a flat rate basis. Its growth was slow with the charge for gas service beyond the pocketbook of the majority.
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Document ID: 72AFC202

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Bruce Shrake
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter was designed and developed in the early 1960 fs, but was not widely accepted as a metering device until AGA report no. 7 was written. This paper will deal with principles of operation, design, performance, installation requirements, and methods of provving meter accuracy.
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Document ID: 6E2A1111

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement I
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that he or she have a knowledge of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: F8244907

Fundamentals Of Orifice Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): Sam E. Whigham
Abstract/Introduction:
The differential pressure chart recorder used to measure fluid flow through an orifice plate has gone through several design changes since its inception some sixty years ago. The present unit on the market uses two fluid filled bellows units connected together. One bellows senses the upstream pressure before the orifice plate, and the other bellows senses the downstream pressure after the orifice plate.
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Document ID: 710E810B

Gas Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meter
Author(s): Larry A. Quick
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has had a requirement for many years for a simple and reliable cost effective meter to measure gas flow in large diameter pipes, or even in smaller diameter pipes in which the flow cannot be interrupted or the passage obscured. The insertion turbine meter is well suited for this type of flow measurement in a variety of noncustody transfer applications. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline catastrophic leak detection, pacing odorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput.
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Document ID: B017BD46

Heat Quantity Calculations Relating Water Vapor In The Gas
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
How much energy am I getting for my buck? This question is raised time and time again. We ask it from our producers, and our customers ask it from us. As a result, we measure the energy received and delivered, make up receipts and statements, and all is well. NOT! Unfortunately, counting energy units is not simple but it is much more interesting than counting apples. Our industry hasnt even decided what units of measure to use. Is it Mcf, MMBtu, or MJ? Is it gross or net? Are the reference conditions at a dry or saturated basis?
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Document ID: 94953508

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert J. Consultant
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a written operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimum federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare. In plain words, what you write you must be ready to live and operate by whether they just meet the DOT minimums or exceed the DOT requirements and this becomes the company bible. The last item to remember is that as field personnel you must perform the required inspections, complete properly the administrative records to document and prove that required tests were made. This is an important item as it involves personal honor and your signature is your statement the work was done. Government penalties applied to companies can be very high if the required work is not done, or has not been properly documented. If the work is not done, admit an error was made. It helps with DOT inspections if an explanation is in the file as to why the specific test was not performed, such as weather prevented transportation offshore or station shut in because well is dead.
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Document ID: D6CCA1BB

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
There are hundreds of articles, papers, and books about the theory of operation of multipath ultrasonic meters. While I will discuss theory of operation some, this paper has a different approach. I want to share answers to some real life questions about these units and why we need to use them. I will also discuss cahbration or verification and maintenance problems that NorAm has had with these devices.
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Document ID: 50C10C79

Operanon Of Orfflce Meter Chart Ikiecaiaiors
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMC Chart Integrator, Model 362, is a digital computer based system for translating orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data on integrated f1ow(chart extension), average pressure and flow time. It is designed to accommodate American/Barton and Foxboro charts, as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these pes of meters. As an option, the Chart Integrator can be fitted with pens for a third chart geometry if required.
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Document ID: 70F7DD93

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Ken Embr
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted means of measurement of natm-al gas and other fluids is the Orifice Meter. The primary elements of the orifice meter include the orifice plate, orifice fittings or flanges, adjacent piping and flow conditioner or straightening vanes which make up the Meter Tube.
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Document ID: A26C7CCF

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery.
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Document ID: 35CC36AE

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments.
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Document ID: BEDE9447

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): David Woftord
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the tUnctionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems.
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Document ID: C4544972

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement Hi
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: C3A53B27

Relative Density Specific( Gravity) Measurement
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Relative density and specific gravity are interchangeable terms that refer to the density of a gas relative to air at some defined pressure and temperature. Relative density is a useful value in that it defines gas composition independent of pressure and temperature. The only variable that can change the relative density of a gas is for the gas composition to change.
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Document ID: 45244F7B

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): K. John Haveman, Michael C. Mcghee
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass-based flow measurement is being discovered by users in widely varying industries at an exciting pace. Two of the most familiar types of technologies leading the way are thermal mass meters and Coriolis force meters.
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Document ID: CE712E82

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty) usually a high degree of accuracy is not required. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required. If the volume is to be used for invtory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal cc raticMis.
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Document ID: 8030B450

Measurement Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert A. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation.
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Document ID: CEEAB7C8

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Many methods are available for measurement of liquid storage tanks. This paper will give a brief description of the common methods and give the advantages of each method.
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Document ID: BCC4172B

Measurement Of Large Volumes By Turbine Meters
Author(s): Charles R. Allen, Drew S. Weaver, Zaki Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide information on how turbine meters are used to measure large volumes of crude oil. As an example, the arrangement of the largest crude oil measurement system in the world will be reviewed. In addition, the history and construction of liquid turbine meters will be discussed. Finally, the operation and performance of turbine meters on crude oils will be presented.
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Document ID: 3A8E47AE

Measurement Of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey A. Geschwentner
Abstract/Introduction:
LPGs, as we know them today, are any hydrocarbon liquids having a vapor pressure greater than atmospheric, either by themselves or mixed with another component. These products, which are usually separated from crude oil or natural gasohne, include ethane, E/P mix, propane, propylene, iso and normal butanes, and butylenes.
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Document ID: 567F3B62

Measurement Of Petroleum On Board Marine Vessels
Author(s): Robert W. Goldstraw
Abstract/Introduction:
The rising cost of petroleum in the 1970s made the cost of small amounts of residues on board ships after discharge more expensive than the penalties for keeping the ship in service beyond the chartered time allotment. A few unscrupulous vessel operators had also found ways to profit from concealing parts of shipments on board in a way that they would not easily be found by inspectors.
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Document ID: FF024532

The Rising Cost Of Petroleum In The 1970s Made The Cost Of Small Amounts Of Residues On Board Ships After Discharge More Expensive Than The Penalties For Keeping The Ship In Service Beyond The Chartered Time Allotment. A Few Unscrupulous Vessel Operators Had Also Found Ways To Profit From Concealing Parts Of Shipments On Board In A Way That They Would Not Easily Be Found By Inspectors.
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
These are changing times for people involved in measurements. Whether someone is just beginning a career in measurements or has been around for several years they will find a fast paced world of new ideas and technology which is limited, in most cases, only by the acceptance of other industry people like themselves.
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Document ID: 4E74BDA4

Orifice Meters For Uquid Measurement
Author(s): Paul D. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Orifice Meter is a versatile device, having been used for many years to measure flow rates of liquids and gases. A lot of people do not realize, while most commonly used for gas and steam measurement the orifice meter also has many practical applications in liquid flow measurement. They serve well as a device to measure flow rate for rate control, as welf as being a fine measurement device for custody transfer measurement. They stand out in the measurement of dirty and corrosive liquids. Those liquids that have mixed components and suspended solids are best measured with orifice meters. Their counterparts, the turbine meter and positive displacement meter, suffer much error and maintenance in such applications. There is custody transfer measurement on liquids, that have densities ranging from (.30 to -70 g/cm, performed with Orifice Meters. The purpose of this paper is to give you an overview and provide you with the resources to pursue liquid measurement with orifice meters.
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Document ID: 1D873426

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - Tv
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
Tt is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 5467A207

Resolving Liquid Measurement Differences
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement and transfer of petroleum liquids combine planning, technology, human interaction and documentation to ensure for an accurate transaction. The American Petroleum Institute drafted the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) for the purpose of standardizing procedures, equipment, terms and arithmetical calculations used in the transfer or sale of petroleum liquids. These standards ensure that parties arrive at equal quantities. But given such standards, technology and planning, measurement discrepancies still occur. A variance between two parties often becomes debated issues as Which measurement system is more accurate? Which system is correct? What process of elimination should be use? Given all things equal, how are variances resolved? This paper reviews sources of and solutions to resolving differences in liquid measurements.
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Document ID: A03C3BA2

The Effects Of Petroleum Properties On Pipeline Performance And Measurement
Author(s): Earl Kopen
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement needs to be concerned as much with what it measures as with how well. State of the art can put crude oil pipeline measurement balances at better than .02 percent. Batched movement exchanges, however, present a much greater challenge.
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Document ID: 84AD7B03

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement can be assured by continuous monitoring to determine if systems, equipment and procedures are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts.
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Document ID: 2A4EF35D

Turbine Meters For Lpg Measurement
Author(s): Larry Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters are commonly used for custody transfer measurement for Liquified Petroleum Gas. This paper will cover the advantages, and limitations of turbine meters for LPG measurement.
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Document ID: F79F0E00

Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Sidney A. Douglass
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of high-frequency sound waves, ultrasonics, has been employed in many ways in our society. Most everyone is probably aware of its use m present day navigation and submarine warfare but may not know of its use in producing emulsions - such as homogenized milk and photographic film. People involved in quality control know of its use in detecting flaws in industrial materials, and most know of the images produced in the doctors office of the fetus during pregnancy. Because of the many ways high-frequency sound is used today, it shouldnt be surprising that ultrasonics has found its way into liquid measurements. After all, the ultrasonic microscope is used to measure distances as small as one micron!
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Document ID: 7E690817

A Status On Electronic Data Interchange Standards And Protocols GAS*FLOW Metered Volume Statement
Author(s): R. C. Leitschuh
Abstract/Introduction:
Organizations traditionally have conducted business on paper, often using preprinted business forms to exchange information with trading partners. With the explosive growth of these paper-based exchanges and the amount of data associated with the products and services, many organizations have been forced to seek a more expedient technique for communicating and processing business data. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a concept that incorporates the technology of communications with a philosophy of conducting business.
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Document ID: 90C90348

Advances In Flow Computers And Telemetering
Author(s): Rick Heuer
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers have been so common place over the last ten years, that they almost appear to be a commodity item. This perception is mainly due to the advances in electronic technology, software techniques and manufacturing advances. Flow computers have become simpler, better, faster and less expensive. To know where the future of flow computers lies ahead, we must understand what the role of a flow computer has provided us.
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Document ID: 00532520

Appucation Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Larry A. Quick
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers are specially designed micro-processor controlled CPUs specifically constructed to measure and regulate the transfer of a fluid from one point to another. They are an essential part of electronic fluid flow measurement, and are usually installed in various remote locations throughout the production, transmission and distribution segments of the gas industry. TTie function of a flow computer is fourfold collect measurement data, calculate and store measurement data, transmit stored measurement data to a host system, and execute control requirements. In addition to measurement data, the event log, audit trail and alarm information is also collected, stored, and subsequently transmitted to a host system. All these flow computer functions are controlled by onboard firmware, sometimes in conjunction with inputs from the host system.
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Document ID: 0EEE4435

Basic Application Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Barry Tate
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic telemetering systems originated in processing plants to monitor discrete and analog points in a process. Normally this information was transmitted using wire and relays to a central control panel.
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Document ID: 2052B470

Basic Electronics For Field Technicians
Author(s): A. S. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
Basic electronics use to require only the knowledge of series and parallel circuits, but the electronics of todays industry demands a far greater knowledge. The electronics of today require knowing basic DC circuits and also classic (diodes, transistors, etc) and digital electronics. This knowledge will give the technician the basics to perform his job more etficiently.
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Document ID: 67126660

Basics Of High Pressure Measuring And Regulation Station Design
Author(s): Maureen E. Kolkmeier
Abstract/Introduction:
For the purpose of this paper, a basic high pressure station incorporating both regulation and measurement will be outlined. The principles discussed here will handle any inlet pressure over 60 psig. There are three considerations when designing a high pressure regulation and measurement station. The first consideration is purpose. The design should conform to industry accepted standards for regulation and measurement. The second consideration is safety. Minimum safety standards are established by Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192 (CFR 192). And the third consideration is simplification of material. Simplification of material usually leads to a cost effective station, which is easy to operate and maintain. By considering purpose, safety and simplicity all together, designers provide reliable, safe, and economical regulation and measurement of gas.
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Document ID: 008AD384

Basic Scada Systems - From Sensors To Screens
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems, are special types of control systems which allow operators to monitor and control hundreds of remotely located facilities, e.g. compressor stations, valves, etc. The term Supervisory Control infers that only operator initiated setpoint or on/off commands are sent to the remote facility. Automatic, closedloop control is performed only by equipment at the remote facility.
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Document ID: 7956BB7F

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): D.A. Shepherd
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering equipment is used to measure energy usage for gas and electric customers. Traditional meters are measuring devices that provide the basic data for billing energy consumption. However, these basic meters do not provide information about how energy is used over a period of time or provide advanced functions such as calculation of corrected gas volume and monitoring critical parameters such as pressure.
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Document ID: A20BB7C0

Computer Applications In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Kyle Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
Microprocessor-based liquid flow computers are standard pieces of equipment in custody transfer locations worldwide. Today it is commonplace for persoimel at all levels of a company to communicate with and utilize information from flow computers. These computers can be in the control room of a petrochemical plant or at remote measurement locations performing a wide variety of applications. In most cases, whether the unit is being operated locally or remotely, communication is established to utilize the information on a real-time basis. Some of the benefits these devices provide are greater accuracy, real-time information, process control, conmiunications, and a stored history of process conditions.
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Document ID: 56535C44

Economics Of Electronic Gas Heasurehent
Author(s): Harry J. Workmen
Abstract/Introduction:
During the last 10 years, gas measurement has gone through a period of incredible change. Since the early 1900s, mechanical recorders have dominated the gas measurement industry but, s ince 1985, the advent of low powered flow computers has been changing the way we do business in the gas industry. There are over 50,000 flow computers in daily operation in the United States from a variety of manufacturers. This fundamental change in a basic process has produced impacts on the economics of the gas industry in several areas.
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Document ID: 134061F1

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Russel W. Treat
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas business has been undergoing an incredible amount of change in recent years, and the gas measurement department has not been exempt Significant changes in regulation and marieet dynamics continues to drive much of this change. At the same time, newer, less expensive, more flexible and powerful measurement systems are enabling companies to adt and make necessary changes. The need for change is impacting all types of measurement systems.
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Document ID: 5E09226A

Electronic Gas Measurement Audit
Author(s): Gary P. Menzel, R.Michael Squyres
Abstract/Introduction:
As Electronic Gas Meters (EGM) replace the more traditional chart recorders as the method of recording and calculating custody transfer volumes in the natural gas industry, it becomes more and more important to be able to audit the volumes produced by these devices.
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Document ID: E1619875

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have generated so much enthusiasm? What benefits can really be expected? Here are the major benefits:
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Document ID: F300543D

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering devices, such as positive displacement and inferential meters, measure gas at flowing conditions. Since gas is a compressible fluid, its volume responds to changes in pressure and temperature. More molecules are compressed into the same space at higher pressures and lower temperatures than would be at normal atmospheric conditions. To compensate for these effects, the metered or uncorrected volumes must be adjusted in order to indicate the amount of volume the material would occupy if it was at some common or base condition.
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Document ID: 3C96F3CD

Real - Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the last decade, natural gas measurement has undergone tremendous change. The mechanical dry-flow meters are being replaced by electronic measurement devices that are significantly more precise and contain manageable flow file data bases. This is known today as EGM or Electronic Gas Measurement. Most of all these devices can communicate in many styles. Some through the use of radios, land-line or cellular telephones, hardwire and/or satellite links. This type of communications is called telemetry. The last phase of the real-time measurement equation is the addition of on-line gas analysis data that allows the flow computer to compute its volumes utihzing this information.
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Document ID: BF5FE8F7

Selection. Testing. Operation. And Maintenance Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): R. Mark Haefele
Abstract/Introduction:
So, now that someone has decided that you are the lucky one who will bring your company into the wonderful world of electronic gas measurement, you must be asking yourself about a million questions. Take heart. Selecting an EFC is a complicated process, but others before you have accomplished it and most of them survived. Some of those people are now consultants to the industry and, depending on the level of familiarity with such equipment within your company, they are sometimes the best solution. Assuming that you have chosen to take on the challenge internally, it is best to consider the impact of your choice in two major areas: persoimel and equipment.
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Document ID: DF5AF265

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: D89916E0

Technical Applications Of Computers And Software
Author(s): Mat Manson
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers, Pes, workstation, handhelds, laptops and special purpose computers have become a way of life in the Natural Gas Industry. Your challenge as a user is to find ever increasmg ways to apply this and new computer technology to allow you to become more efficient. Computers do make the field users job easier to perform, if time is taken to insure that programming and computers are selected to fill the need.
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Document ID: 3E502211

Pressure & Temperature Transmitters Installation(, Calibration & Repair)
Author(s): Jon Schroeder
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic pressure and temperature transmitters are widely used throughout the hydrocarbon processing industiy and are some of the most critical components of process measurement and control. Their function is to measure a pressure or temperature, convert that measurement to an electronic signal and transmit that signal to a read-out or control device, such as a computer or RTU. In order to realize the maximum benefit of such transmitters, they must first be properly installed, calibrated and maintained.
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Document ID: 1AC2CA97

Transient Lightning() Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): L. Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic measurement devices have become a major part of the oil and gas business today. All of these devices operate on an electrical voltage. Any voltage introduced into the system that is beyond the predetermined tolerance will cause degradation of performance or in some cases failure of the device. The extent of the damage depends upon the dielectric strength of the circuit in question and upon the available energy . As electronic measurement devices are further developed to incorporate more solid state circuitry and operate at lower voltage levels the more susceptible they become to transients.
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Document ID: 2260741B

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of a liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume corrected to standard conditions (such as 60 degrees F and 0 PSIG in U.S. Customary units).
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Document ID: 3573805E

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Gan Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
Major considerations for choosing a pressure calibration device include cost, instrument accuracy, ease of operation, equipment susceptibility to enviromnental conditions etc. Because of their easy operation and increasing accuracy, electronic portable digital pressure indicators are gradually replacing or supplementing deadweight testers in the gas industry to perform pressure calibrations. Since digital pressure indicators have different principles from deadweight testers, their unique characteristics must be understood for effective application.
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Document ID: 34FAA64C

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Denis Rutherford
Abstract/Introduction:
The hiformation Age is upon us and the microprocessor has streamlined this process. Significant improvements in prover technology have occurred in recent years. Proving by the Gold Bucket method is a forgotton art. Computerized liquid provers are now being used in the worlds longest and biggest pipelines and most of the very critical flow measurement locations.
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Document ID: 3B87F908

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Arthur Calvin
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measnnng instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also induded are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 1F08F575

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Prover
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters or provers. We will confine our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced while proving meters whh different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: 6A1DA3E8

Es-Situ Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): V.C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas custody and allocation measurement, the users typically installed and operated their orifice meters according to ANSFAPI 2530 (AGA 3) standard. It is not a common practice now to prove orifice meters in field operation. However, the recent revision of ANSI/API 2530. Part 1, standard for orifice meter flow measurement allows users to prove meters under operating conditions using the actual fluid with the actual orifice plate and recording system in place. The standard recognizes that when accurate measurement is required, any deviation from the standards specifications will result in a higher measurement uncertainty. In fact, recent studies have shown that meter installation effects and meter tube surface roughness operating within the standard specifications can contribute additional measurement bias errors. On-site proving of gas flow meters can be performed at field locations to calibrate out bias errors and improve overall measurement uncertainty
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Document ID: CC9079B0

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Myles J. Mcdonough
Abstract/Introduction:
In the Natural Gas Industry it is estimated that as much as 25 billion cubic feet of unaccounted for gas is written off every year. With energy prices fluctuating like they do, it is no wonder that management insists on the most accurate accounting methods avai Table.
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Document ID: F229C496

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): Jack W. Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
Requirements for gas measurements have changed through depletion of existing supplies, development of new supplies, open access to pipelines, deregulation and other economic forces at work in our industry. The requirement of pipelines to change with the above situations require those of us in charge of measurement to come up with innovative and new methods of measurement for these changing flow requirements. The problem exists at the well head and the pipeline delivery point. This problem has been brought on in part by the fact that we no longer sell gas to the pipeline but to end users. This causes the problem to exist at the customers sales point as well as the pipeline.
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Document ID: 8F023F20

Liquid Flow Provers, Conventional()
Author(s): W.K. Broderick
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter provers have always been needed. In the early years of the petrochemical industry, many meter users suffered tremendous, unacceptable volume inaccuracies occurring as a result of: 1) Temperature change 2) Pressure change 3) Corrosion 4) Wear 5) Air in stream 6) Water in stream
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Document ID: 4FCCE009

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Ben C. Buette
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is a physical test conducted on a liquid meter to determine its performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the volume of liquid registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to determine this relationship is to prove the meter against a known volume.
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Document ID: C70EDD95

Methods Of Testing Large Capacity Positive Meters
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Large capacity positive meters are common in the natural gas industry. Large industrial customers rely on these meters to provide consistently accurate measurement Accurate measurement is critical to the Gas Distribution utility, as well. Since consumption by several large industrial customers can amount to a large part of the sales, accurate measurement by large capacity positive meters directly affects revenue. Proper performance of these measuring devices must be maintained with a minimum of expense and a maximum accuracy. Field testing of these meters frequently accomplishes these goals.
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Document ID: F4C101FC

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and now uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which uses the actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: 7CBA0C57

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Garvey A. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to provide information on small volume provers based on this writers experience. Principles of operation, construction and performance will be discussed from the perspective of the field technician in the refined petroleum products pipeline industry.
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Document ID: FE7E230A

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): G. B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin to address the subject of proving and repairing domestic meters, we first need to determine their significance to our industry. Domestic meters far outnumber any other type of gas measurement equipment. There are probably over 100 million domestic meters in service and not over 5 million other gas meters combined. The domestic meter is typically used at a residence and has a capacity of 175 to 250 cubic feet per hour. Domestic meters are small in size but are of great importance to our industry since one-third of the gas sold to end users is measured by these domestic devices. The domestic customer is very important to local distribution companies, and that importance has remained virtually unchanged by recent ability of the end user to direct purchase gas from its source. In one way the domestic customer is captive and we must treat him with equality of service and measurement.
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Document ID: 7B1AB9E4

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters Using Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Cathy Apple
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters provide significant advantages for custody transfer measuremmt of fluids. The most obvious feature is the Coriolis meters ability to provide a direct mass flow measurement. This makes Coriolis meters ideally suited to measuring products which are commonly accounted for on a mass basis, such as LPG, NGL, ethylene, liquid C02. Using a single Coriolis meter simplifies the metering system by replacing a volumetric flowmeter, draisitometer, and flow computer, with a single measuremeat device.
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Document ID: 8BE05B6F

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems,
Author(s): Terry m. Noble
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulse interpolation enables pulse counts to be made to a fraction of a pulse, thus greatly reducing the rounding-ojf errors that occur when pulse counts are made to the nearest whole number- as always happens in the absence of Pulse Interpolation.
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Document ID: 704F6080

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
Everyday, custody is transferred on thousands of barrels of crude oil. When this transfer takes place, we want to know the temperature, the API gravity, the percent S&W, and the gross volume. For the devices that are used to determine these readings (thermometers, thermohydrometers, centrifuge tubes, and tapes & bobs) we must know that the devices are accurate. We can have these devices verified or certified in house, at the factory, from the supplier, or from the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST).
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Document ID: 10A9825B

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): Harvey L. Curry
Abstract/Introduction:
The reason for witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing is to insure that the natural gas being sold, transported or traded is being accurately measured according to its actual quality and quantity. In the case of natural gas this involves verifying conditions and calibrating equipment to specified standards as outlined in AGA Report #3 and/or the gas contract. For orifice meter measurement of natural gas the meter tube and the orifice plate are the primary elements. The orifice meter (recorder) serves to record this source Information and start the process of accounting for natural gas moflng from one point to another. Another major variable in the amount of gas being measured is determined by the gas sample. Therefore, as a witness it Is necessary to insure these activities are being effectively performed.
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Document ID: 7AD307D4

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Wallace Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 225E4F16

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Ed Browne
Abstract/Introduction:
Determining BTU content of natural gas with a portable chromatograph is essentially the same as wiUi an on-line chromatogiaph. The difference is simply the convenience of a portable unit which can be easily carried to any desired site. Typical uses of portable units include wellhead analysis, field/operations optimization, emergency substitution for malftmctioning online units, and any other situation where very rapid measurement of gas BTU content is required at a site not served by some other BTU metering capability.
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Document ID: 09A9FBE9

Chromatograph Applications & Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Duane A. Neefe, Jody L. Bertini
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatograph is becoming more important to the pipeline industry due to the demand for Real Time volumes. To obtain volumes which do not need to be corrected for gas properties, it is necessary to have the gas properties such as specific gravity, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and btu values within the flow computers operating parameters. When these values are used within each flow calculation cycle, the accuracy of the measurement obtained is much greater than when corrections for supercompressibility are apphed after the volume is accumulated.
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Document ID: B7B33E95

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Chartes Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
Modem gas chromatograph systems are quite reliable and trouble-free. However, they must be installed carefully and used properly. Described here are some of the common characteristics and problems associated with such systems.
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Document ID: D9D35879

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): John Renfrew
Abstract/Introduction:
The objective of any laboratory is to obtain a sample ftom the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition. To obtain these objectives by chromatographic analysis of namral gas liquids, several laboratory procedures must be followed.
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Document ID: 269798B8

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Leiand S. Hastings
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of sampling in crude oil measurement and the equipment involved in obtaining a good representative of the crude oil bought or sold in pipelines.
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Document ID: 657FA869

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control between the producer, gathering system, transporter and the customer. The following discussion will cover typical analytical methods used to determine the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in gas.
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Document ID: 06718124

Energy Measurement Using On-Line Chromatographs
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
On line gas chromatography is today being chosen more and more in the natural gas industry for monitoring of gas quality. The calculations of the gas volumes in modern electronic flow meters requires not only BTU (A BTU, British Thermal Unit, is a measure of heat) information, but specific gravity, Mol. % CO2 and Mol. % Nj as well. In addition, the current AGA-8 supercompressibility equations also require a complete analysis for the detailed method of calculation of Fp. Most natural gas custody transfer contracts today use MMBTU rather than MCF as the accounting units of gas transfer. Also, modem micropacked columns are providing faster cycle times for time critical BTU measurement applications. For diese reasons mentioned above, and the fact that the installation requirements for chromatographs arc less stringent than calorimetric methods, the use of gas chromatographs has become standard practice.
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Document ID: A9426DC4

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of a laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are recommended.
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Document ID: C44E5E3E

Hjs Detbctions And Determination
Author(s): Jamee W. Canterbury
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide (BS) and total sulfur, in varying amounts, are found in almost all natural gas fields. In some cases, it is so small that the product ia referred to as sweet gas. Many fields, however, produce sour gas, which Is a gas with an HS and total sulfur level high enough to require its removal or sweetening. Several methods are available to do this sweetening. However, that is a separate subject and not a part of this paper.
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Document ID: 99F09236

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Ken S. Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement, processing, and accounting for natural gas have for many years utilized sampling as a key component. Like many other commodities exchanged, transferred, or transacted for, the quality of natural gas is of paramount importance to its worth.
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Document ID: 2D884ED5

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Distribution
Author(s): J. F. Little
Abstract/Introduction:
There has never been a system designed that will eliminate the escaping of gas in one way or another. Why is this true? Gas is permeable to every system. For example, with PE2306 pipe, the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of 2-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. All systems are not installed with 2-inch pipe. If all systems leak, we have unaccounted-for gas. Therefore, how do we determine how much gas we lose?
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Document ID: 916A6A9A

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling Spot Gas Sampling Technioues For B.T.U. & Gas Quality Determination
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no other way to receive proper payment for the natural gas that we purchase, transport, produce, process, or sell except by accurately determining its heating value, specific gravity, and compositional analysis.
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Document ID: B215671C

Water By Distillation Vs. Karl Fischer Method
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
The determination of the amount of water in crude oil and petroleum products has always been important. Rather than paying crude oil prices for water, contracts are based on net dry oil. This is calculated by reducing the total gross standard volume (GSV) by the amount of suspended sediment and water (S&W) present in the oil as determined by analyzing a sample of the oil.
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Document ID: 485E95AB

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instabiuty
Author(s): William H. Eamcy
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regulator installation and the issue of enatic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure. When the downstream pressure is not properly controlled the term unstable control is applied. Figure 1 is a list of other terms used for various forms of downstream pressiue instability. This papet will not address the mathematical methods of describing the automatic control system of the pressure reducing station, but will deal with more of the components and their affect on the system stability.
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Document ID: ECF8EE2D

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Lance Loehding
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed in either of two categories: 1. il. Self-Operated Pilot-Operated This categorizing of all regulators (plus all construction modifications) tends to be an over-simplification, but exceptions are rare. Lets examine each of them closely.
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Document ID: 6981E8D5

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very miliar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to see-ing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fuiulamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 73254077

Fundamentals Of Gas Pressure Regulation Installation Selection And Operation
Author(s): W. W. Stephens
Abstract/Introduction:
A Gas Pressure Regulator Is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: 730F0FCE

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance, it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships.
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Document ID: 4421199E

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator may be described as a mechanism for controlling or governing the movement of machines or the flow of liquids and gases, in order to meet a standard. The primary function of a gas or liquid regulator is to match the supply of the fluid moving through it to the demand for the fluid downstream. To accomplish this, the regulator continuously measures the downstream pressure and makes adjustments accordingly.
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Document ID: 588F7893

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is extremely important because a gas regulator is the most critical mechanism for controlling the xnovement or the flow of gas. A device that controls changeable pressure and flows is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, a pressure reducer, or regulator.
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Document ID: 741BCDE5

Over Pressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Rick F. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry uses many different types of pressure regulaticHi equipment to control the flow of gas as it cascades from systems with higher pressure ratings to systems with lower pressure ratings. In the event this pressure control equipment fails, some form of over pressure protection is required to prevent the system with the lower pressure rating or lower MAOP (Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure) from being over pressured.
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Document ID: F280F162

About Ishm 1996
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 1936D838


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