Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1993)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

AGA Standards 3 And 8 Revisions
Abstract/Introduction:
AGA-3 - Part 1 General Equations and Uncertainty Guideiines Part 2 Specfiicatinn and Installation Requiremenss Part 3 Natural Gas Applicaiion Part 4 Background. Developmen,, Implementation Procedure and Subrouiine Documentation for Empirical Flange-Tapped Discharge Coefficient Equation. AGA-8 - Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas Detail Characterization - (Full Analysis) Gross Characterization - (Partial Analysis) - Limited Range of Appiicaiion.
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Document ID: 1FB27AD0

Large Meter Selection
Author(s): Joseph R. Ranney
Abstract/Introduction:
Many years ago, selecting the proper meter was as simple as asking the intended customer, how many gas Ughts were they planning to use. The answer was simple three or maybe five. Well, as you aU know, selecting a meter for any facility in this day and age requires a little more thought and information. Selection of the wrong meter may present a variety of operational maintenance, and pubUc relations problems. With larger meters come greater concerns. Some of these problers are:
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Document ID: 11BB76BA

Sonic Nozzle Proving
Author(s): Dickschieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Every year literally millions of residemial gas metcis are proved by both gas utilities and manufacturers. Meter shops spend countless hours producing and collecting proof data. Nearly all of this meter testing is performed on bell provers. Much of the data collected is from meter cards and is enlered manually into a computer. While the accuracy of the bell prover remains unchallenged. it is clear Ihat new technology can offer significant productivity gains in the proving process itself and in the collection of meter data. Improvements in these areas are now being provided by workstaUons employing sonic nozzles and computer controls. This paper will describe the elements of this new type prover and its operation and make comparisons to the bell prover.
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Document ID: 21F62F66

Regulator Station Designs
Author(s): J. Russell Wong
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, designing of natural gas regulator stations sometimes appeared to be simplistic in nature. By knowing no more than the gas pressure and volume requirements, regulator stations could be designed. However, to design regulator stations in todays enviromnent the designer must be cognizant of the many internal and external elements which may influence the design process of regulator stations. The fundamental elements of the design process are engineering review and operational requirements.
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Document ID: 55C0E050

Overpressure Protection Devices And Design Consideration!
Author(s): Jay W. Brandl
Abstract/Introduction:
A regulator is a mechanical device. With any mechanicai device there is the possibility of failure. The automatic Pressure Control Valve (PCV) has evolved over the years from simple weight loaded regulatoss to sophisticated control valve/actuator/feed back loop systems. As their complextty increases, so does the chance that something will malfunciion. The two PCV failure modes that should be considered when designing any facility are fully closed and wide open. The first type of failure causes an under-pressure situation. This can be avoided by incorporating a redundant feed into the design of the station. The wide open type of failure can cause the downstream system to exceed its Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP).
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Document ID: 33D4EDF7

Construction Challenges Of The Kern River PnELINE Protect
Author(s): Robert L. Sluder
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline construciion in todays environment involves a wide variety of challenges, ranging from the traditional design and logistics aspects, to what are becoming the ever-more predominant challenges of meeting the regulatory and geopoitiical requiremenss placed before us. This paper discusses a recently completed major pipeline project through areas of the western United States previously unaceustomed to such work and the many unique challenges that were faced
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Document ID: 826DBF07

Troubee Shooting Regulators And Freezing Problems Problems And Solutions
Author(s): John Garner
Abstract/Introduction:
There is nothing mysterious in trouble shooiing a regulator. All trouble shooters need a basic understanding of how a regulator works, how a pilot operated regulator works,how direct operated regulators work, and why specific regulator functions are essential to solve certain problems. Experience is probably the most valued tool in trouble shooiing. A good trouble shooter can identify, analyze, and plan a repair procedure on a regulator before the actual repair even starts. (See Figure 1)
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Document ID: 40F5377D

Monitor Use Regulation
Author(s): Alan Rozak
Abstract/Introduction:
Two of the most commonly used forms of overpressure protection are the relief valve and the monitor regulator. Each system has different characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. This paper will include descriptions of both overpressure protective systems and will examine their advantages and disadvantages as well as their use in the gas utility industry
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Document ID: BBFC399C

Operation And Maintenance Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Wayne Mcaliister
Abstract/Introduction:
To improve the sensitivity of a regulator, we would like to be able to sense downstream pressure (P,) and then somehow make a change in loading pressure (PL) that is greater than the change in downstream pressure (P,). To accompiish this, we can use a device called a nM. The major function of a pilot is to increase regulator sensitivity. If we can sense a change in downstream pressure and translate it into a large change in loading pressure, our regulator will be more responsive or sensitive to changes in demand
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Document ID: 35F255FE

Flowswrrcmng A Criteria For Selection
Author(s): David Betiel
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of Tube Switching, on the surface, seems to be a problem specific to only certain circumstancss in gas measurement. In the real world however, it arises more frequenlly than one first imagines. Tube switching is most common where peak loading gas rates are significanlly higher than those of the steady state situation. Metering equipment sized for normal steady state gas rates is overanged for the peak rate condition
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Document ID: 1AEB9B11

Maintenance & Operation Of Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Richard J. Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
Flexible Element regulators have been used extensively in the gas industry since the early 1950s. The original design, the Flexflow, was introduced by Grove Valve & Regulator Company. The Flexflow is referred to as an expansible tube design because a rubber tube stretched over a metal core is expanded to open the valve. American Meter introduced a variation of the design in 1970 called the Axial Flow. The expansible tube design had a number of desirable features which mad
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Document ID: 7A06D14A

Pfm Vs. Instrumentation
Author(s): E.A. Tomquist
Abstract/Introduction:
The real worth of a certain quantity of gaseous fuel depends pnmarily upon its heating value. It would, therefore, seem that a weight unit might be the ideal unit for measurement, since the weight of a substance represents a defmite quantity. It is, however, difficult and expensive to measure gas on a weight basis. In order that gas may be measured volumetrically in cubic metres and so that each cubic metre represents a defmite quantity by weight, the absolute pressure and temperature at which the cubic metre is assumed to be standard must be defined.
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Document ID: E555C033

Fundamentals Of Three-Mode Controllers
Author(s): Floyd D. Jury
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact. they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet. the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments. is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance. it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships
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Document ID: BF550F0E

Gas Management In A 636 World
Author(s): Dwaynel. Foley
Abstract/Introduction:
FERC Order 636 completes a transition to an open market for gaspurchasers. As has so often been the case in the deregulation process, changes in the rules for the gas industry will have significant effects throughout the operaiion,. We have seen the dramatic jump in complexiry in nominations, a new concemwithbalancingandthearrivalofnewplayers in the gas business. Order 636 continues this trend, andonagain,theeffects will ripple throughout our companies. Order 636 will put a great emphasis on access to data from customei. pipeline bulletin boards and other sources. The ability to access this information and act effectively on it will become a major strategic advantage for companies who establish this capability.
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Document ID: B20DB38A

A Study Of Unaccounted-For Gas At The Southern California Gas Company
Author(s): Shahed G. Meshkati John m. Groot
Abstract/Introduction:
During 1991 and 1992, Southern California Gas Company (SoCaIGas) conductda a study to more accurately define and understand the magnitude and natuee of its unaccoun?ed-for (UAF) gas volume for the 1991 calendar
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Document ID: 7A3A98D1

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
For several years, gas men have been giving more thought to aerodynamcc turbulence within their pipeline systems and, in particular, the turbulence that is a result of pressure regulaiion. Considering the noise from a measurement or regulating station, it is generally conceded that measurement facilities alone will rarely be a major source of noise, since we can design the pipe to give a desired and normally tranquil velocity. On the other hand, we must expect that, in a regulator station, control of the gas veloctty is possible only up to the inlet side of an active regulator.
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Document ID: 2EE781E5

Flow Computers
Author(s): Murray Fraser
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the introduction of Electronic flow computers in the early 70s technology has improved these devices from simple general purpose totalizers to very fast, dedicated computers capable of performing complete volume & energy calculations with all live inputs up to once a second. This Paper will attempt to categorize flow computers into two distinct categories. 1. Hazardous Locations. 2. General purpose. The application and inherent strengths and weaknesses of both types will be discussed
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Document ID: AC850C25

Hazardous Locations National Electrical Code Nec() Article 500
Author(s): Paul A. Murray
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, Meter and Regulator Technicians worked exclusively on regulation, mechanical flow recorders. and mechanical pressure correctors. The Technician now must have to concern himself with the National Electrical Code. Hazardous Locations and Intrinsically Safe Systems. Technology has forced us all to pay close attention to codes, rules and laws regarding electronic measuremett systems and electrical systems installed on, or near customer meters, regulator stations, and other facilities using natural gas.
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Document ID: 6A1AF189

ODORI2ATION And Odor Monitoring
Author(s): Eugene B.KLUSMANN
Abstract/Introduction:
In the interest of safety and regulatory requirements natural gas must have a readily detectable and recognizable odor. Although odorization is required of some natural gas pipelines the fmal responsibility falls on the distribution company. This responsibility requires documentation of the concentration and effectiveness of the odorant. ConcentraUon is determined by instrumental analysis and injection data and effeaiveness by olfactory methods. The odorization practices and odor monitoring program developed by Southern California Gas Company (SoCaIGas) will be described
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Document ID: D6BD111A

Bits, Bytes, And Bauds Computer Kindergarten III
Author(s): Steve Damato
Abstract/Introduction:
Suppoee for a moment that the automobile industry had deveooped at the same rate as computers and over the same period: how much cheaprr and more efficient would the c u r r e tt modess be? If you have not alredyy heard the analogy, the answer is shattering. Today you would be able to buy a Rolls-Royce for 2.75, it would do three million miles to the gallon, and it would deliver enough power to drive the Queen Elizabeth II. And if you were intereeted in minaaturization, you could place haff a dozen of them on a pinhea
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Document ID: 0ADA1974

Data And Voice Communication
Author(s): Paul W. Tang
Abstract/Introduction:
Communications technology plays a very important role in modern gas system operations. The topic of data and voice communications is so wide in scope that it will be impossible to cover the entire subject in this presentation. This paper will therefore discuss only the methodology used in the developmem of a specific voice and data communications system, and the basic principles behind some of the key elements in this system
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Document ID: 27238AC5

Automated Meter Beading At Northwestern Utilities Limited
Author(s): Terry Caveny
Abstract/Introduction:
Northwestern Utilities Limited has trialed several AMR systems and set out a criteria to select AMR for residential and commercall AMR. Utilizing this criteria we thoroughly examined the AMR market place before choosing a system
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Document ID: 6C643397

Effects Of Pulsations On Turbine Metess
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years, PG&E has experienced an increasing number of new industrial customers that are installing small compressors for boosting delivery pressure to meet gas-turbine fuel gas requirements. A typical example would be a cogeneraiion facility receiving gas from a 175 psig transmission line, and compressing it up to 250 psig. The pulsations created by these compressoss have caused significant measurement errors in PG&Es turbine type sales meters
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Document ID: 24262F66

Cogen Pulsation Effecre On Turbine METERG
Author(s): JoeW.Bronner Robert 1. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a report on Held and laboratory experiences with the effects of cogeneraiioninduced pulsation on turbine meter flow measurements. Within the narural gas industry, an increasing number of delivery points are to cogeneraiion facilities. At many of these facUities. compression and flow regulation activities produce pulsation which affects gas measurement with turbine meters. It has been found from both field experience and laboratory testing that pulsation can pixxiuce significant errors in turbine metering however, the conditions under which pulsation causes measurement errors are not easUy identified
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Document ID: 2EF227CE

Acoustical Filter Design
Author(s): Henry W. Poellnitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Acoustic filters are used to dampen flow pulsations generally caused by reciprocating compressors. Measurement inaccuracies attributable to pulsating flow are recognized as a major problem in the natural gas industry. The phenomenon of square root error (SRE) in orifice measurement bas been discussed for more than twenty years, but only recently has technology made it possible to develop equipment that can accurately measure SRE by use of a square root error indicator (SREI).
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Document ID: AABC33D8

Flov Measurement Using Electronic Metering Systems
Author(s): Fred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1989 there was a need requested by Industry to have a National Electronic Flow Measurement Standard. This was to establish some basic guide lines for the use, installation, calibration, verification, and the logging of data and events. A committee, under the direction of the American Petroleum Institute in Washington, D.C., was formed. After many years and even more committee meetings there is now a National Standard. It is identified as follows:
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Document ID: 4F670D54

MEASUREME3JT Fundamentals
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
Science interprets nature in terms of matter and energy. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are many types of energy such as heat energy, electrical energy, kinetic energy (energy of motion), and potential energy (intrinsic energy of an object due to the position of the object
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Document ID: 92C7D739

Electronic Corrector Systems
Author(s): Brent W. Myck
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many electronic systems in use by all natural gas utilities and transportation companies. With the introduction of electronic measurement devices, the demands for improved accuracy and provision of historical information increased greatly. This paper is a review of measurement systems in use by Northwestern Utilities Limited and the subsequem objectives and benefits of each system. This discussion also includes general criteria of equipment utilized for measurement purposes, information reporting systems and distribution of information.
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Document ID: D8064F41


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