Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1996)

Successful Methods Of Teaching Corrosion To Operating Personnel
Author(s): J.C. Stafford
Abstract/Introduction:
Simply put, CORROSION is the inevitable change of refined metals back to their natural and preferred forms as oxides, ores, and salts in the earth. Corrosion is characterized by the wearing away of metal into pits and cavities.
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Document ID: 5B6B1ED2

Economical Advantages For Remote Monitoring Of Rectifiers
Author(s): William P. Pickard
Abstract/Introduction:
The remote monitoring of cathodic protection rectifiers and other corrosion control components is quickly becoming a method of choice for corrosion control personnel to meet company requirements of doing more with less. Direct benefits are derived from the ability to reallocate human resources to perform a variety of more important tasks. If personnel skill levels allow, valuable time can now be spent on data analysis, troubleshooting, cathodic protection design, interference testing, and a host of other subjects that have been outsourced or not explored at all previously to the installation of remote monitoring devices.
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Document ID: 070B2226

2athodic Protection Systems Monitoring Program
Author(s): Ioe L. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
During the late 80s the need to cut costs and improve efficiencies affected many gas company operating procedures, including Corrosion Control. Responding to this need, Cascade developed a simplistic athodic Protection (CP) monitoring program based on additional rectiier readings and a single remote potential.
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Document ID: BA41F6CA

When Methane And Media Mix: Insights Into Dealing Successfully With The Press
Author(s): Don Sherry
Abstract/Introduction:
Mention media relations in many companies and the instinctive reaction is to pass the buck to the public relations staff. But in the natural gas business an incident in the field calls for quick reaction, and the first and best qualified individuals to respond may be operating, customer service or utilization personnel on the scene.
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Document ID: F4B30179

Union Employees Pay For Performance
Author(s): Alan N. Stewart
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1995, SDG&E implemented a Pay for Performance Plan for union bargaining unit employees. It offered them an opportunity to earn additional compensation based on corporate, team and individual performance. The target for the corporate performance component is 2%. The team component modifies the actual corporate component by a multiplier ranging between 80% and 120%. The individual component is based on meeting a minimum employee performance rating to qualify for participating in the plan. Union employees received their Pay for Performance Plan awards in a lump sum payment in March, 1996
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Document ID: 404FB8DF

3f April: A Gas Company Perspective On Oklahoma City Bombing
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 12B8B7A1

How Companies Are Tackling Carbon Monoxide Issues
Author(s): J. Parra
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1994, the Southern California Gas Company has experienced a sharp increase in the number of customer requests for carbon monoxide (CO) tests. About 75% of the customer requests for CO tests have been non-safety-related requests, where there is no evidence of unsafe levels of CO existing in their homes. To respond efficiently to this large increase in non-safety-related CO requests, the Company modified its procedures by completing an appliance check in lieu of a CO test and by dropping a leak investigation that was required. This procedural change enables us to better serve our customers while continuing to ensure their safety.
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Document ID: 87942F9D

How To Win A Three-Legged Race
Author(s): Sandra Lachapelle, Claude Ravary
Abstract/Introduction:
The Province of Quebec is populated by residents commonly referred to as Hydro-Queb6cois. In fact, the low electricity rates and aggressive dual energy marketing strategies have made electricity the energy of choice amongst many residential customers.
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Document ID: 16C14865

New Business Teams
Author(s): Kimra Harper Cole
Abstract/Introduction:
During 1994, the Columbia Gas local distribution companies decided to place a new emphasis on the new business process. The need to reengineer this process was uncovered during a significant study of all of our key processes that impact our customers. The attributes that our customers found the most important were determined. What resulted was the formation of regional New Business Teams, teams focused on only the new business process and meeting the customers expectations.
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Document ID: 18627DF7

So What Has The A.G.A. Best Practice Benchmarking Program Done For Me Lately?
Author(s): Robert G. Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. began sponsoring the Best Practices Benchmarking program in 1994. Since that time, the program, under the direction of the Distribution, Construction and Maintenance (DC&M) Committee, has become a huge success for the A.G.A., with member companies finding real value in participation. Papers were presented in 1994 and 1995 on the process, progress and evolution of the Best Practices program. This paper will highlight the continued success and discuss the vision for the program in the future.
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Document ID: 24E3321F

Internal Best Practice Benchmarking At Columbia
Author(s): James C. Cable
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1994 Columbia took part in A.G.A.s best practices benchmarking program for the first time. Five teams of three people each engaged in the process all the way from data collection to the roundtable discussions to the dissemination of the results to our company personnel. That experience was so positive that we continued our involvement in 1995, and again, this year. The experiences we gained from this process were so positive in fact that we have moved to doing best practices benchmarking internally.
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Document ID: 3B0C7249

lhe Development Of An Optical Sensor To Detect Natural Gas Leaks
Author(s): L.L. Tom() Altpeter, Paul Beckendorf, Tom Henningsen
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the development of a new technology to detect latural gas leaks, based on the absorption of infrared light by methane in latural gas. When commercialized, the new detector will increase leak urvey productivity 20% to 50% by permitting a vehicle equipped with his device to travel at normal traffic speeds.
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Document ID: 76A11E78

The P.D.I.M. A( Compact Regulating/Metering System)
Author(s): Gerard Kubat, Jean Oconnor
Abstract/Introduction:
Always looking for innovative equipments and techniques that will allow to increase its network safety and reduce its operation costs, Gaz Metropolitain with the Natural Gas Technologies Centre realised field trials of two P.D.I.M., a new type of equipment in North America. This paper will present briefly the RD.l.M. itself and the results of the field trials after six months of tests.
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Document ID: 6A551132

Personal Protection And Oxygen Monitoring For Workers In Columbia Gas Operations
Author(s): Stephen P Cremean
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1993, Columbia Gas Distribution Companies reviewed their practices for working in excavations where gas could be introduced to the atmosphere. This review included the storage, maintenance and use of respirators, protective clothing and oxygen monitors.
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Document ID: AB2A177E

Hand Held Computers: Field Applications
Author(s): Eric H. Gerstel
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Business Unit of PECO Energy Co. services 381,000 natural gas customers in the Bucks, Chester, Delaware and Montgomery County suburbs of Philadelphia, PA. The recent deployment by PECO of hand held, pen-based computers has made a significant impact on the daily operation of the Gas Services Group. PECO currently has 40 hand held computers installed with its field crews in the Bucks/Montgomery County Region.
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Document ID: C0DB097C

Acoustic Leak Detection Method For Inserted Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Andre Gougeon, Jacques Goyette
Abstract/Introduction:
Faced by ever increasing safety and quality concerns, greater customer demand and the need to reduce construction and maintenance costs, companies must find ways to improve construction and operating techniques.
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Document ID: E0126A26

The Use Of Decision Analysis And Risk Management To Optimize Expenditures
Author(s): Daniel R. Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will describe the various decision analysis programs used by Consumers Power Company (CPCo) to optimize capital expenditures. Implementation of these programs has allowed CPCo to allocate capital resources in a more cost effective manner, resulting in improved public safety and customer service, and increased shareholder value by avoiding unnecessary costs.
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Document ID: A1DACEBE

Reducing The Cost Of Gas Utility Operations: Survey Of Products Ready Now And On The Fast Track To Commercialization
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
The U.S. natural gas industry is undergoing tremendous change due argely to a changing regulatory environment and market competition. As a result there is a broad consensus among gas utilities that reducing jverall costs is the highest priority issue facing the industry.
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Document ID: DA3CFD10

Enhancements Off Business Processes Through Expanded Mapping Applications
Author(s): Rollin R. Launder
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas energy industry is experiencing rapid changes in the marketplace that are redirecting the focus on information systems. This presentation identifies drivers for change that create increased demands for more robust mapping systems to support business processes. A simulated business process model incorporates key features of modern mapping systems as reflected in the Expanded Mapping Application Survey conducted by the A.G.A. Distribution Engineering Committee Computer Applications Task Force.
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Document ID: D6EA299B

Study Of Engineering Costs And Outsourcing
Author(s): Chuck Becker
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) is a combination utility serving more than 2.7 million customers in Colorado and Wyoming. The Company operates numerous electric generation facilities and extensive gas and electric transmission and distribution infrastructures in a market area that is experiencing a relatively high growth rate.
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Document ID: EACE0C7E

Acquiring Right-Of-Way For Distribution Projects
Author(s): T. Jeffrey Layne
Abstract/Introduction:
Successful Right-of-Way acquisition for distribution projects requires preparation and dedication to service This paper is a discussion on how to effectively acquire right-of-way at reasonable cost while maintaining good customer/community relationships.
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Document ID: 86142622

The Hanshin Earthquake And Its Aftermath
Author(s): Atsushi Manago
Abstract/Introduction:
At 5:46 am on January 17th, 1995, an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter Scale occurred, and a strong tremor was recorded throughout the service territory of Osaka Gas Company in the Kansai area. Some 860,000 customers in the 5 Middle Blocks of the total 55 Blocks were suspended gas supply. Most of the damage was experienced on lowpressure mains and service pipes. Restoration work was implemented by 9,700 crew members, 6,000 from Osaka Gas and its contractors, and 3,700 from 154 gas companies across the country. Restoration was completed by April 11th, 1995.
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Document ID: 964EFD1C

Meter Proofs-Retention In The Field
Author(s): John H. Poole, Clem W. Lecure
Abstract/Introduction:
Canadian Meter has contributed a paper to the CGA Measurement School on the subject of Meter Proof every year since 1987. All the previous papers have dealt with improvements in the Proving Room and Quality Control issues at the Manufacturing Plant and Utility Shop. This paper deals with the retention of accurate proof in service, which of course, is the main object we should all be working for in the interest of Better Measurement and Longer Service Life.
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Document ID: 2BE49F73

Communication Techniques For Electronic Correctors
Author(s): Derrick F. Doehring
Abstract/Introduction:
The electronic gas volume corrector (EC) is capable of providing the gas company, gas brokers, and gas users accurate and timely information about gas usage and meter information. The EC monitors pressure, temperature, and uncorrected gas meter volume information. Using basic gas laws, the electronic brain of the EC calculates corrected gas volume very accurately on a real-time basis.
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Document ID: 8F5E8F69

Serial Data Communication In Gas Measurement
Author(s): Ted Lakeberg
Abstract/Introduction:
Data has been collected and stored in microprocessor based equipment used in the natural gas industry for over a decade. A growing variety of instruments now provide serial data output such as correctors, electronic pressure recorders, flow computers and chromatographs.
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Document ID: 808624A9

Using Automatic Data Collection In The Gas Meter Shop
Author(s): Dean R. Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays business environment, making the best decision right now can be your strongest competitive advantage. The increased sophistication of utility equipment, organizational changes and reductions in personnel have increased the pace and complexity of gas meter shop operations. This, combined with the need for efficient record management and reduced operating cost, has sparked interest in Automatic Data Collection. This presentation will address the benefits of real-time data collection and the components that make up an Automatic Data Collection system.
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Document ID: 17229BE4

Handling And Disposal Of Liquids In Distribution Systems
Author(s): Edward C. Dunlap
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquids in distribution systems have progressed from a source of revenue to an operational nuisance and expense. There are several sources of the liquids, including humidification, peak shaving, compression, and upstream sources. Liquids behavior can be unpredictable due to the dynamism of distribution system operations and growth.
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Document ID: 04319655

Update On The Progress Of The New Pcb Regulations, The Mega Rule
Author(s): Lawrence H. Liebs
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reiterates previous presentations on the history and impacts of the current TSCA regulations on the natural gas industry. Negotiation issues are reviewed through the ANPRM and NPRM process, and expected wording of USEPAs final rule on PCBs is discussed with expected impacts and benefits.
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Document ID: A9EFB313

Dot Operator Qualification Ruling: Now Or Nevet?
Author(s): Timothy A. Lilly
Abstract/Introduction:
Is the DOT Operator Qualification Rule a fact or just fiction? This is probably one of the most sought after responses in the Industry at this time. Before I hear Hi or How are you, I hear Well, is there a ruling or not!. There have been times when I felt I would retire not knowing that answer. This only concerns me because I am a young man. My name is Tim Lilly and Im the Manager of Compliance and Technical Training for CNG Transmission Corporation of Clarksburg, West Virginia. I would like to share my knowledge of the illusive DOT Operator Qualification Rule.
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Document ID: DFF2644A

Waste Tracking
Author(s): Stephen H. Morawski
Abstract/Introduction:
The inception of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in 1976 has given regulated hazardous waste generators cradle to grave responsibility for their wastes. One tool used by generators for both tracking compliance and systematic management of wastes is computerized waste tracking. This paper reviews Tennessee Gas Pipelines integrated approach to the waste management process with a focus on Tennessee Gas Pipelines current Waste Tracking System.
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Document ID: E8A3B28B

Federal Regulations For The Management Of Asbestos
Author(s): Michael J. Atherton
Abstract/Introduction:
The management of asbestos-containing materials will require attention to specific regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). Some states have assumed primary responsibility for EPA and/or OSHA regulations other states have distinct and separate programs.
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Document ID: 29D47FCF

Brownfields And The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Ellen J. Quinn, Ruthanne F. Calabrese
Abstract/Introduction:
There are numerous instances in the U.S. and Europe where industrial waste has contaminated properties. Many of these contaminated properties have been abandoned due to the excessive cost of site remediation. The abandonment of brownfields poses problems not only for public health and the environment, but also for the economic well being of the urban areas in which they are located. Industry has opted to develop clean properties, greenfields, in lieu of site reuse. Since many of these properties are in prime urban locations, the reclamation and redevelopment of contaminated sites in urban brownfields has become an important international issue,
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Document ID: D32EE089

Scada System For 6000 Wells
Author(s): Kevin L. Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides an overview of a large SCADA system for well field measurement and operations. This is a large-scale project, which applies to 6000 well sites. Keys to the project are recently-developed electronic gas flow computers, which are highly-integrated and low power-consuming, and radio communication equipment rated for hazardous areas. Also, minimizing costof- installation was a very important issue.
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Document ID: 9C4889C3

Management Of Environmental Risk
Author(s): Sandra K. Hart
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive business conditions companies should assess their approach to environmental management. Optimal management of the risk posed by environmental requirements can reduce compliance risk, cost, and perhaps even enhance competitive positions. This paper outlines a process to help analyze an environmental management program to reduce the risk posed by regulatory burdens.
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Document ID: 2BC73981

Regulatory Update: An Update Of Proposed Epa Regulations
Author(s): Lori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an update of proposed EPA regulations not covered in other papers. It covers land and air, but no sea. EPA has been fairly quiet on clean water issues while it awaits congressional reauthorization of the Clean Water Act.
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Document ID: EC390162

Update Of Air Quality Issues For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Thomas J. Bach
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many Clean Air Act regulatory developments that will impact the natural gas industry. The current developmental status of Title V operating permit programs, compliance Assurance Monitoring, and the Share-A-MACT/Industrial Combustion Strategy are discussed. In addition, recent guidance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding emission sources potential to emit and methods for streamlining the Title V operating permit programs are summarized.
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Document ID: 57B7C51A

Proper Selection Of An Environmental Contract Laboratory Through Auditing
Author(s): Dwight J. Romig
Abstract/Introduction:
Contract laboratories are currently becoming the preferred method of operation with regard to providing results for environmental concerns. Unless a company incorporates its environmental laboratory needs internally, relying on a contract lab that is reputable and scrupulous is a must. Environmental results for any and all discharges could prove to have horrendous financial and legal impact if challenged by a federal or state agency. Proper selection of a contract environmental laboratory through auditing is the only method of providing confidence for complying with any permitted or required environmental sampling.
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Document ID: B390F9AB

Characterization Of Liquids Found In Natural Gas Pipelines: Disposal Or Recycling?
Author(s): Dwight J. Romig
Abstract/Introduction:
Many pipeline companies are faced with pigging, condensation of liquids, and contamination from other sources at one time or another. Unfortunately this is a fact of life when is comes to transportation of natural gas. Many constituents are taken out of pipelines, but is it really known whether or not these constituents can be recycled? This is a question that can be answered through the proper sampling and identification via analysis of the liquids.
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Document ID: 8CF6768B

Global Warming: The Heats On Us
Author(s): Lorna Seppala
Abstract/Introduction:
Although there continues to be scientific argument over many aspects of the global warming phenomenon, the consensus among scientists and government leaders is that the problem is real and must be addressed. International and national commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have been made by governments, and fossil fuel industries have complied with varying degrees of enthusiasm.
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Document ID: C01D2003

Gri Gas Distribution Automation Program Update
Author(s): Kiran m. Kothari
Abstract/Introduction:
Economic pressures, reduced staff, increased work loads, deregulation of the industry, real-time information needs at several levels, and networking problems, limitations and inefficiencies have increased importance of gas distribution automation (DA) in recent years. GRI initiated several research and development (R&D) programs to assist the gas distribution industry in this area.
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Document ID: E5E6532F

Vehicle Replacement Strategies
Author(s): Salvatore L. Bibona
Abstract/Introduction:
Utility fleet managers use a variety of methods in determining when to replace their vehicle and equipment fleets. This paper highlights the main strategies that they use, summarizes current utility practices regarding age and mileage replacement criteria, and explains the key elements of applying economic life cycle analysis for replacement decisions. Also, four examples of economic life cycles analysis are described: the first two for determining replacement guidelines before vehicles go into service and, the third and fourth for evaluating vehicles after they have gone into service.
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Document ID: 7F2D4BEB

Minnesota Guidestar Program
Author(s): m. Graning
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0F3D33CC

Computerizing Fleet Records And Automating Fleet Operations
Author(s): Mark S. Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
Does your office look like a paper recycling center? Does that fire hazard on your desk get bigger with each work day? Are you tired of shuffling through mountains of paper when information is requested? Are your filing cabinets so stuffed, you cant get another invoice or work order, IN or OUT? Is this the most efficient and effective way to operate your fleet department?
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Document ID: 6B15D68E

5TATISTICS & Computerized Information Systems Subcommittee
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: AFC899A0

Integrated Enterprise
Abstract/Introduction:
In more and more companies, this situation has or is re jurisdictional disputes between the IS departments (Informs terns, MIS - Management Information Systems, or IT - In Technology whatever theyre called by various companies) a tions (by whatever name), each striving to protect their respec doms. Some of the issues of these turf disputes have validity be addressed, however, struggles over ownership and territ ultimately be settled (see Figure 1). Parties of these turfgoing to be forced into bi-directional partnerships, and those who put tools into place that achieve the protection they de promoting the integration will be best served.
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Document ID: 9B6FE2A4

Raps: What It Can Do For Me
Author(s): Murray Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a high level overview of the RAPS protocol :. It suggests via a scenario, how RAPS can be used, and an indicaof the benefits that can come from using such an industry standard nunications protocol. It goes into a little bit of detail to illustrate RAPS can be used for connecting together of applications and field :es from different vendors and networks.
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Document ID: 19C88AB2

Control Information Sharing
Author(s): Michael L. Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation has formed and i called FOCUS that stands for Future Operational Capacity Ut Strategy. Through the FOCUS effort, TETCO is taking the init providing the best possible services to customers. The FOCL will more fully integrate and shorten all business cycles in the ci Gas Control is at the center for these issues, since it is where th cal and business realities come together. Specific objectives in tl tive include: Shortening business cycles to operate Within Day Decrease Energy Costs Identify unused capacity available to customers Provide more information to customers
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Document ID: 365C1893

Contractor Of Choice Bidding Process
Author(s): Joseeph E. Hoffman
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1994, a challenge was presented by the Regional Manager of the Gas Services Group to develop a new bidding process. The process would have to focus on decreasing costs, increasing bidding speed, and improving the overall quality of the work being performed Previously, all contracted work was awarded using either the sealed bid process for work packages in excess of 100,000 or a units contract that was awarded every three years.
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Document ID: 15138A3C

Strategic Alliance With Distribution System Contractors
Author(s): Frank Langella
Abstract/Introduction:
Previously, Brooklyn Union competitively bid gas-facilities-related instruction work, with separate bids solicited for each major work category (i.e., main installations, leak repair, programmatic projects such as ast-iron replacement, and new / replacement gas services). Annual contacts were awarded to the low cost bidder. The contract length was generally for one or two years and the terms and conditions of the agreement were heavily weighted in favor of Brooklyn Union.
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Document ID: 6E01639C

A Pipeline Installation Alliance: Case Study
Author(s): Roger A. Mack
Abstract/Introduction:
Early in 1995, Southern California Gas Company reviewed its contracts for distribution pipeline installation. One important conclusion of this review was that the work done on a time and material basis could be accomplished in a more cost-efficient manner. To obtain this cost efficiency, the contractors needed to identify openly and honestly where savings could be realized. Further the contractors had to profit from this openness. An alliance process was implemented, coupled with a guarantee of work for two years, to obtain these savings.
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Document ID: BCED23C0

Developing Contractor Alliances
Author(s): Kevin E. Powers
Abstract/Introduction:
PSE&G installs, maintains, and operates 14,931 miles of gas distribution mains to meet the energy needs of 1,483,312 customers within its service territory in New Jersey. The service territory is divided into twelve districts, which comprises the Gas Distribution business. Each district is responsible for all work within that particular service area, including new main and service work, replacement main and service work, and all operating and maintenance work required to support the gas distribution system.
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Document ID: 76376BEF

Ngpls Approach To The Dot Operator Qualification Proposals
Author(s): John E. Warmelink, James N. Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
Prudent business practices require all industries to operate their facilities safely and efficiently. Industries which routinely handle potentially dangerous materials must ensure that their employees are qualified, properly trained, and safety-conscious. These employee attributes are especially critical in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: DA5789F1

Pipeline Purging Principles And Practice
Author(s): James A. Johnson, Steven J. Svedeman, Christopher A. Kuhl, John G. Gregor, Alan K. Lambeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas purging, a process of displacing one gas by another gas, occurs on a routine basis in the natural gas industry when pipelines are purged into and out of service. In a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and in cooperation with the American Gas Association (A.G.A.), the purging practices as outlined in the A.G.A.s Purging Principles and Practices manual are being reviewed because many of todays pipeline purging operations occur under conditions not addressed directly in the manual. The program focus is on the purging procedures outlined in Chapter 8 of the manual entitled Gas Transmission and Distribution Pipes.
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Document ID: 58614DA2

Remote Valves For Pipeline Break Detection
Author(s): B. Bowles, B. Morrow, R. Sparks,
Abstract/Introduction:
In response to these expressed needs, an R&D program was ir by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) at Southwest Research In (SwRI) to assess the present state of the art of these valves, and to where, and under what circumstances such equipment can be relid to successfully isolate a ruptured pipeline section. Specific object this technology assessment were as follows:
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Document ID: 2C6442EF

Study For Industry-Recognized Welding Process
Abstract/Introduction:
Another question that could be asked relates to whethe is really unique. It must certainly be admitted that the cum each company performing its own welding procedure qu the norm. However, there are situations where this practice imized or eliminated altogether. One such example is tl employed in the American Welding Societys AWS Dl Welding Code-Steel.
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Document ID: 687AEDCC

Gri R&D Impact On Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Michael m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
Safe, reliable plastic pipe has brought natural gas at low cost to millions of U.S. homes and businesses for more than two decades and the technology is still evolving. In 1994, the U.S. gas distribution industry installed 32,000 miles of pipe. Ninety percent of all the distribution gas pipe installed is polyethylene (PE). Of the 32,000 miles installed, about 17,000 miles were used for mains and 15,000 miles for services. Approximately, two thirds of the pipes installed each year are used for new services and mains one third of the pipes are used each year to repair, replace, or renew older steel and cast iron gas distribution pipes. For extending mains and services to new customers, the gas distribution industry spends about 3 billion annually.
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Document ID: 381FA48C

Considerations For Pe Bridge Crossings
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 0975C794

Electrofusion Control Boxes At Washington Ga
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: C5EB3D68

High Pressure Gas Distribution Piping System
Author(s): Gene Palermo
Abstract/Introduction:
For distribution of natural gas in the pressure range of 100 to 250 psig (7 to 16 bar) the material most commonly used is metal, such as carbon steel. However, many gas distribution companies would prefer to use plastic pipe because of its many advantages compared to metal. Now a plastic piping system made from polyamide 11 is available. This paper will describe the polyamide 11 piping system.
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Document ID: F56051F3

Installation Of Polyethylene Gas Pipe On The Louise Bridge
Author(s): G. A. Harms
Abstract/Introduction:
In the winter of 1994, the City of Calgary notified Canadian Western Natural Gas (CWNG) that major repairs were planned for the Louise Bridge in Calgary. All utilities, including CWNGs 10 inch (273 mm) steel gas feeder main, were to be temporarily removed during bridge reconstruction.
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Document ID: 8FE9F0FA

Ultrasonic Inspection In The Field
Author(s): Gerry Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality in any kind of process or program is a never-ending goal. One reason the goal can be described as never-ending is because the level of expected quality keeps going higher and higher. The quality of plastic fusion can be judged by two factors. First, it must look good and second, it must be good.
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Document ID: A2932EED

Field Assessment Of Large Diameter Coiled Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Robert L. Bubolz
Abstract/Introduction:
During 1995, Wisconsin Public Service installed approximately 170,000 feet of 4 coiled pipe and 280,000 feet of 6 coiled pipe. Although the installation of this amount of pipe does not make us authorities on the installation of coiled pipe, we did learn from it. Perhaps the following information, concerning our experiences, can help when you consider using large diameter coiled plastic pipe. Coiled polyethylene pipe offers some significant advantages over straight length pipe, primarily a substantial reduction in the number of fusion joints.
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Document ID: D1C9C508

Improving Contractor Safety Performance In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): J. Tomczyk, C. Pelletier
Abstract/Introduction:
The following information is based on the Business Roundtable Report, Improving Construction Safety Performance, a 1979 study c ducted by professionals from a cross section of construction users, c tractors, the insurance industry, and academia, and on The Worl Compensation Crisis...Safety Excellence Will Make A Differenc 1991 supplement to the A-3 Report.
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Document ID: 5C202FF3

Can You Afford A Million Dollar Mistake?
Author(s): Michael S. Beer
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT IS GOING ON HERE? Unprecedented Drive to Criminalize Corporate Conduct REALITY ...Any company that thinks it has no real chance of a criminal indictment is living in a fantasy land-General Counsel, GE Aerospace. Perceived need to eradicate corporate cultures that nurture and cause white collar crime amongst exectuvites and employees. Mary Jo White, U.S. Attorney, Southern District of New York, October 1995 Conference at Georgetown University called Federal Enforcement 1995: New Directions in White Collar Criminal Defense.
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Document ID: E0E6C1A6

Leak Verification With A Gas Chromatograph
Author(s): Martin J. Dineen, Marion G. Ziemons
Abstract/Introduction:
Relatively inexpensive test equipment, manufactured by a number of companies, is available for use by natural gas utilities to detect the presence of combustible gas. The instruments are rugged enough for field use, yet sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of combustibles. However, they are unable to identify the type or source of combustible gas that is being measured. This paper presents a laboratory test method that is being used by Atlanta Gas Light Company to supplement field instrumentation in order to identify the type or source of combustible gas that is being detected.
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Document ID: F6A58D17

Natural Gas Incident Investigation: Origin/Cause/Liability
Author(s): Walter K. Rothfuss
Abstract/Introduction:
Misconceptions and myths color the beliefs of local authorities and create problems for utilities, who need to comply with 49 CFR Part 192 plus state and local regulations. Utilities must investigate fires and explosions to determine if they are reportable as pipeline incidents. Too often, the local fire authorities exclude the utility from having the utilitys own people or experts involved in the scene investigation. In order to protect themselves and to comply with federal law, utilities must perform their own fire and explosion investigations.
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Document ID: 68D15F32

Worlds First LNG Vehicular Fuel Production Plant
Author(s): Don Coers, David Forgash
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Carbonic Industries had constructed a high purity methane LNG production facility at Willis, Texas to meet the need for clean burning alternative liquid fuels in the Southwest. Liquid Carbonic commissioned Chicago Bridge & Iron Company to design and construct the facility on a turnkey basis. This is the first dedicated commercial plant constructed to supply LNG as a vehicle fuel. The plant started operations in late 1994, and produces high purity 99.5% methane vehicle fuel.
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Document ID: 26295219

Application Of L-Band Satellite To Main Line Valve Control For Line Break
Author(s): Randy J. Neck
Abstract/Introduction:
BACKGROUND Focused interest on remote valve closure to improve safety False closures common on automatic control valves Poll/response communications can be costly for remote valve control when radio communications is not feasible -Ku/C band satellite -Lease line
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Document ID: 504AC558

Nfpa 59A-1996 A Review Of The Changes
Author(s): Richard A. Hoffmann, James H. Stannard
Abstract/Introduction:
The integration of NFPA 59A into NFPA 57 was chosen to be by extraction. The NFPA Standards Council, in their 94-33 decision, established the following responsibilities:
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Document ID: B70AF060

Sub-X Vaporization Of LNG: A Survey Update
Author(s): Edward R. Vogel, J. Thomas Raines
Abstract/Introduction:
SUB-X LNG Vaporizers, first installed and operated in 1965 at Alabama Gas, and most recently (1995) installed and operated at North Carolina Natural Gas, have for more than thirty years successfully served 31 Gas Utility companies in the United States and Canada with 123 SUB-X units operating in 38 LNG PeakShaving and Baseload plants. This paper presents a comparison and update of a survey conducted ten years ago for the SUB-X Vaporizer equipment operation and performance. Basic design principles and features of the SUB-X system are briefly reviewed.
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Document ID: 1D831970

Preparing For A New Millennium: World Class Operations At Tenneco Energy
Author(s): Sue Barry
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry has undergone radical transformations as a result of FERC Orders 280, 436, 500, 528 and, most recently, 636. Revisions to regulatory requirements that cause the natural gas and electricity markets to be increasingly more competitive, emphasis on environmental and pipeline safety issues, expansion into international markets, and increasingly sophisticated information technologies are constant drivers, forcing the industry to reinvent itself.
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Document ID: 26EAF2CC

Introduction To Lpg Safety For Propane-Air Plant Operators
Author(s): Harlan F. Rogers
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a preview of the A.G.A. Publication Introduction to LPG Safety for Propane-Air Operators written by the Supplemental Gas Committee. It discusses LPG facilities, design and construction, operation and maintenance, and safety and training. It is intended as a training aid for Propane-Air Plant personnel. It may also be used to familiarize safety professionals with Propane-air plant safety.
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Document ID: D5C07ABE

What Do You Do With 30 Tons Of Dry Ice?
Author(s): James H. Stannard, L. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
A small company, Southwest Gas Corporation (Southwest), that originally formed some 20 years earlier as a propane marketer in Mojave Desert area of California, stepped in to provide natural gas vice to the suddenly exploding Las Vegas market. Not only were t successful in Las Vegas, Southwest has continued to grow, with ser areas that now encompass the major cities of both Nevada and Arizt Southwest now serves more than a million meters in California, Nev and Arizona.
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Document ID: B8BEEFE4

Within Day Processing Of The Daily Business Imperatives For Change
Author(s): David Jewell
Abstract/Introduction:
I. IMPERATIVES FOR CHANGE A. Challenges in a changing industry. B. Demand for Within Day information. 1. Tools to better support within day monitoring and analysis of the hydraulic state of the pipeline are a practical operational necessity. 2. Tactically, Texas Eastern must respond to the new marketplace with within day identification of available capacity and provide within day information to customers 3. Strategically, Texas Easterns customers look to them to be the industry leader in developing new services and adapting to changing markets and regulations.
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Document ID: 4AB994BF

The Effects Of Oil Coating On The Measurement Of Gas Flow Using Sharp-Edged Orifice Flowmeters
Author(s): Bill Johansen, Walt Seidl, Thomas Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice plates are known to be sensitive to a variety of effects due to dimensional variations and flowing fluid conditions. A number of studies have been performed to determine the specific effects of water entrainment and two phase flow on orifices, but the results were not well documented and were limited in scope.
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Document ID: 1F1ADF39

Ultrasonic Flowmeter Performance
Abstract/Introduction:
Tests for this program were conducted in the GRI MF sure Loop (HPL) located at Southwest Research Institute were installed in the 12-inch reference flow leg of the M with transmission grade natural gas. Data were collected s on the ultrasonic meters and on the HPL critical flow nozzl served as the flow reference.
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Document ID: 26E4E7CE

Using Analog And Digital Analysis For Effective Pulsation Control
Author(s): Larry E. Blodgett
Abstract/Introduction:
Piping systems for reciprocating compressors are presently being designed using electro acoustical and digital acoustic models. The well designed system is not as dependent on the model as it is on the design engineers ability to create cost-effective and efficient piping systems. Engineering is a mixture of science, art, and economics. A proven design tool or model in the hands of an experienced successful designer will yield a good design.
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Document ID: 438C8E5A

Present European Status And Future Research Plans On Multipath Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Pieter M.A. Van Der Kam
Abstract/Introduction:
The European Gas Research Group, GERG, has undertaken a project to prepare an inventory of knowledge on the performance of multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters and of ongoing and planned projects involving these. The objective has been to identify the necessary measures for obtaining general approval of multipath ultrasonic meters for custody transfer purposes. This paper gives an outline of the GERG Technical Monograph that was published. It contains a proposal for the set of requirements to be put on ultrasonic meters, an analysis of the gap between the present knowledge and what is needed and proposals for future work to bridge that gap.
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Document ID: E10D9811

Performance Of A Single And A Dual Rotor Turbine Metei In Short And Close Coupled Installations
Author(s): Robert K. Mcbrien
Abstract/Introduction:
An experimental investigation to evaluate the performance of both a single rotor and a dual rotor 4 inch turbine meter in close and short coupled configurations has been performed and is reported in this paper.
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Document ID: 9383D51F

Testing Of Gas Sampling Methods For Industry Applications
Author(s): Kendricks A. Behring, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
A joint research project has been initiated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) to quantify composition uncertainty (and therefore uncertainty in gas value) associated with commonly used gas sampling methods. The research effort is divided into two phases. Phase I is a series of carefully controlled tests at the GRI Metering Research Facility (MRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI).
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Document ID: 8A117E48

Effect Of Increasing Plate Thickness On The Metering Accuracy Of An 8 Inch Orifice Meter
Author(s): U. Karnik
Abstract/Introduction:
The present study investigates the use of a thicker (0.25 in.) orifice plate in a standard 8inch orifice meter run. In particular, the effect of retrofitting existing meter runs (old fitting) designed for 0.125 in. thick plates as well as the performance of newly designed meter runs (new fitting) for 0.25 in. plates is studied. For the 0.25 in. thick plate, the effect of bevel angle and orifice edge thickness on metering accuracy is also evaluated.
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Document ID: BEFABF45

Application Of Motor Driven Pipeline Compressors
Author(s): David J. Peer
Abstract/Introduction:
The harmonic distortion varies with the architecture ol Adding a second parallel thyristor bridge permits the producl pulse pseudo-sine wave which has an inherently lower dis only half as many harmonics. The electrical harmonics of bridge occur at frequencies of:
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Document ID: 85FBD1C3

Ultrasonic Meters: Evaluation And Operational Experiments
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the meters was determined by comparison with flow rates measured using a 203 mm (NPS 8) Rockwell Auto-Adjust turbine meter. This meter was originally calibrated in high pressure natural gas (5200 to 6500 kPa) at the British
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Document ID: A4045F58

A New Perspective On Measurement
Author(s): Lohit Datta-Barua
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a new perspective on measurement in light of changing business environment, competition, and technology. The objective of the paper is to make us all think differently and to remove pitfalls of tunnel vision, thereby allowing us to act smartly and efficiently. This paper is intended to challenge everybody involved in the process. Everything we do must have business relevance. This is true not only for measurement process, but for every process we are involved in. One must constantly question our action and not fall in the trap of thats the way we have always done it.
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Document ID: 41363F09

Accuracy Of An In-Line Separator For Sampling Unprocessed Natural Gas
Author(s): V. C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
The study described in this paper explored the effect on sampling accuracy of using an in-line separator during the sampling of unprocessed natural gas. The petroleum industry in the U. S. follows the Gas Processors Association (GPA) Standard 2166-86 for natural gas sampling. In the Standard, a sampling probe and an in-line separator are recommended as part of the sampling equipment system.
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Document ID: 6EB7E80E

Sampling Systems For On-Line Analyzers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of the analysis of an on-line analyzer is of the utmost importance to the companies that use these numbers in quality and volume calculations. An on-line analyzer can only analyze a sample that is delivered to it by its sampling system. This paper will cover the important points of the typical sampling systems. Regardless of how expensive an analyzer might be, or how qualified the operator, the accuracy of the result will be dependent on the sampling system.
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Document ID: A0A5F08B

Diagnosis Of Installation Conditions Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Dominique Dutertre, Vincent De Laharpe, Gerald Lefebvre
Abstract/Introduction:
flow meters, Gaz De France has made laboratory tests on various configurations combining regulators, bends and meters. One G400 turbine meter has been calibrated and then tested for different geometry configurations and operating conditions, using two different regulators. Additional reading errors have been observed.
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Document ID: 03403DB2

Liquid C02-Sand Fracturing: The Dry Frac
Author(s): L. Arnold,
Abstract/Introduction:
The Carbon Dioxide blender consists of a large pressure vessel am manifold system that blends proppant into a liquid CO2 stream prior ti its introduction into the high pressure pumps. Proppant is pneumaticall loaded into the vessel before the job and the remaining space is fille with liquid CO2 (Figure 1). Once the job begins, the proppant is drawi into the liquid CO2 stream by hydraulically driven augers. The speed o the augers controls the required sand concentrations, which are mea sured by radioactive densitometers. Conventional fluids rely on viscosit to transport proppant in the fracture, whereas liquid CO2 treatments uti lize turbulence and velocity to accomplish the same results.
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Document ID: 4A295F9D

An Ldcs Use Of Storage For Hub Operations
Author(s): Melissa Reges
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses how Brooklyn Union, an LDC located in New York City and the operator of the New York Hub, has changed its traditional use of storage to take advantage of new market opportunities brought about by regulatory change. Storage, a vital component of Brooklyn Unions gas supply portfolio, has been used traditionally to serve the winter heating load of the Companys core customers in a reliable and cost effective manner. Today, the role of storage has broadened and its value to the Company has increased. Through the Hub, the Company has found innovative ways to increase the value of these assets to reduce gas costs to customers and realize margins for shareholders.
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Document ID: 1ABCE7FC

Catalytic Converter: Operation And Maintenance Requirements
Author(s): R.R. Raymer
Abstract/Introduction:
The instructions from the catalyst and A/F ratio controller manufactures include installation , setup , and initial calibration of their respective equipment.. However in order to recognize whether the catalyst is operating as intended there are other parameters we need to be aware of.
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Document ID: 18A528ED

Development Of The Vip Valve-Ln Piston Gas Field Compressor
Author(s): David S. Morse
Abstract/Introduction:
Dresser-Rand Company began development of an innovative VIP- or Valve-In-Piston design gas field, reciprocating compressor in September 1998. This paper outlines the design concepts, development work, laboratory and field testing, September 1994 commercial introduction, and field experience of the VIP Compressor to date.
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Document ID: 7FE5DA22

Development Of A Protective Coating For Pipeline Coating
Author(s): B. m. Dearing
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipe coating is our main defense to protect buried steel from corrosion. Historically materials have been developed to improve this process. Coatings have progressed from crude waxy-asphalt, hot melt coal tars to the present day fusion bonded epoxy called thin film or FBE. Each generation has made progress to extend the life and operation of a steel pipeline.
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Document ID: 1A6EBEE0

Creating A Pipeline Rehabilitation Plan
Author(s): William F. Marshall
Abstract/Introduction:
Rehabilitation of pipelines has increased in recent years due to the continued aging of existing pipelines and their coatings. Many are approaching or exceeding the design life expectancy and are deteriorating, which is a major concern to pipeline operators and owners. As a pipeline deteriorates, the operator must decide how to maintain the pipeline in order to sustain product transmission. In making this decision, the operator has two main concerns:
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Document ID: 2600AE01


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