Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1995)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1995 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that he or she have a knowledge of natural gas chemistry.
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Document ID: 028D65CB

Multipath Ultrasonic Flow Meter For Gas Measurement
Author(s): Chris Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has long been looking for new and accurate methods for measuring large volumes of gas at high pressures. Orifice metering is the most common method, but one major drawback is its rangeability. When a station has variable flow rates, a technician may be required to change orifice plates quite often. Another drawback is the space that is required to place an orifice meter. Not all stations will have ample space for a setting.
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Document ID: 1E81001A

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Most gas contracts today have at least a BTU specification and many use MMBTU (million BTU) rather than gas volume for custody transfer measurement. Gas chromatography is today being chosen more and more because the calculations of the gas volumes in modem electronic flow meters requires not only BTU5 information, but specific gravity, Mol % CO2 and Mol % N2 The new AGA-8 supercompressibility equations also require a complete hydrocarbon analysis. What then, is a BTU? BTU is the acronym for British Thermal Unit. One BTU is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 58.5F to 59.5F (about 1055.056 joules (81)). The higher the BTU content, the more energy can be obtained from burning the gas. It just doesnt take as many cubic feet of gas to heat the home hot water tank if the gas is 1090 BTU instead of 940 BTU per SCF.
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Document ID: E2E32681

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs used in Energy Measurement and Control Systems are designed for minimum amount of maintenance. With the Introduction of Microprocessors, Advanced Electronics and Self Diagnostics, the reliability of measurement devices has increased considerably. As new devices are introduced, chromatograph manufacturers incorporate these devices into their system to increase reliability and reduce mamtenance.
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Document ID: 07C024A0

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation and maintenance of regulators is extremely important because a gas regulator is the most critical mechanism for controlling the movement or the flow of gas. A device that controls changeable pressure and flows is often referred to as a control valve, a governor, a pressure reducer, or regulator.
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Document ID: AFD06CAD

Gas Service Regulators - Selection. Installation, And Operation
Author(s): John R. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them on homes, factories, commercial buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. A closer look at these regulator and their operation will allow insight on how they work.
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Document ID: F00A4746

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Chud Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The EMC Chart Integrator, Model 362, is a digital con:q)uter based system for translating orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data on integrated flow(chart extension), average pressure and flow time. It is designed to accommodate American/Barton and Foxboro charts, as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Integrator can be fitted with pens for a third chart geometry if required. The operator places the Chart Integrator pens on the appropriate hnes on the orifice chart while applying pressure to the foot control, the chart will begin to rotate.
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Document ID: 4323AA59

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Joe Ragsdale
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter tube is the most prevalent method of fluid measurement currently in use. Orifice fittings, developed to insert, retract, and hold the orifice plate in the meter tube, are also commonly used in current meter tube designs. Each of these components must meet specifications of industry standards such as American Gas Association (AGA) Report #3 and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Chapter 14, Section 3 en Petroleum Measurement Standards to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: 22061EA9

Orifice Meters: Operation And Maintiilnance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measureniem is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or saic of natural gas. Orifice mems act as a cash icgistcr for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure thai both prtiducers and customers receive an accurate accoimt on every delivery.
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Document ID: AF8292ED

Program For Training A Measuronent Technician
Author(s): Alton L. Gates
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1970s when the price of gas went from an average of 17C per thousand cubic feet to 2.00 and the words take or pay became prevalent, many companies started thinking about advanced training programs. Many organizations, such as ours, had basically used the hands on or the on the job training approach. Utilization of these methods often fostered bad habits, as well as, a lack of standardization in our organization. This method often lead individuals to conceive erroneous ideas about measurement, and worst yet, perform jobs without basic knowledge of flow calculations, square root ftinctions or how positive displacement meters actually work.
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Document ID: 232D4D73

Overall Measurement Accuracy Of Displacement Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a volume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments.
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Document ID: 3B89A9E9

The Role Of The Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement An Overview Of Onshore Orders 4 And 5
Author(s): Lonny R. Bagley
Abstract/Introduction:
The Director of the Bureau of Land Management is given the authority by 43 CFR Part 3160 Section 3164.1 to issue Onshore Oil and Gas Orders when necessary to implement and supplement the operating regulations. The purpose of these orders, is to establish requirements and minimum standards for the measurement of oil and gas by methods authorized in 43 CFR 3162.7-2,3 and to provide standard operating practices for the lease oil storage and handling facilities.
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Document ID: 101E41CD

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other
Author(s): Melva J. Harris, David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas measurement process is a continuous cycle which includes i) installation, operation and maintenance of metering equipment, ii) production of volume statements and reports based on meter outputs, and iii) maintenance and archival of records pertaining to operation of metering facilities. While some of these activities are performed by field operations personnel, others are performed by a volume processing department or measurement engineering group which may often be centrally located and therefore separated from field technical personnel.
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Document ID: 8D0E077F

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas F. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidedly more important now than it has been in past years. The price of a product will determine the interest a company and its personnel have in the measurement and quality of its feeds (raw material) and products. Because of the price of crude oil today, the general interest in proper sampling is drastically increasing.
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Document ID: 0D69F410

Proving Test For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
An automatic sampling system can be tested to verity the equipment, installation and operational procedures produce a representative sample. The test is called a sampling system proving test. The purpose is to validate the entire sampling system from stream conditioning to the analysis of the sample.
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Document ID: 8DA4ED9D

Techniques Of Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Ken Parrott
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, the measurement of natural gas has experienced tremendous change. The acceptance of electronic flow measurement, as a common practice, has no doubt changed the method and time required to measure gas in custody transfer and allocation applications. And with changes in industry standards, and technology, we will see more advancement in this area in the future.
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Document ID: 3B6C5FA2

Spot Gas Sampling Techniques For B.T.U. & Gas Quality Determination
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no other way to receive proper payment for the natural gas that we purchase, transport, produce, process, or sell except by accurately determining its heating value, specific gravity, and compositional analysis.
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Document ID: C6AAD1CA

Overview Of API Copm() - Measurement Activities
Author(s): Jason C. Beckstrom
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum Wir Committee. Thai committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to ineet the iremendous demand for petroleum fuel during World War 1. The experience demonslraled that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry aiid slill compete with one another in the miuketplace.
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Document ID: A74AD4C6

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsors a comprehensive flow measurement R&D program aimed at improving metering performance in the field. Gas industry representatives provide continued review and guidance to the GRI program so that priority needs are addressed. This paper summarizes the some of the major flow measurement R&D projects within the GRI Gas Operations Division. These activities include projects on: orifice and turbine meters, energy measurement, electronic flow measurement (EFM), and distribution measurement. Also included is development of the GRI Metering Research Facility which is a high accuracy natural gas flow calibration laboratory capable of simulating a wide range of operating conditions for the industrys research and testing needs.
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Document ID: 8561999D

Allocation Measurement Standard
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
Allocation measurement has been used in the oil and gas industry for many years, but consensus allocation measurement standards have only recently been developed. Contracts between the affected parties detailed exactly how the allocation would be made, how often calibrations would be required, the measurement systems to be employed and so forth. The private contract provisions gave all parties assurance that allocation would be feir and equitable.
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Document ID: 1FC34B17

Effect Of The Latest Revision Of Ansi 2530fAGA #3) On The Primary Orifice Metering Element
Author(s): Douglas Watkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Significant improvements in the equations which govern the measurement of natural gas using orifice meters, have necessitated changes in the primary devices used to gather the data. These changes have been incorporated into the new revision of the AP! 14.3 Part 2 Third Edition (AGA-3, ANSI 2530) and are detailed in the following discussion.
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Document ID: D63B4632

Significance Of Gauge Line Error In Orifice Measurement
Author(s): James W. Bowen
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsation induced gauge line amplification can cause errors in the recorded differential signal used to calculate flow. Its presence may be detected using dual transmitters (one connected at the orifice taps, the other at the end of the gauge lines) and comparing the relative peak to peak amplitudes. Its affect on recorded differential may be determined by averaging both signals with a PC based data acquisition and analysis system. Remedial action is recommended in all cases where amplification is detected. Use of close connect, full opening manifolds, is suggested to decouple the gauge lines resonant frequency from that of the excitations, by positioning the recording device as close to the process signals origin as possible.
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Document ID: B9A15B53

Review Of APIANSI2530 (AGA #3)
Author(s): Brent Berry
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to help bridge the gap between the Old AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1985) and the New AGA-3 equation (hereafter referred to as AGA-3-1992). As such the paper begins with a background section aimed at assisting those who are mostly familiar with the factored form of the orifice metering equation.
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Document ID: 87665C55

Status Of Multiphase Flow Measurement Research
Author(s): B. m. Tuss
Abstract/Introduction:
For more than 10 years, development of a multi-phase meter capable of measuring water, oil and gas simultaneously under real time conditions, has been a goal of numerous endeavors. Close to 20 various companies, consortiums, research groups and government sponsored projects have spent 10 s of millions of dollars in trying to reach the elusive goal.
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Document ID: BB634594

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki I. Ilusaiii
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for fluid flow measurement, especially for measuring hydrocarbons. Meters are nigged, mechanically simple, and well suited for field use imder extreme weather conditions. In 1779, an Italian physicist named Giovainii B. Venturi (1746- 1822) perfonned tlie first recorded work that used orifices for the measurement of fluid How. Many years of field experience with wide range of meter sizes, variety of lluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters.
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Document ID: 1330C994

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Janet Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Internal auditors are not only responsible for auditing financial areas within their companies, but also are usually responsible for evaluating technical operational areas such as gas measurement. Equipped with a sound methodology for auditing processes, the gas measurement auditor can provide value to management by assessing the effectiveness of the design of the svstem of internal control in place as well as compliance with the system as designed.
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Document ID: 43562A2B

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): James A. Bieda
Abstract/Introduction:
Btu reduction in gas plants refers to the measurable amount of energy removed fi-om the gas stream during processing. The unit of measure is the Btu (British thermal unit) and it can be calculated for any gas stream by measuring the volume and analyzing the composition.
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Document ID: 51D231E6

Compressed Natural Gas Cng() Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain, F. D. Goodson
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. Hovi/ever, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Clean Ar Act Amendments of 1990 (CM), Federal Energy Policy Act of 1992 (FEPA), Executive Order 12759, and an array of State and Local Laws also guarantee the alternative motor fuel as a group will take significant market share away from gasoline and diesel in this decade. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion.
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Document ID: 3497F638

Controlling Surge In Liquid Pipeline
Author(s): George m. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Surges or hydraulic transients, commonly known as water hammer are sudden increases or decreases of the total pressures in a piping system due to changes in velocity of the fluid in a pipeline. Change in velocity, such as would result from the sudden closure of a valve in a flowing pipeline, causes the fluid to suddenly come to rest, resulting in a pressure increase in the system above the operating pressure. The energy associated with the moving fluid is converted into energy of pressure when it is suddenly stopped. In steady state pipeline flow, there is no change in the flow conditions at a point with passing time.
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Document ID: 91279191

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: 2F47530E

Design Of An Electronic Odorant Injection System
Author(s): Paul F. Zeck
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of electronic odorant injection systems is not new, but the improvements in this technique have been dramatic in recent years. An electronic injection system is one that uses direct communication of a flow measurement signal. This signal is read by the injection system to accurately inject small volumes of odorant. The injection rate is a prescribed injection rate (Ibs/MMCF) and is proportional to the gas flow. The use of an accurate onboard meter to measure the injected odorant provides for a record. This record documents the systems performance. It is the ability to document system performance that characterizes this type system.
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Document ID: E20CE19D

D.O.T. Requirements For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: DBBF765E

Instruments For The Determination Of Specific Gravity / Relative Density Of Gas
Author(s): Richard Balcerak
Abstract/Introduction:
The terms Specific Gravity and Relative Density have been used for a number of years. Yet there seems to be some confusion over what exactly they mean.
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Document ID: 0F690979

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Accident statistics clearly show that pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardous to life, property and the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planning to install real-time methods for determining when leaks occur.
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Document ID: 52543B9F

Problems Unique To Offshore Measurement
Author(s): James G. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Most of us have arrived at this meeting in some kind of company provided transportation. This is supplied in order for us to do our assigned jobs. These may be trucks, or cars, or even helicopters , and maybe boats. All who are involved in the offshore industry know that transportation is the ost costly of all.
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Document ID: F9932B6A

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Edwin H. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced.
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Document ID: C6F63E14

New Products In Measurement
Author(s): Steve Gage
Abstract/Introduction:
In the fast changing world of measurement and electronics, new products are being produced that have the capabi 1 i ty to provide more accurate and affordable measurement, The following is a summary of some of those products. The information for these products has been provided by the manufacturers and their representatives.
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Document ID: AFD19CF1

Odorization - Natural Gas
Author(s): Laurent Chris Bouguyon
Abstract/Introduction:
The primary focus of this paper is to discuss currently available odorization equipment as well as provide a forward look into recent technological advancements. For many years after odorization was Federally mandated, the science of odorization was primitive at best. The order of the day was to put stink in the line. Little effort was made to meet the Federally required level of one fifth the lower explosive limit of the gas. Support documentation on system performance was not required and odorant sensitive maintenance practices were in the developmental stages at best.
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Document ID: 720EA27C

Truck Loading Rack Blending
Author(s): Elaine Boubenider
Abstract/Introduction:
Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be conlused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product steam.
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Document ID: 3592C98F

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence in a liquid or gas piping system is almost never desirable. Unfortunately, turbulence is also almost never absent. So we must plan for it in order to minimize its effects on pipeline capacity, pressure drop, measurement error, noise, and piping vibration. Design engineers and field personnel alike are interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both favor maximum throughput with the least amount of noise. By the same token, both are concerned with finding the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs, or dew point instruments, and for a steady sense point for control.
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Document ID: D4E72559

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates that measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the functionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems.
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Document ID: F31D6891

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mickey Ashcraft
Abstract/Introduction:
Data gathered from distribution metering and regulating stations is used to determine the income of gas distribution companies. Since these stations are the cash registers of each company, proper station design is imperative. Obviously, improper design of these stations can cause problems with customer bills, but less obvious problems are also created. One major problem is the introduction of wrong information into the decision making process. For example, statistics created by poorly designed stations may result in inaccurate lost and unaccounted for gas figures and could cause needless expenditures in that area. Similarly poor measurement results in inaccurate sales reporting that may affect such seemingly unrelated areas as rate making. With these potential problems, proper station design is not an option, rather it is a necessity.
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Document ID: F2466A3A

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Edgar Wallace Collins
Abstract/Introduction:
The design of natural gas distribution metering and/or regulating stations is a mixture of science and art, or knowledge and judgment. The process requires four areas of knowledge: product, application, components, and communication. The goal in design is to use judgment to select and combine compatible components to create an effective, safe, and economical unit.
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Document ID: 9ECA46AF

Coping With Changing Flow Requirements At Existing Meter Stations
Author(s): Jack W. Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
Requirements for gas measurements have changed through depletion of existing supplies, development of new supplies, open access to pipelines, deregulation and other economic forces at work in our industry. The requirement of pipelines to change with the above situations require those of us in charge of measurement to come up with innovative and new methods of measurement for these changing flow requirements. The problem exists at the well head and the pipeline delivery point. This problem has been brought on in part by the fact that we no longer sell gas to the pipeline but to end users. This causes the problem to exist at the customers sales point as well as the pipeline.
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Document ID: B00CA491

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement H
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform dieir everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 8C32150C

Effects & Control Of Pulsations In Gas Neasurement
Author(s): Ernie Carreon
Abstract/Introduction:
The effects of pulsation on o r i f i ce recorders i s detrimental to the accurate measurement of natural gas. However, it can be reduced wi th the i nstal1 a t i on of pulsation f i l t e r bottles between the compressor and the meter station f a c i l i t y, Acoustically, the pulsation can be reduced to a minimal Square Root Error (SRE) reducing the overstatement of natural gas which, in turn, saves a considerable amount of money over time. To obtain reliable measurements it is necessary to suppress any apparent pulsation.
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Document ID: FD3D5DB8

Design Of High Pressure Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): David A. Rehler
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering and regulating stations effectively serve as the cash registers of the natural gas industry. While the potential for lost revenue resulting from improper design is a serious consideration, it is not the only one. The potential exists for problems such as excessive noise levels, inaccurate reflection of lost and unaccounted-for gas, and numerous potentially hazardous situations. The best time to limit the potential for problems is during the design process. This, together with the critical nature of these stations, dictates that proper design is imperative.
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Document ID: D98248D2

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 88D24E37

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas-Transmission
Author(s): David Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
With the large volumes that todays Transmission companies are moving, the Loss and Unaccounted For Gas is an ongoing concern. Unaccounted for Gas is a term used to indicate the difference between the volume measured entering a pipeline and the volume measured out of the same pipeline. The difference is termed Loss and Unaccounted For Gas and can be expressed as a + or -. Since one normally thinks of pipeline loss, the + indicates net loss, where a - indicates a gain in the pipeline balance. Another shorter phrase used to identify the difference has been termed LUFG.
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Document ID: 66897D63

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Distribution
Author(s): C m . Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
Ail gas systems leak. Gas escapes every system in one way or another. This is true because gas is permeable to every system. For instance, with PE2306 pipe, the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of two-inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. So, if every system leaks, then how much do we lose? Hence, we have unaccoimted-for gas.
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Document ID: 3FDD8224

Measurement Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert A. Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation.
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Document ID: 89166237

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
New Icchnology continues to improve the custody transfer measurement of crude oil and petroleum products. However, the cost of these improvements coupled with the shear number of crude oil leases which exist today necessitates that the majority of custody transfer measurement continue to be done manually using the same type gauging equipment which has been used for decades.
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Document ID: 0D96B83A

Caubration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): Hank S. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss several field measurement methods that are presently in use to calibrate upright above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 8FA3A868

Measurement Accuracy And Sources Of Error In Tank Gauging
Author(s): C. Stewart Ash
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank gauging is the means used to determine the quantity of oil contained in a storage tank. How the volume is to be used often determines the degree of desired accuracy. If the volume is to be used as an operational tool (i.e., is the tank nearly full or nearly empty) usually a high degree of accuracy is not required. If the volume is to be used to quantify a custody transfer movement and money will change hands based on the result, a high degree of accuracy is required. If the volume is to be used for inventory control and/or stock accounting, the desired accuracy would be less than for custody transfer but greater than for normal operations.
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Document ID: 13DD33C9

Measurement Methods For Liquid Storage Tanks
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Tank level gauging is an important and useftil means of liquid measurement. The level in the tank is used for operational purposes to insure that the tank is not overfilled, the level is also used to determine the volume of liquid in the tank. This may be needed for many reasons including custody tickets, inventory and leak detection, there are many methods available to determine the level in a tank. Each method has advantages depending on the reason the level is needed and the size of the tank. Tank gauging is covered in the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 3. This covers manual and automatic methods of determining the liquid level in a tank.
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Document ID: BE8AF001

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and then application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 15AB9B60

The Design, Maintenance, And Operation Of LA.C.T. Units
Author(s): Larry Pitts
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is an introduction to the basics of Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (L.A.C.T.) units to include the design, maintenance, and operation. While a paper of this length can not be definitive, hopefully it will prove useful to those persons new to L.A.C.T. units.
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Document ID: 343D6FEB

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Raymond J. Kalivoda
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive displacement (PD) meter. The emphasis will be on the factors influencing the design and performance of the meter for liquid petroleum measurement. However, these factors can be applied to other liquids as well. Also included are discussions on PD meter enhancements that will increase the PD meters performance.
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Document ID: 73665D44

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has become very popular for the measuranent of liquids of low and medium viscosities. Its compact size, high flow rate, low maintenance and superior linearity make it especially attractive for liquid hydrocarbon applications. When a turbine meter is properly applied within a cwrectly designed flow system, its best performance can be realized.
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Document ID: 97770A5D

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): D.J. Wass, Charles R. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic theory of operation behind liquid turbine meters is quite old. Although current liquid turbine meters and the associated electronic devices provide levels of precision fai* beyond their predecessors, the principles of operation remain unchanged.
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Document ID: C1060886

Measurement Of Large Liquid Volumes By Turbine Meters
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally the petroleum industry has used turbine meters for custody transfer measurement of large volumes of low viscosity products, but more recently, the trend is to apply turbine meters to higher viscosity fluids particularly crude oils. This trend is to a great extent prompted by analysis of initial capital outlay only, rather than considering total cost of ownership, as the initial cost of the turbine meter itself is considerably less than a positive displacement meter of equal flow capacity. However another reason why the trend is continuing is related to technological advances.
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Document ID: 06845844

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been used for centuries in measuring and regulating the flow of water. Historians have recorded the use of orifices by the Romans to regulate the flow of water to houses. Equations used to calculate gas flow rate were originally based on data using water. Although orifice meters are used extensively today by the gas Transmission industry for measuring large quantities of gas in custody transfer, they are also used for the measurement of natural gas liquids such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, raw mix, demethanized ethane-propane mix, oil, water, air and steam.
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Document ID: 8D9CE823

Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jed Mats
Abstract/Introduction:
The ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids has been in use in industry for over 30 years. In general these meters are available in two basic types - the Doppier type, and the Transit-Time (or Time-of-flight) type. There has been considerable development and advancement of this technology through the I980s and 1990s due to the use of microelectronics, microprocessors and advanced software techniques. This advancement has allowed the ultrasonic flowmeter to be far more available for general use - in fact to be used as a flovraieter, not just as an ulhasonic flovraieter. All this because these advancements have produced lower costs, greater versatility, higher accuracy, and easier installation and raaintainence.
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Document ID: FC7B27DE

Mass Meters For Liquid Measureiwent
Author(s): Cathy Apple
Abstract/Introduction:
Flowmeters that are capable of providing a direct mass flow measurement include: Coriolis, thermal, gyroscopic and angular momentum. However, Coriolis meters are the only commercially viable device that can cover the breadth of measurements required by the petroleum industry. In addition to providing a direct mass flow measurement, Coriolis meters are extremely accurate, typically 0.1% to 0.2%. The advantage of measuring mass is that the mass of a fluid is unaffected by changes in process temperature and pressure.
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Document ID: 3709977A

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Marvin Tansley
Abstract/Introduction:
With few exceptions, gas pressure reducing regulators can either be classified as self-operated or pilot operated. Our purpose is to become familiar vwth pilot operated regulators and the various forms they may take. However, it is important that first the basics of self operated regulators are covered for comparative purposes.
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Document ID: DB01CC2C

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Control
Author(s): J. Patrick Diciasare
Abstract/Introduction:
As a user of automatic controllers, part of your job may include adjusting and maintaining controllers in your plant. In order to do it properly, you need to know the different kinds of controllers and the kinds of output signals they produce. The controller can be identified several different ways. One way is by power source, for example, the pneumatic controller is a controller that is powered by compressed gas, it is rugged, durable, and works well in a variety of adverse conditions. On the other hand, an electronic controller is a controller that is powered by electricity. An electronic controller can send signals over long distances in relatively short periods of time. Another way a controller is identified is by the process variable it controls. For example, a pressure controller is a controller that controls pipeline pressures. In addition to being identified by its power source and by the process variable it controls, a controller is also identified by the kind of controlling action it provides.
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Document ID: A93115DC

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Christopher J. Wykle
Abstract/Introduction:
The following paper will concentrate on the fundamentals and principles of natural gas pressure regulation by means of a self-operated regulator.
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Document ID: 65EB8A41

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): John m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: 3E676149

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jeannie Oneal
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the Long Term or Life of Lease Contracts. In the past natural gas was often sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer.
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Document ID: DF66A7F7

Elements Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): R F. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
A typical Natural Gas liquids contract contains specific terms and conditions and general provisions. They may be unique and include identification of the parties involved, length of the agreement, pricing and exact actions to be performed by the parties. The General Provisions are terms which will be contained in most Natural Gas liquids contracts regardless of the type of agreement.
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Document ID: 4E56E8BC

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Warren B. Peterson
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is a remarkable paradox. Despite its incredible longevity and simple appearance, weve only begun to truly understand how its installation affects its performance. Hundreds of thousands of orifice meters are used for custody transfer around the world and every resulting transaction implies a base level of trust in the technology.
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Document ID: D8561568

Measurement Station Inspection Program And Guide
Author(s): Robert Ran
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, lets discuss an important phase of everyday planning for Measurement personnel. A test and inspection guide is a corporations plan to meet government regulations. DOT requires pipelines to have a writtai operating and maintenance plan. This plan must meet the minimum federal standards and cover various phases of operations. A company may include items above the minimimi federal standards but they must operate according to the plan they prepare.
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Document ID: 51EE3B8B

Federal Qualification Training Requirements For Measurement Technicians
Author(s): Robin C. Doege
Abstract/Introduction:
As of January, 1995 the qualification requirements for measurement technicians and all persons who perform regulated operation, maintenance and emergency response functions on gas pipelines are in the proposal stage. These proposed changes are outlined in the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), (59FR39506). The proposed ruling will improve the current training standards for personnel performing regulated activities on hazardous liquid and carbon dioxide pipelines and apply them to persons performing similar functions on gas pipelines.
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Document ID: B43D93BF

Field Experience With Charts, Pens & Inks
Author(s): Gary L. Mcneil, Roger Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
There are an estimated 300,000+ natural gas wells in operation throughout the continental United States today. Of that number, approximately 250,000+ of these wells utilize mechanical chart recorders and circular charts as the sole means for providing accurate, graphical, real time visual data for the sale, custody and transfer of natural gas. Estimates for global production up to the year 2015 are projecting as much as a 25% increase in natural gas recovery and production with some individual countries seeing as much as an 80% increase. Theoretically, witliin the next twenty years United States gas wells could number well over 400,000.
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Document ID: E432460D

Fundaitientals Of Onnce Meter Chart Recorders
Author(s): Sam E. Whigham
Abstract/Introduction:
The differential pressure chart recorder used to measure fluid flow through an orifice plate has gone through several design changes since its inception some sixty years ago. The present unit on the market uses two fluid filled bellows units connected together. One bellows senses the upstream pressure before the onficc plate, and the other bellows senses the downstream pressure after the orifice plate.
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Document ID: 9F2190A4

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): James L. Jacobs
Abstract/Introduction:
The inspection of orifice meter tubes for natural gas measurement is to determine if the meter tube meets the standards specified by the American Gas Association. Several areas of a meter tube are to be inspected, which requires a variety of tools. The inspection of the meter tube should be done before the meter is installed and put into service.
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Document ID: A6178956

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques, And Operation
Author(s): R. F. Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of new equipment inevitably results in new techniques and operafional procedures to be implemented. Innovative techniques can result in operational changes and the development of new equipment. An operational modification opens the door for the development of new ideas, new equipment, and new techniques. This constant cycle of change promotes a continuous series of economic evaluations and decisions.
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Document ID: 704A8B67

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): Scottie Duplantis
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station is a designed and engineered package of valves, pipe, instrumentation, flow meters and wiring, configured to produce accurate measurement data in the delivery of a product in a process unit or in a custody transfer between a buyer and seller. A liquid measurement station could be as simple as a manually operated single meter run or as complex as a multi-meter run tanker loading facihty with a multi-tasking control/computer system.
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Document ID: 46E40FFB

Measurement Of Liquid Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Jeffrey A. Geschwentner
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of Liquid Petroleum Gas can basically be arranged into two categories: 1) Static Measurement - Performed at stable or resting conditions and in batch operations. Consists of measuring the change in level or change in weight of a vessel. Vessels include railcar, transports, barges, ships, and tanks,
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Document ID: 84805A90

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 53A09539

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the many parameters that must be accurately measured for product quality control, custody transfer, process control, or liquid interface detection purposes is liquid density, Often, density measurement is combined with flow measurement to determine the mass flow rate of a hquid in a pipeline. In this article, we will discuss the principle of operation of vibrating tube densitometers, design suggestions for densitometer installation, and calibrating, or proving, the system.
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Document ID: FAAC6CBE

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Dean C. Minehart
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid density measurement is crucial to the operation of todays automated pipe lines. Density inputs are required for custody transfer, batch detection and some leak detection systems. This paper will discuss liquid density measurement, installation suggestions and how to troubleshoot densitometers.
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Document ID: EE045933

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Uquid Mixtures
Author(s): Fred G. Van Orsdol
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition, mass metering simply requires you to determine the mass of a body of material. Mass may be determined directly by weighing a container before and after it is filled or emptied or indirectly by measuring the volume and the density of a material passing a transfer point. Both these methods are routinely used in the petroleum industry today. The purpose of this paper is to review these methods and briefly discuss many of the errors and misconceptions we find in the field associated with them.
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Document ID: 0118EF06

Installation Of Pycnometers And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Brad R. Lauterbach
Abstract/Introduction:
Mass flow measurement has become the accepted method of measurement for custody transfer of natural gas fluids. Traditional volume measurement proved ineffective for the measurement of natural gas fluids due to the effects of the poorly defined properties of thermal expansion, compressibilty, and admixture shrinkage.
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Document ID: D1007083

Pressure And Temperature Measurement Devices - Liquid A( Review Of Tlie Various Pressure And Temperature Measurement Devices For Liquid Service)
Author(s): Sheriff Alimed
Abstract/Introduction:
The need to measure temperature and pressure has become a fundamental and essential requirement in the process industry. This paper reviews the various pressure and temperature measurement devices used for hquid service. It looks at the principles of measurement, the types of instruments available, selection and suitability of each and also at the broad applications of tliese measurements for hquid service. Finally, this paper briefly discusses tlie future trend in instrumentation for measurements of this kind.
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Document ID: 2BE2BDE0

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored in open tanks or in tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: F02EBD93

&THYLE3E Measurement
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Ethylene has a critical temperature of 48.58F. Ihis fact causes ethylene to behave very differently at ambient temperatures in the general range of 0F to 100F as compared with methane which has a critical temperature of -il6F or n-octane which has a critical temperature of 564.1F. Very large density changes of the ethylene fluid resulting fran small changes in temperature or pressure are of the greatest concern with respect to the accuracy of ethylene flow measurements.
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Document ID: DFC30AEC

Automatic Tank Gauging
Author(s): Woodrow W. Oglesby
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of liquids in storage tanks requires a thorough understanding of all parameters affecting those measurements. The equipment choice, its installation, the data collection system, and the stored product all influence the final results and validity of the data. The tank itself must be analyzed cone roof, floating roof tanks, and spheres all present different challenges for measurement.
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Document ID: 90949F4E

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Kris Kimmel
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement of light liquid hydrocarbons equates to revenue, and in many cases large amounts of revenue. The accounting process commonly requires LPG to be bought by volume. However, most custody transfer applications use the more accurate mass measurement system to determine the percentage of each hydrocarbon component within the pipeline. This is accomplished by metering the volume of product, and multiplying it by the product density at flowing pressure and temperature.
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Document ID: 4A0DB41F

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): Ace A. Astala
Abstract/Introduction:
LPG odorization with an audit trail is probahly one of the most significant things thai we do when we are selling LPG for residential use. The audit trail is one of the ways (o insure that tlie LPG that you are selling or shipping has been properly txlorizcd and you can go back to tliis if need be at any time. This documentation may be the only records to show that you or your company has been odorizing the LPG according to your company procedures and the law.
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Document ID: B7BEE4DC

Fundamentals Of Turbine Meters
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around she world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine, and orifice meters. Sach serves a different segment of the jas industry and each has its own set of idvantages and disadvantages.
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Document ID: B8C791FB

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): M.J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This class will describe the procedures to be applied when calculating bulk oil quantities (i.e. volume or weight) either held in tankage (Static Measurement) or moving in pipelines through meters Dynamic Measurement). The procedures follow the calculation methods recommended by the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. Other classes at the School will have shown you how to collect the required data, this lesson will show the basic calculation procedures to be followed. Careful physical measurements will be neutralized If the same attention to detail is not applied to the calculations.
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Document ID: 722369B2

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Good measurement can be assured by continuously monitoring measurement results to determine if systems, or equipment and procedures, are perfonming in predictable ways and are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts.
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Document ID: 056F4D11

Resolving Liquid Measurement Dierences
Author(s): Joseph T. Rasmussen
Abstract/Introduction:
The transfer and measurement of petroleum liquids combines planning, technology, human interaction and documentation to insure an accurate quantity transaction. The American Petroleum Institute drafted the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS) to guarantee transactions are performed such that all parties arrive at absolute and equal quantities. But given such planning and standards, measurement discrepancies still occur. A variance between two parties often becomes debated issues as Which measurement system is more accurate? How do parties agree on which system is correct? What elimination process is used? All things equal, how are variances resolved? This paper reviews documentation, procedural, meter and tank issues contributing to differences in liquid measurement and methods for resolving these differences.
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Document ID: 0320D001

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Charles R. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
The operation of the Truck Loading Facilities in the United States and around the world have undergone a great deal of change in the last thirty years. Systems have evolved from relay magic and keylock systems to discrete controllers with hard wired processors, to central processing systems to Distributed Process Control. In the early days of terminal automation systems, systems were designed with a specific function in mind with no thought given to communication with other devices. Once they were in place It was very difficult and expensive to make changes to them. In those days a facility may have had three or four separate systems, depending on the operation. One sy.stem may have been for supervision and control of the pumps and manifold valves another may have been u.sed for monitoring the storage tanks another may have been u.sed to control the delivery of the product.
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Document ID: EB3AE347

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate determination of quantity and quality of crude oil transferred from shore to tanker or tanker to shore, is the function of Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems. From the measurement data, a Bill of Lading can be prepared and transport costs, taxes, royalties, and customs fees can be computed Accuracy is essential as each tanker load represents a value of ten to twenty million dollars. Even errors of 0.1% represent a significant amount of revenue. In addition to accuracy, meter systems offer several other advantages over older more traditional tank gaging methods. Specification guidelines for meter systems and associated equipment are presented in this paper. Since most ports are in environmentally sensitive areas, design for protection from spills is also essential.
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Document ID: 2DC3E1CE

Shipboard Sampling For Account Ability In Custody Trajfsfer
Author(s): E. Garsetti, P. S. Harriso, E. R. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of water measurement in the marine transportation of crude oil is considerable. A study carried out by the Institute of Petroleum and reported in Petroleum Review has shown that on a sample of 6,500 voyages, the quantity of water detected in the outturn was on average 0.13 percent higher than had been declared in the bill of lading and, fiirthermore, a discrepancy of 0.5 percent between the outturn and bill of lading water content was not unusual. These discrepancies have enormous financial implications and highlight the need for improved sampling and analysis methods. Indeed, this study showed that the larger water discrepancies occurred when the bill of lading had been based upon shore tank manual sampling techniques and analysis by centrifuge. The problems associated with manual sampling had long been suspected and over seven years ago SGS Redwood set out to develop a portable sampler which could be used to collect representative samples of crude oil and products being loaded onto or discharged from a vessel.
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Document ID: 1960F94C

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Pipeline Group (APG), along with most transmission companies, went to electronic flow measurement (EFM) to: 1. Increase resolution and accuracy 2. Real time correction of flow variables 3. hicrease speed in data retrieval 4. Reduce capital expenditures 5. Reduce operation and maintenance expenditures
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Document ID: CF8CC0E2

Applications Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Randall Douglas
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computers, themselves, are undergoing an evolution. One challenge for most vendors will be to offer a low power flow computer whose pricing approaches that of a three variable chart recorder. Many companies in the gas transmission, gas distribution and production industry , expect such a flow computer to be an evolution from todays smart transmitter technology, because of improved accuracy and innovation of multi-variable transmitters. That is to say, differential pressure, static pressure and temperature all in one transmitter.
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Document ID: 2711A2C4

Recent Developments In Gas Flow Computers
Author(s): Kevin L. Finnan
Abstract/Introduction:
This has been quite a year for gas flow computers, with product inlroductions more numerous than any other year I can remember. 1 have been conducting classes on tliis subject for many years and, this time, found myself scrambling to update this class just to keep up.
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Document ID: A8BFF7A2

Basic Appucaitons Of Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Kevin J. Rolir
Abstract/Introduction:
lliis paper will be a basic paper ilkistraling the various types of Iclemetering available in the gas industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field ol technologies which changes cver year,
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Document ID: 793DB9C0

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): James Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
A diaphragm meter is a positive displacement instrument which is used to measure the volume of gas that passes through it. This is accomplished through the known volume that is displaced for each stroke of the diaphragm. The diaphragm also provides the seal between the measuring chambers of the device. As such the diaphragm meter has proven to be an accurate and reliable means of measurement of gas for many years. This is especially true at low flow rates because of its positive displacement characteristics. This paper includes a brief history of diaphragm meters, an explanation of the operation of the diaphragm meter, a basic review of the function and design of the positive displacement meter, discusses meter ratings and capacity, and introduces temperature compensation.
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Document ID: 7A5155F1

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): Todd Perrodin
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of electronics is considered by many to be the most exciting and complex of all fields of study. Although this may be true, electronics are a way of life for all, from the time we wake up, until the time we go to bed, and even as we sleep. Electronics surround us!
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Document ID: 13DCCEDF

Basic Scada Systems - From The Sensors To The Screen
Author(s): Brad Merlie
Abstract/Introduction:
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are specialized control systems used to monitor and control facilities which are geographically dispersed. They are commonly used in the gas, oil, electric, and water transmission and distribution industries. SCADA systems differ from other control systems in that they make extensive use of remote communications and are more tolerant to outages of the communications network than a typical control system installation in a plant environment.
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Document ID: 8A44D2FC

Computer Applications In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Kenneth D. Elliott
Abstract/Introduction:
The accepted philosophy in most custody transfer operations has oeen to keep separate the control and measurement functions. It is imperative that totalizing of flow is maintained even when pumping and control equipment has failed.
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Document ID: 1C2B3EEB

Efm Temperature And Pressure Transducers
Author(s): Charles W. Doran
Abstract/Introduction:
Pressure and Terminology Primary pressure elements and pressure transmitters can be used to measure various forms of pressure. They can be used to measure gauge pressure (psig), absolute pressure (psia) or differential pressure (inHO, psid). These terms are often misunderstood and a good working knowledge of their meaning is essential to proper use of pressure elements and transmitters.
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Document ID: 5925C1B7

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Peter Bolcsta
Abstract/Introduction:
Increasingly there is an indisputable trend in the gas and oil industries, including production. transmission and distribution segments, away from traditional paper chart recorder measurement toward the use of microprocessor based eleci ronic flow measurement (EFM) and recording. These devices typically connect directly to the primar flow process sensors and provide digital calculation of the flow volumes using the calculations defined in AGA-3 (American Gas Association, Orifice Metering Report Number 3) or, optionally, AGA-7 (Turbine Metering) and providing compressibilit compensation (AGA-8). This change in the fimdamental method of flow measurement has had a significant impact on the economics of the industries in several areas. The ability to accurately determine product quantity provides the efficient building block for integrated measurement and control solutions that increase safety of operation and insure environmental compliance.
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Document ID: 528744C1

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
Over-pressure protective devices are of vital concern to the gas industry. Safety codes and current laws require their installation each time a pressure reducing station is installed that supplies gas firom any system to another system with a lower maximum allowable operating pressure.
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Document ID: 7E15E597

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Field Gaugers
Author(s): Scott Cain
Abstract/Introduction:
This session is split into two major sections: A Systematic Approach to Development and Hardware Selection. The first, A Systematic Approach to Development, discusses the various stages of the development process and provides practical guidelines on the development of portable computers for field gaugera. Attendees should come away with a good understanding on how to tackle projects of this nature whether It be an In-house development or In conjunction with a vendor. This section primarily concentrates on the software development aspects of the project.
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Document ID: EA055306

Mechanically Driven Electronic C Orre( 1 Ion Devices
Author(s): Roberl Ijctmeit
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering dcices, such as positive displacement and inrcrenlial meters, measure gas al tlowing conditions Since gas is a compressible lluid. ils olumc responds to changes in pressure and tcmperalurc. More molecules are compressed into the same space at higher pressures and lower temperatures than would be at normal atmospheric conditions. Tt) compensate for these ctTccIs, the metered or uncorrected volumes must be adjusted in order in indicate the amount of olume the material would occupif it was al some common or base condition.
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Document ID: 1EAA3F78

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering devices measure natural gas at line conditions. Gas volumes vary with changes in pressure and temperature. Base conditions provide a common reference for measuring gas, and any variance in pressure or temperature requires a calculation to correct the gas line volume to base volume.
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Document ID: FF009FA4

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Mark A. Keirs
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction of Electronic Volume Correctors was the inevitable result of the search for a better instrument and the combination of powerful microprocessors with improved low power circuit design technologies. At present, several companies have introduced electronic instruments. A comparison of their designs and features reveals startling differences despite their apparent similarities.
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Document ID: D5A1DA08

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Jason Rosen
Abstract/Introduction:
The worlds energy consumption and the real costs of meeting these demands are growing at a staggering pace. Of late, natural gas has proven itself to be one of the environmentally and economically sound choices of the era. With the growing popularity of natural gas as an energy source, the natural gas industry has grown considerably to meet these demands as effectively as possible. The most vital interests of the natural gas industry involve the measurement of gas flow to facilitate its efficient allocation, transmission and distribution.
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Document ID: 2408E55B

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have generated so much enthusiasm? What benefits can really be expected? Here are the major benefits
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Document ID: 53982CE4

Real-Time Electronic Gas Flow Measurement
Author(s): Don Stamp
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods of gas measurement have undergone tremendous change during the last decade- Mechanical dry-flow meters are being replaced by electronic measurement devices that are significantly more precise and contain manageable flow file data bases. This is commonly referred to as electronic flow measurement or EFM. In addition, these devices can communicate remotely utilizing radios, land-line or cellular telephones, hard wire and/or satellite links. This type of communication is called telemetry. The final phase of the real-time measurement equation is the addition of on-line gas analysis data that allows the flow computer to compute its volumes utilizing this information.
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Document ID: 278C460C

Selection. Testing. Operation. And Maintenance Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): R. Mark Haefele
Abstract/Introduction:
So, now that someone has decided that you are the lucky one who will bring your company into the wonderful world of electronic gas measurement, you must be asking yourself about a million questions. Take heart. Selecting an EFC is a complicated process, but others before you have accomplished it and most of them survived. Some of those people are now consultants to the industry and, depending on the level of familiarity with such equipment within your company, they are sometimes the best solution. Assuming that you have chosen to take on the challenge internally, it is best to consider the impact of your choice in two major areas: personnel and equipment.
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Document ID: 74CEC691

Transient Lightning() Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): L. Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic measurement devices have become a major part of the oil and gas business today. All of these devices operate on an electrical voltage. Any voltage introduced into the system that is beyond the predetermined tolerance will cause degradation of performance or in some cases failure of the device. The extent of the damage depends upon the dielectric strength of the circuit in question and upon the available energy . As electronic measurement devices are further developed to incorporate more solid state circuitry and operate at lower voltage levels the more susceptible they become to transients.
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Document ID: 88C78212

Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Michael Ansel
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last few years, the natural gas pipeline industry has witnessed the introduction of an array of electronic devices designed to replace and/or supplement existing technologies or automate manual tasks. Among these is the portable digital pressure indicator which is designed to perform tasks traditionally performed by devices such as the deadweight tester.
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Document ID: 565997AF

Effective Use Of Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Richard Balcerak
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessi ve wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requi res minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mounting is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: CEB2B34E

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Arthur Calvin
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems.
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Document ID: D25553BA

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Anne Walker Brackett
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past the standards from the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Testing and Standards provided specifications for instruments and equipment. Simple compliance with these standards is not enough. Therefore, a system of verification and/or certification of equipment used in the measurement of liquids is being instituted. These requirements are being written into the standards as they come up for review. An excellent example of such a standard is the newly issued Chapter 3.1A Standard Practice for the Manual Gauging of Petroleum and Petroleum Products (December 1994) of the APIs Manual of Petroleum Measurement. This standard calls for the field verification of working tapes against a National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable master tape when it is new and every year thereafter. This is an example of new requirements to ensure the instruments and equipment meets the specifications of each standard. The most important things to understand before going into each item are the definitions of traceability, verification, and certificatio
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Document ID: 52BCE144

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seen with the adent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural gas and other petroleum products that witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing would become an obsolete practice in the petroleum industries. This however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and arrangements between companies regarding electronic custody transfer, witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will continue to be an integral part of the petroleum industrys future. Even as technology moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measuring device.
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Document ID: 313C88F2

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transferred at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: BDF3850A

Field Experience With Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Wayland Siigh
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is no different than any other measuring device it must be sized and installed properly to ensure proper measurement. This paper will attempt to help you avoid pitfalls that may cause you problems or make accurate measurement difficult to achieve.
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Document ID: DD519D2C

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): William R. Young
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter prover is used to calibrate custody transfer meters to establish a meter factor. The volume that passes through the meter is compared to the prover volume during the time taken for a sphere or piston to pass between two detector switches. The prover vol ume mus t be determined by a procedure known as Draw method.
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Document ID: 6942D406

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Brad D. Lurie
Abstract/Introduction:
Computer evolution has levwaged the 1990s into the Information Super-Highway. Computer development has enhanced communications more than ten fold in the past twenty years. Today, we have communication tools such as SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) and DCS (distributed control system), and communication linkage via MODBUS and FIELDBUS. This paper describes the evolution of computers as they apply to liquid meter proving. Meter proving is essential for controlling expenses and product accoimtability whereas prover computers have enhanced the ability for errorless precision accuracy.
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Document ID: C027E939

Liquid Flow Provers Conventional()
Author(s): S. K. Suri
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive Displacement Meters and Turbine Meters are most commonly used for Custody Transfer applications of hydrocarbons. These meters produce good repeatability at a given set of flow conditions however, they produce errors based on changes in flow rate, specific gravity, temperature, viscosity, wearing of parts, buildup of foreign matter, etc.
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Document ID: FF4CFC07

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Ben C. Buette
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid meter proving is a physical test conducted on a liquid meter to determine its performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the volume of liquid registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter.
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Document ID: 34A2641E

Guide To Troubleshooting Problems With Liquid Meters And Prover
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with problems commonly experienced with meters and provers. It is general in nature and cannot cover every problem with either meters or provers. We will confme our discussion to displacement and turbine meters and pipe and tank provers. We will also discuss problems experienced while proving meters with different types of proving equipment.
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Document ID: 2B5FC46B

In-Situ Gas Meter Proving
Author(s): V. C. Ting
Abstract/Introduction:
In natural gas custody and allocation measurement, the users typically installed and operated their orifice meters according to ANSI/API 2530 (AGA 3) standard. It is not a common practice now to prove orifice meters in field operation. However, the recent revision of ANSI/API 2530, Part 1, standard for orifice meter flow measurement allows users to prove meters under operating conditions using the actual fluid with the actual orifice plate and recording system in place. The standard recognizes that when accurate measurement is required, any deviation from the standards specifications will result in a higher measurement uncertainty.
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Document ID: 47B2EB10

Methods Of Testing Large Capacity Positive Meters
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Large csacity positive meters are common in the natural gas industry. Large industrial customers rely on these meters to provide consistently accurate measurement. Accurate measurement is critical to the Gas Distribution utility, as well. Since consumption by several large industrial customers can amount to a large part of the sales, accurate measurement by large edacity positive meters directly affects revenue. Proper performance of these measiuing devices must be maintained with a minimum of expense and a maximum accuracy. Field testing of these meters frequently accomplishes these goals.
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Document ID: D9C37179

Operational Experience With Small Volume Pro Vers
Author(s): George L. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
While preparing this paper, the need to remain within the titles intended scope was recognized and duly noted. Many excellent papers have been written about the small volume prover, but several of them have leaned toward a more technical presentation of the unit. This paper will endeavor to relate actual experience with, and applications of, small volume provers.
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Document ID: 48C47855

Proving Coriolis Flowmeters
Author(s): Cathy Apple
Abstract/Introduction:
Coriolis meters provide significant advantages for custody transfer measurement of fluids. The most obvious feature is the Coriolis meters ability to provide a direct mass flow measurement. This makes Coriolis meters ideally suited to measuring products which are commonly accounted for on a mass basis, such as LPG, NGL, ethylene, liquid CO2- Using a single Coriolis meter simplifies the metering system by replacing a volumetric flowmeter, densitometer, and flow computer, with a single measurement device.
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Document ID: 25DB8184

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): Ted Hansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Considering the variations of meter types and manufacture available and the space allowed for its discussion the scope of this paper will necessarily be quite general. An attempt has been made to present the subject as it relates to the local utility company and to highlight some areas that may be otherwise overlooked.
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Document ID: A7861C5C

Gas Measurement By Insertion Turbine Meter
Author(s): Larry A. Quick
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry has had a requirement for many years for a simple and reliable cost effective meter to measure gas flow in large diameter pipes, or even in smaller diameter pipes in which the flow cannot be interrupted or the passage obscured. The insertion turbine meter is well suited for this type of flow measurement in a variety of noncustody transfer applications. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and surge control, pipeline catastrophic leak detection, pacing odorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput.
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Document ID: C55F90C8

Theory And Application Of Pulse Iriterpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Thomas W. Pugh
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to succesfiilly prove any metering instrument with pulsed outputs, i.e. turbine meters and positive displacement meters, the American Petroleum Institute (API) states that the metering instrument must have a resolution of one part in ten thousand. This requires that the metering mechanism generate a minimum of 10,000 pulses between detectors during the proving interval.
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Document ID: C817C81B

The Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur
Author(s): Art Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers, processors, pipelines and distribution companies measure both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and total sulfur for compliance with purchase contracts. which generally contain sulfur quality clauses relating to those two parameters. A quarter grain of H2S per one hundred standard cubic feet (0.25 gr H2S/1()0 SCF) and one grain of total sulfur (1 gr S/lOO SCF) are common contract limits. To ensure that both buyer and seller are dealing with gas within these limits, it is common lo monitor both parameters, as well as others, on both sides of the custody transfer point.
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Document ID: 9AE0E529

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of quality control between the producer, gathering system, transporter and the customer. The following discussion will cover typical analytical methods used to determine the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in gas.
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Document ID: 813CDD03

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
The moisture content in pipeline natural gas is one of the many parameters that must be momtored as a part of controlling the quality of the gas. Other parameters that are monitored include gas composition, heating value, and relative density (specific gravity). The moisture content in natural gas will vary for a variety of reasons. There are various methods used to control the moisture in the gas and there are also different instrument types used to measure the moisture content. In this article, we will discuss the measurement methods and we will present general guidelines for the use of typical moisture measurement instruments.
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Document ID: 4BD12287

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper has been prepared by the author based on his experience and a review of the referenced API materials and is presented as ah aid to the reader. Neither the author nor Shell Oil Company makes any representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for any violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation. Each individual is responsible for ensuring a full understanding of the procedures discussed and methods for safe implementation before using them.)
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Document ID: 31FC75AA

Water By Distillation Vs. The Karl Fischer Method
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
For decades the accepted method for measuring water content in crude oils and other hydrocarbon stocks has been the centrifuge method. The centrifuge method is relatively quick and easy. However, it sometimes is limited in ability to accurately measure water content, particularly if the hydrocarbon stock has a high solubility for water. When maximum accuracy is required and/or high water solubility is encountered in hydrocarbons, a laboratory method called Water by Distillation is often used. The method is described in API MPMS (Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards) Chapter 10.2 and ASTM D4006, and has the ability to measure both solution water and suspended water.
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Document ID: E0774E23

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Stan P. Canfield, Josie D. Iwamoto
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids has evolved over the years from a point where green natural gas and natural gas liquids were sold at a flat rate regardless of the hydrocarbon composition or the Btu content until today, where the natural gas is sold on a Btu basis or a component basis, and natural gas liquids are sold on a mass basis. In other words, volumetric measurement of natural gas liquids has moved toward mass measurement and natural gas measurement has shifted from an mcf basis to either an energy basis or component basis. This shift in characterization of the product whether gas or liquid has necessitated a need for improved measurement and improved methods for the determination of the quality of the natural gas or natural gas liquids.
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Document ID: 6CDEFCD3

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Paul E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
On line gas chromatography is today being chosen more and more in the natural gas industry for monitoring of gas quality. The calculations of the gas volumes in modern electronic flow meters requires not only BTU (A BTU, British Thermal Unit, is a measure of heal) information, but specific gravity, Mol. % CO2 and Mol. % N2 as well. In addition, the current AGA-8 supercompressibility equations also require a complete analysis for the detailed method of calculation of Fp. Most natural gas custody transfer contracts today use MMBTU rather than MCF as the accounting units of gas transfer. Also, modern micropacked columns are providing faster cycle times for time critical BTU measurement applications. For these reasons mentioned above, and the fact that the installation requirements for chromatographs are less stringent than calorimetric methods, the use of gas chromatographs has become standard practice.
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Document ID: 1E8F885B

Chromatograph Applications & Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Duane A. Neefe
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatograph is becoming more important to the pipeline industry due to the demand for Real Time volumes. To obtain volumes which do not need to be corrected for gas properties, it is necessary to have the gas properties such as specific gravity, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and btu values within the flow computers operating parameters. When these values are used within each flow calculation cycle, the accuracy of the measurement obtained is much greater than when corrections for supercompressibility are applied after the volume is accumulated.
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Document ID: BD3FF4D0

About Ishm 1995
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 3EBECA3C

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The methods used in determining BTU content of natural gas varies from on-1ine analysis to collection of samples in cylinder and transporting to laboratories for analysis,
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Document ID: 82731ABA


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