Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1993)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1993 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 830F4BC1

Fundamental Principles Of Self-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Michael Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic function of a self-operated regulator is to control downstream pressure over a wide range of flows.
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Document ID: 38FD2B77

Field Experience With Charts, Pens And Inks
Author(s): Doug Eberhardt
Abstract/Introduction:
HOW DID THE RECORDING CHART EVOLVE TO ITS PRESENT STATE? THERE ARE MANY FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE DESIGN OF THE CIRCULAR RECORDING CHART. THE CHARTS SIZE, SHAPE AND ARC LINES VARIED WITH EACH INSTRUMENT MANUFACTURER. THE ORIGINAL PAPER AND PRINTING INKS USED TO PRODUCE RECORDING CHARTS WERE BASED ON THE STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY. THESE MATERIALS VARIED WIDELY FROM MANUFACTURER TO MANUFACTURER.
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Document ID: FB518008

Correcting And Recording Instruments For Linear Gas Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
GAS IS TRADITIONALLY PURCHASED AND SOLD IN STANDARDIZED VOLUME UNITS, SUCH AS THE STANDARD CUBIC FOOT (SCF). THE SCF VOLUME IS REFERENCED TO A PARTICULAR PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE, CALLED THE BASE OR CONTRACT PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE,COMMONLY 14.73 PSIA AND 60 F. BY CONVERTING GAS VOLUME MEASURED UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE TO THE EQUIVALENT STANDARD VOLUME UNITS, THE PURCHASED QUANTITY IS MEASURED CONSISTENTLY, AND EQUITABLE CUSTODY TRANSFER IS ACHIEVED.
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Document ID: 5F43F98E

Digital Pressure Indicators
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT IS AN INCH OF WATER? THE CORRECT ANSWER TO THIS QUESTION HAS TAKEN ON INCREASED IMPORTANCE WITH THE DEMAND FOR BETTER ACCURACY AND THE INTRODUCTION OF DIGITAL PRESSURE INDICATORS. FOR EXAMPLE, LETS ASSUME THAT YOU HAVE JUST RECEIVED YOUR NEW DIGITAL PRESSURE INDICATOR AND YOU DECIDE TO VERIFY ITS ACCURACY. THE MANUFACTURER CLAIMS 0.1 PERCENT ACCURACY AT 100 INCHES OF WATER.
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Document ID: EE5BB110

Instrument Clibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
ONE OF THE MOST DIFFICULT PROBEMS FACING THE INSTRUMENT ENGINEER IS THE ACCURATE CALIBRATION OF ORIFICE PLATE FLOW METERS, PARTICUARLY AT REMOTE OR INACCESSIBLE LOCATIONS.
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Document ID: 4834E69A

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Michael S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
THE DEADWEIGHT GAUGE IS THE MOST ACCURATE INSTRUMENT AVAILABLE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURES. REPEATABLE READINGS WITH ACCURACIES OF 0.1% TO .02% OF MEASURED PRESSURE ARE OBTAINABLE. THE DEVICE DOES NOT REQUIRE RECALIBRATION UNLESS THE COMPONENTS HAVE EXCESSIVE WEAR OR WEIGHTS ARE REPLACED. IT IS EASILY TRANSPORTED AND SET UP IN THE FIELD, REQUIRES MINIMUM MAINTENANCE, AND IS SIMPLE TO OPERATE. TRIPOD MOUNTING IS AVAILABLE FOR MOST INSTRUMENTS.
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Document ID: 90401B4C

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Bruce A. Orf
Abstract/Introduction:
IN THIS INDUSTRY YOU HEAR QUITE OFTEN EXPRESSED GAS MEASUREMENT IS THE CASH REGISTER FOR THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY. WHILE THE END RESULT DOES CONVERT TO DOLLARS, THERE ARE SO MANY MORE VARIABLES INVOLVED, ITS NOT AS SIMPLE AS COUNTING APPLES AND ORANGES AND MULTIPLYING THEM TIMES THEIR RESPECTIVE PRICE. AS WE PROCEED YOU WILL FIND THAT GAS MEASUREMENT CANNOT BE THAT EXACT. THERE ARE MANY VARIATIONS THAT CAN, AND WILL, AFFECT THE OUTCOME. WE WILL COVER AS MANY AS POSSIBLE.
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Document ID: 9837DE2D

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas Distribution
Author(s): C. m. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
ALL GAS SYSTEMS LEAK. GAS ESCAPES EVERY SYSTEM IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER. THIS IS TRUE BECAUSE GAS IS PERMEABLE TO EVERY SYSTEM. FOR INSTANCE, WITH PE2306 PIPE, THE VOLUME OF METHANE LOST THROUGH PERMEATION IN ONE MILE OF TWO-INCH PIPE OPERATED AT 60 PSI IS ABOUT 0.26 CUBIC FEET PER DAY. SO, IF EVERY SYSTEM LEAKS, THEN HOW MUCH DO WE LOSE? HENCE, WE HAVE UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS.
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Document ID: F49E8BE0

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For-Gas-Transmission
Author(s): David Beasley
Abstract/Introduction:
WITH THE LARGE VOLUMES THAT TODAYS TRANSMISSION COMPANIES ARE MOVING, THE LOSS AND UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS IAS AN ONGOING CONCERN. UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS IS AN ONGOING CONCERN. UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS IS A TERM USED TO INDICATE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE VOLUME MEASURED ENTERING A PIPELINE AND THE VOLUME MEASURED OUT OF THE SAME PIPELINE.
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Document ID: 9C969675

Aurcmatic Tank Gadges
Author(s): Woodrow W. Oglesby, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A variety of measurements are involved when automatically measuring the contents of your tank. Ultimately, the volume or mass of the product is usually the desired value. External influences such as the installation detaU, the data handling, environmental effects, and the tank construction all affect the results and the validity of the data.
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Document ID: 8382463B

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocartwns has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored in open tanks or in tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: CB78132D

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Wayne O. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of process chromatography by the natural gas industry started in the 1960s. These early uses were primarily in gas processing plants. During the late 1970s gas companies started looking for more accurate methods of determining the Btu than the traditional calorimeter. Chromatography became the choice of most gas companies.
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Document ID: 88F4B09B

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Del J. Major
Abstract/Introduction:
New technology continues to improve the custody transfer measurement of crude oil and petroleum products. However, the cost of these improvements coupled with the shear number of crude oil leases which exist today necessitates that the majority of custody transfer measurement continue to be done manually using the same type gauging equipment which has been used for decades.
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Document ID: A9EB1C58

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): m. J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper wiii discuss several available fieid measurement methods that are in use to calibrate upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 5AE8B6E8

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Field Gaugers
Author(s): Scott Cain
Abstract/Introduction:
This session Is split Into two major sections: A Systematic Approach to Development and Hardware Selection. The first, A Systematic Approach to Development, discusses the various stages of the development process and provides practical guidelines on the development of portable computers for field gaugers. Attendees should come away with a good understanding on how to tackle projects of this nature whether it be an in-house development or In conjunction with a vendor. This section primarily concentrates on the software development aspects of the project.
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Document ID: 8FC663E8

Pressure C& Temperature Transducers Itristallation(, Calibration And Repair)
Author(s): Steve Paetz
Abstract/Introduction:
This session covers and transmitter. the electronic transducer Webster defines a transducer as a device that Is actuated by power from one system and supplies power (usually In another form) to a second system. Microphones and speakers are one of many types of transducers. In our field of work, we know it to be a device that can transform pressure, tank levels, temperature, etc. into an electrical signal.
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Document ID: 48979BAA

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Judi Perkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In these days of emphasis on quality it is ever more important to measure and control the moisture in natural gas. This paper will discuss the reasons why it is important and the various methods used to measure moisture and hydrocarbon dew point.
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Document ID: D39CE1C9

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibrations And Field Testing
Author(s): Michael D. Beck
Abstract/Introduction:
Witness is defined as one asked to be present at a transaction so as to be able to testify to its having taken place. The witness can lake recomendations, but is there primarily as a representative of an interested party to observe and docuient what takes place. There are a number of reasons for witnessing a aeasureaent station inspection and calibration.
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Document ID: AE6BAEF4

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith, Nancy Tilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Every employee requires training. Whether an employee is newly hiredorhasyearsofexperience, training improves performance. Even simple jobs skills need periodic review for continued improvement and updating methods.
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Document ID: 2FA9A4AA

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other
Author(s): Richard Rick L. Schuman
Abstract/Introduction:
A description once given to the Gas Measurement office group is a bunch of Pampered Hot House Plants who have no idea what the red lines, black lines and green lines mean on charts much less what is a meter. In turn the office group thinks that every measurement technician and chart changer live directly adjacent to each meter house or even possibly in the meter house, and have no knowledge of what windshield time means.
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Document ID: F501E7D3

Lpg Odorization With An Audit Trail
Author(s): Mike Mckay
Abstract/Introduction:
When one speaks of LPG odorization, most technicians think of the offensive smell and the negative effect of their contact with it. It is the objective of this paper to develop an understanding of just how vitally important it is to have an audit trail when odorizing LPG product.
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Document ID: 89AE4699

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
Ethylene has a critical temperature of 48.58F. This fact causes ethylene to behave very differently at ambient temperatures in the general range of 0F to 100F as compared with methane which has a critical temperature of -il6F or n-octane which has a critical temperature of 564.1F. Very large density changes of the ethylene fluid resulting from small changes in temperature or pressure are of the greatest concern with respect to the accuracy of ethylene flow measurements. These very large density changes occur at pressures above 400 psia for the 0F to 100*F temperature range where ethylene may be in either a liquid or vapor (gas) phase depending upon the pressure and energy content. Above the critical pressure (729.8 psia) a liquid phase does not exist, ethylene is in a dense vapor phase and the density values or the density changes are considerably different than those predicted by the gas law equations unless accurate compressibility factors are included.
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Document ID: F6E1A82A

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Pipeline Group (APG), along with most transmission companies, went to electronic flow measurement (EFH) to: 1. Increase resolution and accuracy 2. Real time correction of flow variables 3. Increase speed in data retrieval 4. Reduce capital expenditures 5. Reduce operation and maintenance expenditure
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Document ID: 3D1C02D8

Carbon Dioxide Measurement Experience
Author(s): Dave V. Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant commitments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the West Texas and the Rocky Mountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience has been development and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: D7EF43E0

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming when gas customers can smell a teak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced.
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Document ID: AC1AAA38

Micrometer Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Fred R. Rodman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the natural gas transmission industry, measurement is taking on a whole new dimension, brought about by changes in the way we do business.
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Document ID: 940ABF2A

Design, Operation, And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Daniel J. Rudroff
Abstract/Introduction:
There has been a lot of discussion on the design and placement of components in a LACT Unit. The operation and calibration of a LACT also is a subject of much discussion. Although there is not a lot to maintain on a LACT Unit, trouble shooting has always been a problem. This paper will assist in the design, operation and maintenance of LACT Units.
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Document ID: 3BB09685

L.A.C.T* Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transferred at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: EFF8A632

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Michael D. Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Auttxnated truck loading systems are continually evolving to meet the cunrent industry requirements. The air quality regulations set forth by the EPAs Clean Air Act (CAA) and increased product acoDuntability requirements are the driving forces behind many of todays loading rack automation projects. In addition, many oil ccmpanies are developing market terminal partnerships within certain geographic areas to help reduce costs and limit their liability. These trends have created a need for increased flexibility in loading operations at the truck rack.
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Document ID: 0A6CD458

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly, Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flew rate using orifice meters.
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Document ID: 7FF49431

Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate monitoring of Sediment and Water has been an ongoing problem over the years in both the oil production and pipeline industries. Each area has its own special needs. The use of older conventional technology requires special equipment when high water cuts are present. Today, with many production wells producing higher water cuts due to enhanced recovery techniques, and the introduction of strict environmental laws (NESHAP), this problem has been amplified. It is now time to look at newer technology that can more accurately monitor Sediment and Water in oil, as well as, reduce capital investment on new production locations and pipeline operating costs.
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Document ID: 3E8BE19D

Monitoring Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): James m. Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to accurately measure water in crude oil, online, real-time has been pursued by companies for years. The industry has seen several different technologies and resulting products, but none have shown the potential to be used for custody transfer.
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Document ID: 1B914888

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur
Author(s): Art Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Producers, processors, pipelines and distribution companies measure both hydrogen sulfide H2S) and total sulfur for compliance with purchase contracts, which generally contain sulfur quality clauses relating to those two parameters. A quarter grain of H2S per one hundred standard cubic feet (0.25 gr H2S/100 SCF) and one grain of total sulfur 1 gr S/100 SCF) are common contract limits. To ensure that both buyer and seller are dealing with gas within these limits, it is common to monitor both parameters, as well as others, on both sides of the custody transfer point.
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Document ID: 41F0DB70

Multipath Ultrasonic Gasflow Meters
Author(s): Karst Van Dellen
Abstract/Introduction:
The multi-path ultrasonic gas flow meter is new in the field of gas flow measurement. But it shows considerable promise as a viable flow meter for custody transfer applications. The ultrasonic technology in gases was delayed because of the more complex transducer design for ultrasonic gas flow meters. The transducers must be in contact with the gas itself.
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Document ID: C8F58A33

Shipboard Sampling For Accountability In Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. Garsetti, P. S. Harrison, E. R. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of water measurement in the marine transportation of crude oil is considerable. A study carried out by the Institute of Petroleum and reported in Petroleum Review has shown that on a sample of 6,500 voyages, the quantity of water detected in the outturn was on average 0.13 percent higher than had been declared in the bill of lading and, furthermore, a discrepancy of 0.5 percent between the outturn and bill of lading water content was not unusual. These discrepancies have enormous financial implications and highlight the need for improved sampling and analysis methods. Indeed, this study showed that the larger water discrepancies occurred when the bill of lading had been based upon shore tank manual sampling techniques and analysis by centrifuge. The problems associated with manual sampling had long been suspected and over seven years ago SGS Redwood set out to develop a portable sampler which could be used to collect representative samples of crude oil and products being loaded onto or discharged from a vessel.
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Document ID: E52B230D

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meters used for hydrocarbon flow measurement. They are rugged and mechanically simple devices that are suited for flow measurement in the field. In 1779, an Italian physicist, Giovanni B. Venturi (1746-1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifices for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified all major contributing factors of the measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in the fluid flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and in other countries. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors. Different standards on orifice flowmeters and measurement uncertainties are referenced Ref.l-7.
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Document ID: 0937B66B

Transient T-Ightning() Protection For Electnnic Measurement Devices
Author(s): L. Leon Black
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic measurement devices have become a major part of the oil and gas business today. All of these devices operate on an electrical voltage. Any voltage introduced into the system that is beyond the predetermined tolerance will cause degradation of performance or in some cases failure of the device. The extent of the damage depends upon the dielectric strength of the circuit in question and upon the available energy . As these devices are further developed to incorporate more solid state circuitry and cerate at lower voltage levels the more susceptible they become to transients.
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Document ID: B8DDBEB3

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): R. C. Leitschuh
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of on-line electronic computer systems and their application in custody transfer. Emphasis is on increased accuracy due to real time consideration of gas measurement parameters. This paper includes the authors recommendations for increased accuracy as well as other methoclogies being used within the hydrocarbon measurement industry.
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Document ID: 003C0002

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past 12 years an emergence of low powered flow computers along with government intervention, helped push the gas Industry into considering automating its long standing custody transfer measurement systems. Low powered Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) has become a reality with an estimated installed base of over 50,000 units. These Low Powered Flow Msurement systems consist of batteries, solar panels, differential, static pressure, and RTDs.
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Document ID: 113F131F

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation( Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert m. Knox, Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the 1960s companies involved in the transmission of natural gas have used electronic equipment to measure gas flow and monitor pipeline operation. However, not until the early 1980s were reliable electronic equipment, increasingly accurate instrumentation and inexpensive computer programs all available to provide a system which could economically replace chart recorders.
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Document ID: 6C96D18D

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Tim Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flow Computer and Communications industries are on the threshold of a new era in the application of advanced electronics. Ushered in by changes and demands of the Natural Gas Industry, monumental advancements in sensor, processing, memory, power source, telemetry and communications technologies will benefit all industrial measurement segments. These segments include Petroleum, Steam, Petrochem products. Industrial gases, Water and Waste products. This paper will explore the basic technologies of new advanced Electronic Row Metcrs(EFM) and telemetry and the application benefits.
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Document ID: C9070411

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement H
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fimdamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 6BECB644

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the application of battery operated flow computers as applied to gas measurement in the Oil and Gas industry, and describe several methods currently available for the control of production, transmission and distribution sites. The author assumes the reader has prior knowledge of flow measurement. Several terms will be used throughout this paper and are listed below for clarification: FCU-Flow Computer Unit RTU-Remote Terminal Unit AIU-Analyzer Interface Unit GC-Gas Chromatography MMI-Man Machine Interface SCAD A-Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
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Document ID: 46C51850

Real Time Electronics Flow Measurement
Author(s): Fred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
As we take a look at a few basic definitions, we will come to a better understanding of the meaning of Real Time Measurement.
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Document ID: D68E3A7F

Office Application Of Computers Foe Flow Calculation
Author(s): Judy Gamble
Abstract/Introduction:
Competition is a key word in todays gas industry. In order to stay on top, volume calculations must be concise, accurate, error free and completed in a timely manner. We in the gas industry must learn to utilize the most advanced computer technology available in order to achieve our companies goals.
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Document ID: 1FC66501

New Products In Measurement
Author(s): Dreu Crane
Abstract/Introduction:
1991 and 1992 changes in ANSI/API 2530 (AGA #3) relative to manufacturing tolerances of measurement equipment, along with an industry desire to improve measurement, has led to the development of new gas measurement products. The new products include a modified orifice fitting, orifice fitting mating flange, an adjustable carrier, Stark/Crane Gauge, modified orifice flange and specially machined flanges for metering skids.
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Document ID: BC2D7750

Effects Df Abnormal Conditions On The Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Steve Caldwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is one of the most widely utilized measurement devices and is one of the oldest, next to the, bucket. The orifice meter is one of the most basic devices ever invented for measurement and has many advantages because of its simplicity and also has many associated problems as a result of its simplicity.
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Document ID: 3B73D9B6

Measurement Of Large Volunes By Turbine Meter
Author(s): Larry St. Germain
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the only deep water port in operation in the United States for the importation of foreign crude oil. The port facility is located in the Gulf of Mexico in Grand Isle Block 59, proximately 18 miles offshore. The deep water port was designed specifically for unloading very large crude carriers (VLCCs) and ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) up to 700,000 dead-weight-tons (DWT) via single anchor leg mooring (SALM) systems, a pumping platform complex (Fig. 1), submarine pipelines, a booster station and a 48-inch pipeline interconnected to 8 underground storage.
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Document ID: 08C74991

Gas Measurement By Insertion Turbine Flow Meters
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
A requirement exists in the gas industry for simple and economical devices to perform flow measurements in large diameter pipelines. Such measurements are made for a variety of purposes, such as pipehne dispatching, line break detection, compressor surge control, gas odorizing, etc. None of these require custody transfer accuracy, and, while these applications may differ, they do contain a number of commonly desired features. It is the intent of this paper to examine the extent to which insertion turbine meters meet the requirements of the industry and the performance that can be expected from these devices.
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Document ID: 83A2DFD4

Onsite Provihg Of Gas Turbine Heters
Author(s): Jia Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examines a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and currently uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 16 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which is used in the actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: 7B90A15A

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Larry Suchy
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many different techniques for proving meters some of which may have an application suited for your requirements. You must first understand your operating conditions prior to selecting a proving method which is best suited for your particular application.
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Document ID: 6684BE78

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Larry Suchy
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many different techniques for proving meters some of which may have an application suited for your requirements. You must first understand your operating conditions prior to selecting a proving method which is best suited for your particular application.
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Document ID: 0E0F85A9

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - Ih
Author(s): James W. Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: 8C22E3DA

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Steven E. Everley
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper deals with the practical aspects of calibrating volumetric type meter provers used in the custody transfer of petroleum based products. The paper will address the preparation procedures necessary for a gocxi calibration as well as some coimion sense trouble shooting techniques. For purposes of generality, this paper will use the conventional bidirectional pipe prover as an example unless otherwise noted.
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Document ID: DDFA0097

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews pulse interpolation and how whole meter pulses are resolved into fractional values. This technique, recognized by API, enables the use of a smaller volume prover in applications where larger provcrs arc not practical.
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Document ID: 44EED564

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Paul A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the evolution of computers as they apply to liquid meterproving. Micro-computer technology has found its place in virtually every area of instrumentation. From simple field transmitters to control room mounted central processing units, these powerful integrated circuits offer reliability, speed, convenience, and cost effective methods of saving work.
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Document ID: 01FE70C7

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter factors are reported to four decimals, or to one part in ten thousand. Therefore, in order to achieve the proper resolution of data collected during a meter proving with a conventional pipe prover, there should be at least 10,000 pulses accumulated for each pass of the displacer. If the product of pulses per unit volume emitted, times the volume (in consistent units) displaced between the two detectors is less than 10,000 pulses, the prover is defined as a small volume prover for that particular proving situation.
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Document ID: CB87DCC6

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Gary Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers have long been used to control proving Junctions in metering stations. Accurate reporting and control of meter proving is essential in custody transfer applications as well as non-custody transfer applications. In the former the results of the meter proving directly effect the totals from which invoices are generated. In the latter the results directly effect the ability to balance product inventories. These factors coupled with a need to minimize labor costs in all facilities make automated proving control a desirable feature in most metering applications. It is important that thp specifier of this type of equipment be knowledgeable not only in computer technology but also in specific system operational requirements so that the equipment specified is adequate without being excessive. Ease of use is another critical element in the evaluation of proving computers and computer programs.
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Document ID: 14D4271E

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Harold Fisher
Abstract/Introduction:
The Small Volume Prover is enjoying a wide degree of acceptance as a reliable and precise instrument for calibrating meters in custody transfer applications. Their compactness and faster operating speed than the conventional pipe provers make them ideal for certain applications.
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Document ID: F0B3DDE1

Basic Electronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): Todd Perrodin
Abstract/Introduction:
The field of electronics is considered by many to be the most exciting and also Uie most complex of all fields of study. Although this may be true, electronics are a way of life for all, from the time we wake up to the time we go to bed, and even when we sleep. Electronics surround us.
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Document ID: 3B982E77

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of any laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment.
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Document ID: 2DB4B180

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Joe Ragsdale
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice fitting with its accompanying meter tube is the most prevalent device in use today in fluid measurement. The fitting, orifice plate and fabricated meter tube must meet rigid specifications to provide accurate, reliable measurement.
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Document ID: 5522CD86

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Robert Bennett
Abstract/Introduction:
The phrase overall measurement accuracy hints at the complexities associated with measuring and analyzing a compressible fluid such as natural gas. Todays utilities are becoming more concerned with purchasing, transporting, and selling a quantity of energy, not just a vo1ume of some unknown gaseous material. Gravitometers, calorimeters, and chromatographs are joining the measurement techs bag of tools right along with meters, regulators, and correcting instruments.
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Document ID: 59779148

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for 1 ow gravity, 1 ow carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report X-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 910E835C

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 5DC5921F

Relative Density Specific Gravity) Measarement
Author(s): Judi Perkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Relative Density Specific Gravity) of a gas is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of gas at standard conditions to the weight of an equal volume of pure air at standard conditions. This ratio measurement is a basic means of characterizing any gas. The instruments used for determining relative dehsity are called gravitometers.
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Document ID: 1B148EF7

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Patrick O. Deangelo
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper design of distribution metering and regulating equipment is imperative for accurate accounting of Company revenue. Small errors in the calibration of the meter and pressure setting of the regulator can have a major impact upon balance sheet projections. A proper initial design will also extend equipment life and decrease station maintenance. As with any equipment, the best time to eliminate potential problems such as noise, meter proofing capability, future downstream pressure requirements, safe operation of the station, etc., is during the design phase
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Document ID: C87FFE99

Basics Of HIGH.PRESSURE Measuring And Regulating Station Design
Author(s): David A. Rehler
Abstract/Introduction:
Metering and regulating stations effectively serve as the cash registers of the natural gas industry. While the potential for lost revenue resulting from improper design is a serious consideration, it is not the only one. The potential exists for problems such as excessive noise levels, inaccurate reflection of lost and unaccounted-for gas, and numerous potentially hazardous situations. The best time to limit the potential for problems is during the design process. This, together with the critical nature of these stations, dictates that proper design is imperative.
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Document ID: 00F21B0E

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Energy measurement is used to determine the heal content of a fluid, such as natural gas. The heat content is expressed in BTU (British Thermal Unit).
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Document ID: F5A2C812

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Jim Bieda, Tom Webb
Abstract/Introduction:
When gas is processed in a plant, it changes in several ways. First, the volume is reduced by some measurable amount second, the composition changes so that the gas consists almost exclusively of methane and third, the energy content is significantly reduced. These changes are a direct result of the plants primary objective, which is to convert lower-value gas to highervalue liquids. The amount of energy used to accomplish this is referred to as Plant Btu Reduction or PBR. This paper will attempt to explain the significance of PBR and to demonstrate its calculation.
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Document ID: E3E0C6B0

Installation Of Fyakmetiai And Fyaofner GALCUIATiaS
Author(s): Brad R. Lauterbach
Abstract/Introduction:
lyfess flow riteasurement has become the accepted method of measurement for custody transfer of natural gas fluids. Traditional volume measurement proved ineffective for the measurement of natural gas fluids due to the effects of the poorly defined properties of thermal expansion, conpressibility, and adniixture shrinkage, lylass based measurement is independent of temperature, pressure, and admixture shrikage provided that the flowing stream is in the liquid state. Mass measurement requires the continuous integration of flowing volume times density over a time period to obtain total mass and mass flow rate. A pycnometer is a pressure vessel whose volume and weight are precisely known. The flow-through pycnometer is the instrunent used for calibration of a density meter under flowing conditions.
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Document ID: 117CAB11

Chromatograph Maintenance And TR01JBLESH00TING
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatographs used in Energy Measurement and Control Systems are designed for minimum amount of maintenance. With the Introduction of Microprocessors, Advanced Electronics and Self Diagnostics, the reliability of measurement devices has increased considerably. As new devices are introduced, chromatograph manufacturers incorporate these devices into their system to increase reliability and reduce maintenance.
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Document ID: E2151B33

Chromatograph Applications & Problems From A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Duane A. Neefe
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatograph is becoming more important to the pipeline industry due to the demand for Real Time volumes. To obtain volumes which do not need to be corrected for gas properties, it is necessary to have the gas properties such as specific gravity, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and btu values within the flow computers operating parameters. When these values are used within each flow calculation cycle, the accuracy of the measurement obtained is much greater than when corrections for supercompressibility are applied after the volume is accumulated.
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Document ID: 7466D060

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Mark F. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The mystery of the hexanes or heptanes plus fraction has become less of a mystery with the advent of the extended analysis. Prior to the use of an extended analysis NGL and natural gas samples were analyzed by chromatography and the heavy components were grouped as a single peak. This single peak was considered to be the hexane or heptane plus peak. See Figures 1 and 2. Due to the fact that the content of this single peak was not known, assumptions had to be made. The physical constants assigned to the heavy components of the sample were at best an educated guess. Errors were introduced into the mass measurement of NGL and the gas volume measurement of natural gas. The extended analyses, as outlined in GPA Standard 2186 and 2286, does allow for a more comprehensive analysis of the heavy components in NGL and natural gas, however the methods do have limitations. This paper will give an overview of these two standard methods of extended analysis.
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Document ID: EA36E511

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Charles R. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter is only one of many types of meters that are used to measure natural gas. While each type of meter, each with its own design, has a particular, application for which it is well suited, the gas turbine meter is one of the most versatile, due to its high accuracy, wide rangeability, and moderate cost.
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Document ID: E0C4B5BF

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Mark F. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatographic analysis of natural gas liquids may be approached in several different manners. The American Society for Testing and Materials and The Gas Processors Association are two organizations that have published standard methods for the analysis of natural gas liquids. (ASTM method D2597 and GPA Standard 2177). This paper will give a brief overview of these methods. While each of the organizations employ similar methods, each method has limitations. The Chromatographer should obtain copies of the standard methods and use the method that meets individual contractual agreements.
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Document ID: 760B2318

Btu Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chrcmaxograph
Author(s): Debra L. Gonzalez
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas analysis has evolved from strictly volumetric measurements to a volumetric plus Btu value measurement. The additional gas quality measurement more accurately determines the value of the natural gas product. Current methods of Btu analysis for N2, C02, CI to C6+ consist of collecting samples and shipping them to laboratories for conventional GC analysis, or analyzing the samples on-site using a portable GC . Neither of these methods are optimal. The best results are achieved with on-site, extended analysis (N2, C02, CI to C9) in one hundred sixty seconds using a portable, micromachined GC. This not only saves time, but also provides more accurate data and more importantly, saves money.
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Document ID: 993A37FE

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulating Equipment
Author(s): David Wofford
Abstract/Introduction:
The strict and competitive business environment in which the natural gas industry operates today dictates hat measurement and control systems which are utilized are of the highest achievable operational integrity. This entails not only that measurements and controls are performed and maintained precisely and reliably, but also that consideration is given to operational phenomena which may adversely affect the overall performance and integrity of such systems. Freezing is an operational occurrence which frequently affects the functionality and performance of measurement and regulating systems.
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Document ID: 3B989B24

Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
The art of Liquid Flow Metering has taken many forms with varying levels of precision over the years. One liquid meter type known as the Positive Displacement Meter operates exactly as stated wherein an Exact or Positive known volume of liquid is contained or displaced sequentially and each segment or volume unit is counted. Therefore, Positive Displacement Metering qualifies as one of the oldest forms of 1iquid metering since any bucket, can, jug or jar could be classified as a means of sequentially delivering a known liquid volume that can be counted even though the precision of the measurement may be in question.
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Document ID: 85ED451B

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has become very popular for the measurement of liquids of low and medium viscosities. Its compact size, high flow rate, low maintenance and superior linearity make it especially attractive for liquid hydrocarbon applications. When a turbine meter is properly applied within a correctly designed flow system, its best perfcwmance can be realized.
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Document ID: D8AD4132

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Charles R. Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
How measurement, with todays state of the art liquid turbine meter, combines the mechanical aspects of the meter and electronics to measure total flow and/or flow rate within a piping system. The liquid turbine meter is a volumetric measuring instrument. By sensing the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through the open cavities of the meter, the volumetric flow rate can be determined. The flow, or linear velocity, of the fluid is sensed by the rotation of the rotor, which is supported within the meter housing. The rotor is designed so its rotational speed is proportional to the linear velocity of the flowing fluid. Since the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through a given area is directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate, it follows that the rotational speed, or RPM, of the rotor is also directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Therefore, by electronically measuring the rotation of the turbine meter rotor, the flow of the fluid through the meter can be accurately determined. This principle of flow measurement has been accepted by many industries because the liquid
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Document ID: 779E1A40

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measuriiment
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper we approach the subject of turbine meters for the custody transfer measurement of liquid petroleum by developing a basic understanding of the design and construction of the turbine meter. Factors influencing the application and performance will also be discussed.
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Document ID: A55E71FD

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Liquid Measuremeni
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
Every day, custody is transferred on thousands of barrels of crude oil. When this custody takes place, we want to know the temperature, the API gravity, the S&W percent and the volume. For the devices that are used to determine these, we must know that the devices are accurate. We can have these devices certified in-house, at the factory, from the supplier, or from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
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Document ID: F783507F

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): S. K. Suri
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter stations are found in different areas of the hydrocarbon industry, ranging from the oil well to refinery to pipeline distribution. Some examples are loading and unloading terminals for tanker and barge transportation, pump terminals feeding pipelines, and pipeline distribution terminals.
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Document ID: 204A0BFD

Measurement Fundamentals
Author(s): W. G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil is a dark, viscous naturally-occurring liquid which is found in great underground reservoirs. Crude oil is not a pure compound. It is a physical mixture of many things that are familiar to us in everyday life including motor gasoline, lubricating oils, heating oil, jet fuel, diesel fuel, thinners and solvents, waxes, asphalt, and many other components such as petrochemicals which are used in the manufacture of plastics.
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Document ID: C6412CAF

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Paul A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbine meters are becoming increasingly desirable for the volumetric measurement of liquids due to their moderate cost, low maintenance, and excellent linearity. The turbine meter is an excellent choice for low and medium viscosity applications. Their simple design and broad flow range can provide years of trouble free service.
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Document ID: 9DDBDA69

Computer Applications In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Gary Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
With the increased use of microcomputers in home and office environments has come a more ready acceptance of these devices in commercial applications including the control and measurement of hydrocarbon flow. Specialized and general purpose microcomputers are providing the designer with greater flexibility, superior accuracy and enhanced man-machine interface capabilities. This general acceptance of computers as a tool coupled witli ever decreasing costs has translated into an increased use of microcomputer technology in the design of measurement and control stations.
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Document ID: 9C94D36C

Troubleshooting Liquid Pipeline Losses And Gains
Author(s): W. G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
To assure good measurement it is desirable to continuously monitor measurement results to determine if systems, or equipment and procedures, are performing in predictable ways and are operating within acceptable limits. This may be done by the use of Control Charts.
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Document ID: F4B425C0

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using different machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review. It is inKirtant to note the following declaration in Section 2 of Chapter 12, under Introduction and Purpose: Nothing in this publication precludes the use of more precise determinations of temperature, pressure, and density (gravity) or the use of more significant digits, by mutual agreement among the parties involved. The rules given below generally reflect current prevailing practices. However, it is anticipated that the new API 12.2 standard will be a more stringent as well as a more specific standard, and that prevailing practices will then change accordingly.
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Document ID: C80E4B1A

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Gerald C. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Virtually all hydrocarbons are bought and sold by volume. That is, gallons, barrels, liters, cubic feet, etc. This is true for Natural Gas Liquids, too, but variations in component makeup make it difficult to measure them using the conventional volumetric methods. Mass Measurement is more accurate for NGLs. The mass can then be converted to volume for commercial transactions-
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Document ID: 3F2CACA2

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state-surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who, for one reason or another, only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: 15E3564C

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Jeff Moon
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the many parameters that must be accurately measured for product quality control, custody transfer, process control, or liquid interface detection purposes is liquid density. Often, density measurement is combined with flow measurement to determine the mass flow rate of a liquid in a pipeline. In this article, we will discuss the principle of operation of vibrating tube densitometers, design suggestions for densitometer installation, and calibrating, or proving, the system.
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Document ID: 8F02E94C

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): John Abbruscato
Abstract/Introduction:
This seminar will cober the use of vibrating element liquid densitometers in applications ranging from mass flow determination Co interface detection for liquids ranging from light LPGs and refined products to waxy, heavy crude oils.
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Document ID: C047461B

Orifice Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Robert E. Vickrey, P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been used for centuries in measuring and regulating the flow of water. Historians have recorded the use of orifices by the Romans to regulate the flow of water to houses. Equations used to calculate gas flow rate were originally based on data using water. Although orifice meters are used extensively today by the gas transmission industry for measuring large quantities of gas in custory transfer, they are also used for the measurement of natural gas liquids such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, raw mix, demethanized ethanepropane mix, oil, water, air and steam.
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Document ID: F77126E8

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidedly more important now than it has been in past years. The price of a product will determine the interest a company and its personnel have in the measurement and quality of its feeds (raw materials) and prodi:u: ts. Because of the price of crude oil today, the general interest in proper sampling is drastically increasing-
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Document ID: BAE718A4

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Alan Young
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow rate measurements based on volume or flow velocity are prone to measurement errors that occur when a fluids physical, chemical or flow velocity distribution characteristics change. Realizing this, flowmeters based on the well known Coriolis principle are becoming more widely used and accepted for many applications. This is because they measure flow directly on a the basis of mass rather than volume.
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Document ID: 5CBD2237

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Don Salyards
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has existed in various forms and has been the standard device for natural gas measurement for many decades. One of the most common misconceptions is defining the instrumentation used on a meter tube as the orifice mete
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Document ID: E1C745DB

H20 By Distillation Vs Karl Fischer Method
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
For decades the accepted method for measuring water content in crude oils and other hydrocarbon stocks has been the centrifuge method. The centrifuge method is relatively quick and easy. However, it sometimes is limited in ability to accurately measure water content, particularly if the hydrocarbon stock has a high solubility aspect for water. When maximum accuracy is required and/or high water solubility is encountered in hydrocarbons, a laboratory method called Water by Distillation is often used. The method Is described in API MPMS Chapter 10.2 and ASTM D 4006, and has the ability to measure both solution water and suspended water.
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Document ID: 6A853EE6

Ultrasonic Flow Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): J. Baumoel
Abstract/Introduction:
Leak detection is essential for petroleum and chemical pipelines. The financial and social consequences of a release of hazardous or environmentally contaminating liquids is self-evident. Major efforts to develop a functional system using the prevalent Turbine and PD custody transfer flowmeters have failed to meet expectations.
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Document ID: AD538E7D

Marine Crude Oil - Terminal Measuring System
Author(s): E.R. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
FOR THE PAST 5 YEARS THE INSTITUTE OF PETROLEUM IN LONDON HAS BEEN CONDUCTING AN EXTENSIVE SURVEY OF STATISTICS RELATING TO THE MARINE MOVEMENT OF CRUDE OIL AROUND THE WORLD. THIS SURVEY HAS SHOWN UP SOME OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS WHICH OCCUR BETWEEN BILL OF LADING AND OUTTURN AND WHICH RESULT IN REAL OR APPARENT LOSS TO THE PURCHASER. THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO SUMMARIZE SOME OF THE FINDINGS FROM THE SURVEY AND TO INDICATE THE IMPORTANCE OF SOME OF THE MEASUREMENTS ALONG THE CHAIN, AND TO DISCUSS THE ROLE WHICH COMPETENT INDEPENDENT INSPECTION COMPANIES SHOULD FULFILL IN HELPING TO REDUCE LOSS.
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Document ID: 5FBC164D

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE OPERATION AND INSTALLATION AS WELL AS THE OVERALL IMPORTANCE OF COMBUSTION CALORIMETERS IN NATURAL GAS CUSTODY TRANSFER AND CONTROL APPLICATIONS.
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Document ID: BD1DF46E

Effects And Control Of Pulsation In Gas Measurement
Author(s): David L. Winkler
Abstract/Introduction:
PULSATIONS CREATED BY COMPRESSORS, FLOW CONTROL VALVES, REGULATORS, AND SOME PIPING CONFIGURATIONS ARE KNOWN TO CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ERRORS IN GAS FLOW MEASUREMENT.
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Document ID: F978422D

Operation & Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Jim Massey
Abstract/Introduction:
THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF REGULATORS IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT BECAUSE A GAS REGULATOR IS THE MOST CRITICAL MECHANISM FOR CONTROLLING THE MOVEMENT OR THE FLOW OF GAS. A DEVICE THAT CONTROLS CHANGEABLE PRESSURES AND FLOWS IS OFTER REFERRED TO AS A CONTROL VALVE, A GOVERNOR, A PRESSURE REDUCER, OR REGULATOR.
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Document ID: 90387EDC

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. m. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
TURBULENCE IN A LIQUID OR GAS PIPING SYSTEM IS ALMOST NEVER DESIRABLE. UNFORTUNETELY, TURBULENCE IS ALSO ALMOST NEVER ABSENT. SO WE MUST PLAN FOR IT IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE ITS EFFECTS ON PIPELINE CAPACITY, PRESSURE DROP, MEASUREMENT ERROR, NOISE, AND PIPING VIBRATION. DESIGN ENGINEERS AND FIELD PERSONNEL ALIKE ARE INTERESTED IN KEEPING TURBULENCE TO A MINIMUM. BOTH FAVOR MAXIMUM THROUGHPUT WITH THE LEAST AMOUNT OF NOISE. BY THE SAME TOKEN, BOTH ARE CONCERNED WITH FINDING THE BEST SITE FOR ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS SUCH AS CALORIMETERS, CHROMATOGRAPHS, OR DEW POINT INSTRUMENTS, AND FOR A STEADY SENSE POINT FOR CONTROL.
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Document ID: 5F10CC2A

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): William L. Hobson
Abstract/Introduction:
A PRESSURE REGULATOR IS A SELF-CONTAINED VALVE AND ACTUATOR COMBINATION THAT DOES NOT BLEED GAS TO ATMOSPHERE. THE FUNCTION IS TO MATCH DEMAND WHILE MAINTAINING A CONSTANT DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE. THIS PAPER ADDRESSES HIGH PRESSURE REGULATORS (COMMONLY CONSIDERED) AS A PSIG TO PSIG REDUCTION.
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Document ID: 19D49FF7

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
THIS PAPER WILL ADDRESS THE GAS PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOR INSTALLATION AND THE ISSUE OF ERRATIC CONTROL OF THE DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE. A GAS PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATORS JOB IS TO MANIPULATE FLOW IN ORDER TO CONTROL PRESSURE. WHEN THE DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE IS NOT PROPERLY CONTROLLED THE TERM UNSTABLE CONTROL IS APPLIED. FIGURE 1 IS A LIST OF OTHER TERMS USED FOR VARIOUS FORMS OF DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE INSTABILITY. THIS PAPER WILL NOT ADDRESS THE MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF DESCRIBING THE AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PRESSURE REDUCING STATION, BUT WILL DEAL WITH MORE OF THE COMPONENTS AND THEIR AFFECT ON THE SYSTEM STABILITY.
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Document ID: D7EB9E65

Overpressure Protection Methods
Author(s): Joe Mullner
Abstract/Introduction:
THE PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOR IN FIGURE 1 IS THE BASIC DEVICE USED TO REDUCE THE PRESSURE FROM A HIGH PRESSURE SOURCE SUCH AS A TRANSMISSION LIME TO A LOWER PRESSURE SUCH AS A DISTRIBUTION PIPING SYSTEM. THE REGULATOR HAS A HISTORY OF VERY RELIABLE SERVICE BUT, BECAUSE IT IS MECHANICAL, IT CAN FAIL. A REGULATOR CAN FAIL IN TWO WORST CASE CONDITIONS, WIDE OPEN OR FULLY CLOSED.
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Document ID: ABA7544A

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): Paul Kenji Tomita
Abstract/Introduction:
Pilot operated regulators consist of a pilot and a main regulator. The regulator is connected directly into the pipeline and the pilot is piped to the regulator. The regulator controls flow through the pipeline while the pilot controls the operating position of the regulator. Pilot regulators can be set up for a wide variety of applications including, pressure reducing, back pressure, differential pressure, pneumatic control, and reducing monitor. This class will cover the basics of pressure reducing, back pressure, and monitor systems.
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Document ID: F1DB84DB

Proving Tests For Acceptance Of Automatic Liquid Sampling Systems
Author(s): James m. Strawn, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
AN AUTOMATIC SAMPLING SYSTEM CAN BE TESTED TO VERIFY THAT THE EQUIPMENT, INSTALLATION AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES PRODUCE A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE. THIS TEST IS KNOWN AS A SAMPLING SYSTEM PROVING TEST. THE PURPOSE OF THE TEST IS TO VALIDATE THE ENTIRE SAMPLING SYSTEM FROM STREAM CONDITIONING TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE SAMPLE. THE PRIMARY USE FOR THE PROVING TEST IS FOR DETERMINATION OF SEDIMENT AND WATER (S&W) IN CRUDE OIL.
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Document ID: 04D68B66

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
A COMPOSITE SAMPLE IS GAS COLLECTED IN A SAMPLE CONTAINER THAT IS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE GAS FLOWING IN THE PIPELINE DURING SOME SPECIFIC PERIOD OF TIME. IN ORDER FOR THIS TO BE TRUE, THE SAMPLING SYSTEM MUST BE INSTALLED PROPERLY, MAINTAINED IN WORKING ORDER, AND THE SAMPLE MUST BE SUBSEQUENTLY HANDLED PROPERLY.
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Document ID: 42CDAC8A

Light Hydrocarbon Liquid Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
WITH THE MEASUREMENT AND ACCOUNTING OF LPG AND LIGHT PRODUCTS BECOMING MORE IMPORTANT, THE COLLECTION OF A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE AND ITS ANALYSIS IS ALSO IMPORTANT. MANY MEASUREMENT STATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN IN THE FIELD FOR YEARS ARE NOT DESIGNED TO COLLECT A SAMPLE OF A STREAM THAT IS CONTAMINATED WITH WATER, AMINE AND NATURAL GASOLINE. THE STREAMS THAT ARE CONTAMINATED WITH CO2, METHANE, N2, AND THE LIGHTER CONTAMINATES ARE ALSO DIFFICULT TO SAMPLE. IF THE SYSTEMS ARE NOT DESIGNED TO SPECIFICALLY HANDLE ALL OF THESE CONTAMINATES, THE MASS MEASUREMENT AND COMPONENT BALANCES OF THE PLANTS AND PIPELINES WILL BE INACCURATE.
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Document ID: FE19917F

D.O.T. Title 49 Regulations For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
DURING MY TRAVELS AROUND THE UNITED STATES TALKING ABOUT SAMPLING AND SAMPLE CONTAINERS, IT HAS COME TO MY ATTENTION THAT THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN THE U.S. NEEDS TO BE A LITTLE BETTER INFORMED ON PROPER HANDLING, SHIPPING AND TRANSPORTATION OF SAMPLE CONTAINERS OF ALL TYPES. SINCE EVERYBODY IN THE OIL, GAS AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SEEMS TO BE INVOLVED IN TAKING SAMPLES AND HANDLING SAMPLE CONTAINERS, IT BEHOOVES US TO UNDERSTAND THE LAWS AND RULES THAT GOVERN THEIR TRANSPORTATION.
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Document ID: A8553793

Status Of Multiphase Flow Measurement Research
Author(s): E.L. Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
MULTIPHASE FLOW MEASUREMENT RESEARCH IS SPENDING MILLIONS OF DOLLARS DEVELOPING A NEW APPROACH TO MEASURING FULL WELL STREAMS. THE PURPOSE IS TO REDUCE COSTS OF PRODUCTION FEASIBLE IN SOME HIGH COST OFFSHORE AREAS WHERE THE COSTS PROHIBIT PRODUCING MARGINAL PROPERTIES. THE LARGE INVESTMENT IN THIS RESEARCH HAS RESULTED IN MANY DIFFERENT MEASUREMENT APPROACHES AND EQUIPMENT. FINAL PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTING IS WELL UNDER WAY ON SEVERAL COMMERCIAL UNITS WITH ESTIMATES THAT MANY VIABLE SYSTEMS WILL BE AVAILABLE BY THE MID 1990S. A GENERAL REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF WORK IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER WITH A RECOMMENDATION THAT THESE DEVELOPMENTS BE LEARNED AND FOLLOWED SINCE THEY WILL IMPACT THE WAY WE DO BUSINESS IN THE FIELD PRODUCTION AREAS OF THE WORLD.
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Document ID: C66A6D0F

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past(, Present And Future)
Author(s): Jane Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
STANDARDS ARE DEVELOPED IN ORDER TO PROVIDE UNIFORMITY OF ACTION, IMPROVE EFFICIENCY AND TO MINIMIZE LITIGATION. IF STANDARDS DID NOT EXIST, ONE WOULD HAVE TO KNOW THE DIMENSIONS (DIAMETER, DEPTH, THREAD PATTERN, ETC.) OF THE SOCKET PRIOR TO PURCHASING A REPLACEMENT LIGHT BULB. CAN YOU IMAGINE THE DIFFICULTIES THAT WOULD EXIST BETWEEN COMPANIES IF THE PURCHASER HAD A SET OF COMPANY STANDARDS WHICH REQUIRES THAT THE ORIFICE PLATE BE INSTALLED WITH THE SHARP EDGE DOWNSTREAM AND THE PRODUCER HAD A SET OF COMPANY STANDARDS WHICH REQUIRES THAT THE ORIFICE PLATE BE INSTALLED WITH SHARP EDGE UPSTREAM.
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Document ID: 94F65E16

The Role Of The Blm In Oil And Gas Measurement - An Overview Of Onshore Orders 4 And 5
Author(s): Gerald Freerksen, Howard Hubbs, Jim Hutchinson
Abstract/Introduction:
THE DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT IS GIVEN THE AUTHORITY BY 43 CFR PART 3160 SECTION 3164. 1 TO ISSUE ONSHORE OIL AND GAS ORDERS WHEN NECESSARY TO IMPLEMENT AND SUPPLEMENT THE OPERATING REGULATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THESE ORDERS IS TO ESTABLISH REQUIREMENTS AND MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF OIL AND GAS BY METHODS AUTHORIZED IN 43 CFR 3162.7-2,3 AND TO PROVIDE STANDARD OPERATING PRACTICES FOR THE LEASE OIL STORAGE AND HANDLING FACILITIES. PROPER OIL AND GAS MEASUREMENT ENSURES THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND INDIAM MINERAL OWNERS RECEIVE THE ROYALTIES DUE, AS SPECIFIED IN THE GOVERNING OIL AND GAS LEASES AND ALL WELLS AND FACILITIES ON STATE OR PRIVATELY OWNED MINERALS LAND COMMITTED TO A UNIT OR COMMUNITIZATION AGREEMENT THAT AFFECTS FEDERAL OR INDIAN INTERESTS.
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Document ID: A6921B12

Overview Of API Copm() - Measurement Activities
Author(s): Ronald C. Chittim
Abstract/Introduction:
THE AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE WAS FOUNDED IN 1919 AS AN OUTGROWTH OF THE NATIONAL PETROLEUM WAR COMMITTEE. THAT COMMITTEE WAS COMPRISED OF U.S. OIL INDUSTRY LEADERS WHO WORKED TOGETHER WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO MEET THE TREMENDOUS DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM FUEL DURING WORLD WAR 1. THE EXPERIENCE DEMONSTRATED THAT OIL INDUSTRY REPRESENTATIVES COULD WORK TOGETHER ON COMMON PROBLEMS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY AND STILL COMPETE WITH ONE ANOTHER IN THE MARKETPLACE. THIS IS AN IMPORTANT CONCEPT BECAUSE UNDER U.S. ANTITRUST LAW, INDUSTRY COMPETITORS CAN WORK TOGETHER TOWARD MUTUAL OBJECTIVES USING API AS THE FORUM.
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Document ID: 205595FB

Influence Of The Latest Revision Of Ansi 2530 (AGA #3) On Flow Computer Software
Author(s): Raymond G. Teyssandier, Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
THE NEW AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE, AMERICAN GAS ASSOCIATION, GAS PROCESSORS ASSOCIATION ORIFICE METERING STANDARD REPRESENTS THE FIRST MAJOR CHANGE IN THE USA CALCULATION PROCEDURES PUBLISHED SINCE 1935. AS ALMOST ALL OF THE APPROXIMATELY 19 TRILLION CUBIC FEET OF NATURAL GAS IN THE USA PASSES THROUGH ORIFICE METERS THIS STANDARD WILL HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT. THIS NEW STANDARD WILL RESULT IN NOT ONLY DIFFERENT BUT ALSO MORE ACCURATE, VOLUMES THEN THOSE CALCULATED BY ALL PREVIOUS USA OR INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS. THE CHANGES THAT WERE MADE TO REACH THESE IMPROVEMENTS WERE ALL BASED ON THE LATEST AVAILABLE DATA THAT HAD BEEN GATHERED BY VARIOUS USA AND EUROPEAN RESEARCHERS. THE NEW ORIFICE MEASUREMENT STANDARD IS WRITTEN IN FOUR PARTS, SEPARATING THE TEXT TO FACILITATE USE AND SIMPLIFY UPDATING WHEN CHANGES ARE NEEDED.
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Document ID: D2D20624

Status Report On Electronic Data Interchange
Author(s): R.C. Chip Leitschuh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
ORGANIZATIONS TRADITIONALLY HAVE CONDUCTED BUSINESS ON PAPER, OFTEN USING PREPRINTED BUSINESS FORMS TO EXCHANGE INFORAMATION WITH TRADING PARTNERS. WITH THE EXPLOSIVE GROWTH OF THESE PAPER-BASED EXCHANGES AND THE AMOUNT OF DATA ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES, MANY ORGANIZATIONS HAVE BEEN FORCED TO SEEK A MORE EXPEDIANT TECHNIQUE FOR COMMUNICATING AND PROCESSING BUSINESS DATA. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) IS A CONCEPT THAT INCORPORATES THE TECHNOLOGY OF CONNUMICATIONS WITH A PHILOSOPHY OF CONDUCTING BUSINESS. IT IS THE EXCHANGE OF ROUTINE BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS IN A CONPUTER-PROCESSABLE FORMAT.
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Document ID: F4C5D548

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Displacement Meters
Author(s): Herbert L. Dehart
Abstract/Introduction:
In the gas industry today, most natural gas is measured by four different types of gas meters. Two are classified as inferential type meters and are known as orifice and turbine meters. These two are used primarily on very large and steady type loads. The other two are positive displacement type meters and are known as diaphragm and rotary type meters. These two are capable of measuring a wide range of loads with varying flow rates with a high degree of accuracy.
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Document ID: EA4696AC

Effects Of The Latest Revisions Of Anst 2530 (AGA #3) On Orifice Meter Runs
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
THE MOST WIDELY ACCEPTED MEANS OF MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAS AND OTHER FLUIDS IS THE ORIFICE METER. THE PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF THE ORIFICE METER INCLUDE THE ORIFICE PLATE, ORIFICE FITTING OR FLANGES, ADJACENT PIPING AND FLOW CONDITIONER OR STRAIGHTENING VANES WHICH MAKE UP THE METER TUBE.
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Document ID: 661C1964

Review Of API/ANSI 2530 (AGA #3)
Author(s): R.G. Teyssandier, R.E. Beaty, J.E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
NEW RESEARCH AND MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES HAVE PRODUCED NEW EQUATIONS AND MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS WHICH SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE THE UNCERTAINTY LEVELS FOR ORIFICE MEASUREMENT. THIS PAPER PROVIDES BOTH AN INTRODUCTION AND A SUMMARY OF THE FOUR PARTS OF THE 1990/91 REVISION TO THE ORIFICE STANDARD.
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Document ID: 1CA8D9B2

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor, Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
DEREGULATION OF THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY AND FERC ORDER 636 HAS RESULTED IN SIGNIFICANTCHANGES TO INDUSTRY OPERATIONS. INCREASED EMPHASIS IS GIVEN TO THE TIMEL AND EXACT TRACKING OF NATURAL GAS AS IT MOVES THROUGH THE GATHERING, TRANSMISSION, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSEM. IMPROVED MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY IS NECESSARY FOR ACCURATELY AND COST-EFFECTIVELY CARRYING OUT THIS MONITORING PROCESS.
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Document ID: 2267FA55

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
LARGE CAPACITY POSITIVE METERS ARE COMMON IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY. LARGE INDUSTRIAL CUSTOMERS RELY ON THESE METERS TO PROVIDE CONSISTENTLY ACCURATE MEASUREMENT. ACCURATE MEASUREMENT IS CRITICAL TO THE GAS DISTRIBUTION UTILITY, AS WELL. SINCE CONSUMPTION BY SEVERAL LARGE INDUSTRIAL CUSTOMERS CAN AMOUNT TO A LARGE PART OF THE SALES, ACCURATE MEASUREMENT BY LARGE CAPACITY POSITIVE METERS DIRECTLY AFFECTS REVENUE. PROPER PERFORMANCE OF THESE MEASURING DEVICES MUST BE MAINTAINED WITH A MINIMUM OF EXPENSE AND A MAXIMUM ACCURACY. FIELD TESTING OF THESE METERS FREQUENTLY ACCOMPLISHES THESE GOALS.
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Document ID: 23B4F184

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): G.B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
BEFORE WE BEGIN TO ADDRESS THE SUBJECT OF PROVING AND REPAIRING DOMESTIC METERS, WE FIRST NEED TO DETERMINE THEIR SIGNIFICANCE TO OUR INDUSTRY. DOMESTIC METERS FAR OUTNUMBER ANY OTHER TYPE OF GAS MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT. THERE ARE PROBABLY OVER 100 MILLION DOMESTIC METERS IN SERVICE AND NOT OVER 5 MILLION OTHER GAS METERS COMBINED. THE DOMESTIC METER IS TYPICALY USED AT A RESIDENCE AND HAS A CAPACITY OF 175 TO 250 CUBIC FEET PER HOUR. DOMESTIC METERS ARE SMALL IN SIZE BUT ARE OF GREAT IMPORTANCE TO OUR INDUSTRY SINCE ONE-THIRD OF THE GAS SOLD TO END USERS IS MEASURED BY THESE DOMESTIC DEVICES.
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Document ID: F9683729

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Laura L. Sewell
Abstract/Introduction:
OPTICAL CHART SCANNIN IS AN INTERPRETATION MEDIUM THAT HAS FINALLY MATURED. CHART SCANNERS HAVE BEEN WITH US FOR MORE THAN 20 YEARS, BUT THE FIRST GENERATION REQUIRED MUCH PREPARATION OF CHARTS AND WERE LIMITED TO SIMPLE PATTERNS. THESE EARLY SCANNERS DID PRECISELY WHAT THEY WERE DESIGNED TO DO: REDUCE MANUAL INTEGRATION BY READING SIMPLE PATTERNS QUICKLY. NOW WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF MICRO-PROCESSOR BASED EQUIPMENT BY COMPANIES SUCH AS METROLOGY ONE AND SONCEBOZ, ELECTRONIC INTERPRETATION OF CHARTS HAS BEEN REBORN.
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Document ID: 6CFB090A

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard J. Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
A SYSTEM REQUIRES AT LEAST ONE UNIT AND A MEANS OF SETING UP AND READING THE UNIT. MOST OF THESE OPERATIONS MAY BE PERFORMED BY THE PC USING DIAL UP MODEMS. HOWEVER, THERE ARE SOME OPERATIONS (SUCH AS TRANSDUCER CALIBRATION) WHICH REQUIRE A HIGH DEGREE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE UNIT AND THE OPERATOR. IN THIS CASE THE DRU, WHICH REQUIRE A HIGH DEGREE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE UNIT AND THE OPERATOR.
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Document ID: F8E97C61

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correctional Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Tim Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
THERE IS A GREAT DEAL OF INTEREST IN APPLYING ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTING TECHNIQUES TO GAS VOLUME CORRECTION. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL ELECTRONICS WHICH HAVE GENERATED SO MUCH ENTHUSIASM? HERE ARE THE MAJOR BENEFITS:
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Document ID: A7A039F3

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Mark A. Keirs
Abstract/Introduction:
THE INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC VOLUME CORRECTORS WAS THE INEVITABLE RESULT OF THE SEARCH FOR A BETTER INSTRUMENT AND THE COMBINATION OF POWERFUL MICRPROCESSORS WITH IMPROVED LOW POWER CIRCUIT DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES. AT PRESENT, SEVERAL COMPANIES HAVE INTRODUCED ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS. A COMPARISON OF THEIR DESIGNS AND FEATURES REVEALS STARTLING DIFFERENCES DESPITE THEIR APPARENT SIMILARITIES.
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Document ID: 80EBE1CE

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrators
Author(s): Don Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
WHAT IS AN INTEGRATOR? UNLESS YOU WORK DIRECTLY IN THE GAS MEASUREMENT DEPARTMENT WITH ONE, VERY FEW PEOPLE HAVE HEARD OF ONE. IT HAS AND IS THE MOST CRUCIAL PIECE OF EQUIPMENT FOR CALCULATING GAS CHARTS, LIQUID, AND ANYTHING THAT CAN FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE FOR CALCULATING VOLUME IN THE INDUSTRY. IN THIS PAPER WE ARE GOING TO EXPLAIN WHAT THE INTEGRATOR AND OPERATOR DOES WITH THIS INSTRUMENT.
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Document ID: D03B90F0

About Ishm 1993
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: F4592542


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