Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1993)

Long Term Coating Protection And The Value Of Coating Inspection
Author(s): Stephen G. Pinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Laboratory and field testing of inorganic zinc rich primers was initiated at the Kennedy Space Center in 1965 and continues today. This paper describes the results of this testing and its applicability to steel structures in a non chemical atmosphere.
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Document ID: BF9A6E8D

Rehabilitation Needs Assessment Procedures For Transmission Pipelines
Author(s): Herbert L. Fluharty, John W Fluharty
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses the increasing need for todays pipeline operators to institute a program for the rehabilitation of their pipeline systems and suggests steps to follow to get the most effective use of the rehabilitation dollar.
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Document ID: 314929D2

A Systematic Approach For Dealing With The Corrosion Problems Of Old Gas Distribution Systems
Author(s): Michael P. Dolan
Abstract/Introduction:
The Con Ed gas distribution system encompasses a geographic area of approximately 460 square miles. Specifically this area consists of the entire boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx, the northern portion of Queens and most of Westchester county.
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Document ID: 6CE9254C

Department Of Transportation Pipeline Personnel Qualification
Author(s): Gary F. Ewert
Abstract/Introduction:
The Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 1992, requires the establishment of regulations governing the qualification and certification of pipeline personnel to perform covered functions. The Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety Research and Special Programs Administration has proposed regulations that address qualification and certification requirements for pipeline personnel. These regulations apply to personnel involved in the operation, maintenance, and emergency response functions for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines.
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Document ID: 21AFB04D

Mobius Swivel
Author(s): Jim Wood
Abstract/Introduction:
At this time, the service technician will close the meter settings gas service valve. This stops the flow of natural gas before it reaches the regulator and meter setting. The change can proceed at this point. The service technician will loosen the meter swivel nuts and remove the existing gas meter. The setting is ready for the new gas meter to be installed.
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Document ID: CFD55124

The Use Of Contractors For Customer Service Work
Author(s): Neil Harte,
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays business environment, the need to be competitive has never been more pressing. That need is just as urgent for natural gas utilities. More and more, we are feeling the pressure to increase our productivity and to do the things that will allow us to remain the fuel of choice, not just now, but for years to come. That means managing costs to make the most effective use of our financial resources.
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Document ID: 4D9982D4

Evolutive Service Training Program
Author(s): Robert Malo
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the beginning, the North American gas industry has promoted efficient customer service through adapted technical training for service and sales personnel, dealers, and installers. Today with the rapid changes in technology, the diversity of markets, the regionalization of service centres, the training programs and techniques have to be under constant review, in order to insure efficient and cost effective training programs.
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Document ID: 403E1C37

Non-Utility Service Competition In New Jersey
Author(s): Gregory C. Dun Lap
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past few years there has been considerable legislative and regulatory activity potentially impacting PSE&Gs ability to offer gas appliance repair and maintenance service.
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Document ID: 5974D685

Update On Office Of Pipeline Safety Activities
Author(s): Cesar De Leon
Abstract/Introduction:
The first subject 1 will cover is to identify major elements of comprehensive Pipeline Safety Act of 1992 and discuss OPS implementation plans. Next, I will give you an update on the development and application of new risk assessment model OPS is using to plan activities. Then, I will provide insight on our plans to implement Title IV of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA). Finally, I will give you an update on the regulations in the pipeline Semi-annual Regulatory Agenda that recently appeared in the April 1993 Federal Register.
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Document ID: 330FC5C6

UNIVIRS-AM/FM At Union Gas
Author(s): E. D. Brooks
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas is currently replacing an obsolete mapping and record keeping system with an Automated Mapping and Facilities Management (AM/FM) system. This paper briefly describes the system being installed and from a Users perspective outlines the benefits of the system to personnel responsible for the Construction and Maintenance of the distribution system. The paper also discusses future plans of the project which will have a direct impact on the Construction and Maintenance personnel.
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Document ID: 6BAB3F17

Tools And Materials Evaluation Process
Author(s): Peter R. Collette
Abstract/Introduction:
A recent reorganization at Public Service Electric and Gas Company resulted in a problem where various groups within the organization were operating at cross purposes and there was duplication of work. By utilizing a Quality Team approach, the problem was identified and the best solution was selected. Individuals who were directly impacted by the problem were involved in the quality process, enabling them to buy into the solution and aid in its implementation. This paper describes the details of that effort.
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Document ID: AAFB1D1E

Technical Development Of Pipelines In Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.
Author(s): Naoki Taoka
Abstract/Introduction:
The Osaka Gas Distribution Department is responsible for gas distribution and maintenance of pipelines. It is very important to accomplish economical construction and maintenance.
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Document ID: FAC6C660

No-Dig Technologies For Gas Distribution Opei A Gri R&D Update
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas utilities are experiencing increasing pressure to lower its prices to address customer demands and satisfaction and other competitive factors, while at the same time experiencing increases in operating costs associated with regulatory requirements and environmental issues. This pressure on controlling/lowering prices while experiencing increases in operating cost is now typical of most gas utilities and U.S. industry in general.
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Document ID: EC9830CE

Pneumatic Tool Diagnostic System
Author(s): Richard Monahan, Gerard T. Pittard
Abstract/Introduction:
The design, operation and benefits of a high-speed, computerized test system for measuring the performance levels of pneumatic tools and air compressors is described. Originally conceived and funded by Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., the existing prototype systems are being brought to commercial-level status under the joint sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., Brooklyn Union Gas Company, and Southern California Gas Company. Prime contractor for the work is Maurer Engineering Inc. of Houston, Texas.
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Document ID: 907814D0

The Epoch Concept: The Positive Impact Economics Can Have On The Integrity Of A Distribution System
Author(s): G. Sheri Conley
Abstract/Introduction:
SoCalGas has enhanced its existing Pipeline Capital Expenditure Program (PCEP) for routine pipe replacement by developing new guidelines and methods to use in making future repair versus replace decisions.
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Document ID: D010E9BC

Scada Data For Real-Time Modeling
Author(s): Andy Wike
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses various aspects of real-time computer simulation (modeling) of fluid flow in gas pipeline networks. It begins by introducing some of the applications which utilize data from a real-time simulation, applications which either feed directly off the results of the realtime simulation data, or are initialized from those data. The configuration data which are generally required to describe pipelines and equipment to simulation software are described, as are the SCADA data which are necessary to support a real-time computer simulation. This paper then contrasts two fundamentally different techniques for realtime modeling by examining the inherent characteristics of the real-time SCADA data themselves.
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Document ID: BE0387F4

Material Receiving Inspection
Author(s): John Baildon
Abstract/Introduction:
Statistics and Statistical Process Control (SPC) are becoming essential tools natural gas utilities can use for increasing both quality and productivity. However, many utilities know little and have many questions about these subjects.
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Document ID: BA8EE26D

Cast Iron Main Break Predictive Models
Author(s): Bernadette S. Lochbaum
Abstract/Introduction:
ABSTRACT For any gas utility with a significant amount of cast iron main, circumferential breaks are a high-risk operational concern. This paper discusses the development of cast iron main break predictive models at PSE&G. These models encompass the effects of weather, soil corrosivity, installation vintage, and annual replacement. The models can easily be developed by other utilities since they are comprised primarily of information that is readily accessible to the utility. While these models will not produce a segment-by-segment replacement priority listing, they will highlight geographic areas or cast iron vintages which are more at risk to break than others. The utility can then use this information to increase the effectiveness of its overall maintenance plan.
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Document ID: A3E12F6F

3800-Foot Directional Bore Of Patuxent River For Three Six-Inch Lines
Author(s): Clyde A. Myers
Abstract/Introduction:
Expansion of service territory can lead to major challenges and greater opportunities which otherwise would not occur within existing service areas. Such was the case when Washington Gas expanded its service territory to include Calvert and St. Marys counties in Southern Maryland. While this expansion provided Washington Gas with two additional counties to serve, it also presented Washington Gas with a number of challenges not typically found in its traditional service area. The major challenge was crossing the Patuxent River to provide service to St. Marys County. This report reviews the process by which this challenge was met by Washington Gas.
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Document ID: C267D529

Service Line Data In A Customer Data Base
Author(s): David E. Hupp
Abstract/Introduction:
Service line data can be defined as information relating to the construction, operation, maintenance, material, equipment, status and location of a service line
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Document ID: F4C40B3A

Gri Distribution Measurement Research Updata
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis, Kendricks A. Behring III
Abstract/Introduction:
The status of the Gas Research Institutes distribution measurement research program is reviewed. A prioritized list of distribution measurement activities has been developed that will be addressed at the GRI Metering Research Facility at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. Other distribution measurement projects related to energy measurement and compact gas meters will be described.
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Document ID: 690FC676

Compressed Natural Gas Measurement Issues
Author(s): Christopher F. Blazek, John A. Kinast
Abstract/Introduction:
The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC) is a membership organization formed to play an active role in shaping policies and new regulations to ensure that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) secure the most advantageous position in the developing marketplace for alternative vehicle fuels. This also includes promoting the development of NGVs, the growth of the NGV market place, and the establishment of codes and standards to facilitate the introduction of NGVs. To address technical issues involving NGVs, fueling stations, and natural gas as a vehicle fuel, the NGVC established a Technical Committee. Numerous subcommittees and task groups report to this Technical Committee. In addition, the American Gas Association Laboratories (AGAL) reports to the Technical Committee as the Administrative Secretary.
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Document ID: 270FBB0B

Rating Compressed Natural Gas Meters: A Utility Rience In Certifying And Calibrating Meters Used Pressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel
Abstract/Introduction:
Compressed Natural Gas as a vehicle fuel is becoming more / than ever before. It is no longer unusual to see garbage it buses, commercial fleet vehicles or even privately owned ehicles fueling with Compressed Natural Gas instead of t the present time, The Brooklyn Union Gas Company nion) owns and operates 10 natural gas vehicle fueling sta- : stations are located throughout Brooklyn, Queens, and i-the territory that Brooklyn Union serves. 5 of these staated on Brooklyn Union property, another fueling station is re between Brooklyn Union and The Mobil Oil Corporation :d at a Mobil gasoline/service station in the heart of downlyn. The rest are located where private and governmental asy access.
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Document ID: 4310FF73

New Ideas And Developments In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): George Bell
Abstract/Introduction:
The recent changes in the natural gas industry both from a technical and a regulatory stand point has required many companies to strive to improve their operations and procedures. New Ideas And Developments In Natural Gas Measurement submitted by member companies illustrate their companies commitment to providing better and more competitive service to the natural gas customer. One importance task of the Distribution Measurement Committee is to assist all natural gas companies in providing better service to our customers. To this end new ideas and development in measurement has compiled a brief list of several ideas used by member companies. These ideas should assist other companies in solving similar problems in an expeditious and effective manner.
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Document ID: 908E49FA

Electronic Equipment Policy And Practice In Hazardous Locations
Author(s): Richard G. Wlasenko
Abstract/Introduction:
National Electric Code (NEC) design requirements for electronic equipment used in hazardous locations is a very important subject in todays environment where fast paced implementation of new electronic based technology/equipment is taking place within the natural gas industry. Given the explosive properties of natural gas and the inherent risk of electrical equipment producing a spark - the possibility of a catastrophic event exists if proper electrical safety precautions are not followed.
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Document ID: D76B0FA6

Strategies For Environmental Management In The 1990s
Author(s): Anne Shen Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper posits that environmental management, beyond mere compliance, in todays world is a must. It extends beyond mere compliance with present requirements to shaping the future agenda: anticipating new issues gaining credibility sharpening competitive advantage capturing market opportunities and avoiding further liabilities.
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Document ID: DAD5000D

Urrent Environmental Regulations And Legislation
Author(s): Ori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
he major issues discussed in this paper are Clean Air Issues, which iclude NOx RACT, enhanced monitoring, permits and accidental :Ieases, Mercury Contamination, and Community Right-To-Know.
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Document ID: 983219FC

The Importance Of Environmental Auditing
Author(s): James J. Stieritz
Abstract/Introduction:
An environmental audit is a very useful tool to help upper management determine the environmental performance of an operating facility. Environmental auditing programs can be used to minimize environmental enforcement actions against companies.
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Document ID: 039E129F

Pcb Contaminated Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment
Author(s): James F. Walsh, Tracey Bell, Bob Welch
Abstract/Introduction:
On behalf of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and in cooperation with GRI PCB Task Force members, Roy F. Weston, Inc. (WESTON*) has performed a risk assessment that evaluates potential risks associated with a number of hypothetical releases of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated condensate from natural gas pipelines. The purpose of this effort is to provide GRI member companies with useful information for responding to situations resulting from the release of PCB contaminated condensate. The uses of this study include:
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Document ID: AE7E8BFD

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporations Mgp Site Investigation And Remediation Program
Author(s): Michael W. Sherman
Abstract/Introduction:
Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) has undertaken a systematic investigation and remediation program for managing its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. NMPC owns 23 former MGP sites which are located within its service territory of northern New York State
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Document ID: 0EEEFDCA

Risk Assessment For Manufactured Gas Plant Mgp() Site Remediation
Author(s): Christopher m. Teaf, D. Mark Haney
Abstract/Introduction:
A major advantage of risk-based target concentrations is the ability to evaluate in a quantitative fashion the potential risks to public health. Preceding a risk assessment is a site characterization. The four primary components of a risk assessment are selection of indicator analytes, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment and risk characterization. Risk characterization may lead to a conclusion that remediation is not required or target concentrations may be proposed for one or more environmental media. Without such detailed justifications and supporting calculations, the position of environmental regulatory agencies may be to require remediation to background conditions or to detection limits.
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Document ID: 0A913257

Environmental Issues In The Gas Service Department
Author(s): Ronald K. Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
Environmental issues affect everyone in business. The Gas Service Department is no different. Some equipment we service involves the use of potentially hazardous materials that if not handled, transported, stored and disposed of properly could harm our employees and the environment. For example, gas air conditioning refrigerant solution asbestos containing material in and around heating equipment and mercury seal regulators. By developing proper procedures and training programs, our Service people have handled all these situations safely with little or no exposure to our customers, employees or the environment.
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Document ID: 91EB7E18

Fleet Management: Fuel Storage Tank Technology And Testing Cylinder Presentation
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Clarke
Abstract/Introduction:
First, I will discuss recent developments in the storage of compressed natural gas (CNG). Mostly this discussion will review improvements that have occurred in the last decade - with a greater emphasis on the developments occurring today
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Document ID: 00C4C477

First Line Maintenance Supervisor, Work Dimensions
Author(s): H. Chris Slane
Abstract/Introduction:
What about Dimensions ... no thanks, but I would like some more chicken and black-eyed peas! This is a typical response when discussing the subject of Job Related Dimensions. Since time immemorial, garage maintenance supervisors have focused on jobs and skills, however, competition will require supervisors to make a significant mind shift and focus more on work and dimensions. Are we playing the word game? Is there really a difference between job/skills and work/dimensions? Yes, there is a significant difference and the future belongs to those garage supervisors who can focus on developing their work related dimensions while maintaining their respective job skills.
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Document ID: BBE26623

The Fleet Management And Mechanic Development Resource Manual
Author(s): Butch Cockerill
Abstract/Introduction:
We appear to be on a collision course between a work place that is exploding in technological advancements and two significant upcoming shortages in the work force which are:
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Document ID: 56962253

New Equipment Technology Concept Truck
Author(s): Delbert W. Buser
Abstract/Introduction:
Ideas from Tool and Truck Equipment Task Force On-going committee Thirty-member group, 80% crew personnel Develop good ideas to improve fleet operations, safety and productivity is their mission.
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Document ID: 7059C67D

Fleet Equipment Standardization: A Summary Of Your Feedback
Author(s): Michael C. Mandacina
Abstract/Introduction:
The Equipment Standardization Sub-Committee of the A.G.A./EEI Fleet Management Committee was established in 1991 to address an important need in our companies. The need to reduce costs and improve productivity within each corporation is considered to be an essential element in the future financial health and operational efficiency for the Fleet departments of most utilities. Properly managed, standardization of fleet equipment is one route to lower fleet costs. In addition, the utility industry is beginning to identify the financial benefits of equipment standardization among companies.
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Document ID: 288E73E1

Overview Of Ferc Order No. 636: Background And Operational Implications
Author(s): Andrea R. Hilliard
Abstract/Introduction:
Good morning! Thank you, Brent, for that kind introduction. I am pleased to be here with you today. I have been asked to discuss the background of industry restructuring and the major provisions of Order No. 636, the. Final Chapter and where the Commission may be headed in the future, the Next Chapter, with its natural gas agenda. I will then conclude with a few of the operational issues that seem obvious to me, a non- technical lawyer. John and Hugh will doubtless raise any operational concerns that I might overlook.
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Document ID: DC72AEDF

Identifying, Understanding And Satisfying Our Internal Customers Needs
Author(s): Gail J. Fraley
Abstract/Introduction:
WHY DO WE CARE ABOUT INTERNAL CUSTOMERS? You cant treat your customers any better than you treat each other. We know from numerous measurement efforts that gas companies with high external customer satisfaction levels also have high levels of internal satisfaction.
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Document ID: 80E926F6

The Kern River Information Network
Author(s): Steve Ellis
Abstract/Introduction:
In the summer of 1990, Michael Hammer, president of an information technology consulting firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts, wrote in the Harvard Business Review*, Despite a decade or more of restructuring and downsizing, many U.S. companies are still unprepared to operate in the 1990s....The usual methods for boosting performance-process rationalization and automation-havent yielded the dramatic improvements companies need. In particular heavy investments in information technology have delivered disappointing results-largely because companies tend to use technology to mechanize old ways of doing business... Many of our job designs, work flows, control mechanisms and organizational structures ... are geared toward efficiency and control. Yet the watchwords of the new decade are innovation and speed, service and quality.
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Document ID: FFB11E9F

Use Of Composites For Fracture Arrest In Low Toughness Pipe
Author(s): Michael m. Adkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Methods of controlling long-running, axial cracks in high pressure gas transmission piping have been studied during the past three decades. This work has led to the development of design requirements for transmission line pipe that provide self-arresting capability under pipeline operating conditions. The current practice for new pipelines is to employ line pipe with high impact strength over the planned operating temperature range. Older pipe may not have the necessary level of toughness and supplemental iiechanical arresters may be warranted. The performance of a fiberglass composite as crack arrest device for low toughness pipe was evaluated in this program. Clock Spring composite was found to provide arrest capabilities for ductile cracks and some brittle cracks generated by an explosive device in pipe pressurized with nitrogen to 72 percent SMYS. While some arrests were obtained, they were not reproducible at pipe wall temperatures where the low toughness resulted in multiple brittle cracks that branched during propagation.
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Document ID: B8A0D3EB

Implementing A Pipeline Integrity Program
Author(s): Philip J. Dusek
Abstract/Introduction:
Complicated risk assessment programs for pipeline integrity can now be applied economically to any pipeline system, regardless of size, with the use of personal computers. There are algorithms available to the pipeline operator, which can yield the desired results with or without modification, or an operator may develop his own. These programs allow an operator to sort and analyze all integrity related issues for any pipeline.
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Document ID: DA16CEF2

Blasting Adjacent To In-Service Gas Pipelines
Author(s): Alan K. Lambeth
Abstract/Introduction:
When new pipeline construction is performed adjacent to existing pipelines in areas where rock formations are encountered, the control of blast related ground vibrations and resulting stresses in the pipe can be of major concern.
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Document ID: 06693079

Gas Sampling For Accurate Quality Determination
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
What is a company buying or selling when gas moves through a meter run? Measurement of natural gas involves volume measurement, as well as quality determination. B.T.U., Compositional Analysis, Inerts and Contaminants are known by an accurate analysis of a sample. Whether the analyzer is on-line or in a lab, it can only give an output of what is delivered to its inlet valve. Since this analysis, B.T.U., is a direct multiplier of the quantity for MMBTU determination, the accuracy of that sample is of the utmost importance. Whether buyer, seller, producer, pipeliner, plant operator or co-generator, what you are buying or selling as gas is going to effect the bottom line.
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Document ID: F7FF99D8

State-Of-The-Art Fitness-For-Service Investigation For A Natural Gas Pipeline
Author(s): Frank A. Dauby, Chih-Hung Lee, Gary Vollbrecht
Abstract/Introduction:
A delta reclamation districts plan to add significant fill on their levee caused great concern for the integrity of a critical PG&E 22-inch (559 mm) gas transmission line which crosses this geologically unstable area. Initially a conventional linear elastic analysis was performed, yielding results significantly above the elastic limit for steel at several locations. Considering the limits of current stress- based codes and the settlement controlled loading conditions, a decision was made to perform a state-ofthe- art fitness-for-service investigation from a strain-based perspective. This paper describes the development and implementation of that investigation process, utilizing the latest technology in pipeline inspection and structural analysis.
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Document ID: AB287749

Pipeline Integrity Monitoring And Rehabilitation A 40 Year Study On The Cost Of Quality
Author(s): William A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to benchmark various internal and external pipeline integrity maintenance and rehabilitation programs that can be used in the natural gas industry. Seven different strategies are compared in each example of the appendix in terms of the two following criteria over a 40 year time frame: 1) financial cost, and 2) relative risk. The model used for this purpose (see Appendix) involves a 3D Lotus Spreadsheet divided into 12 successive worksheets. The first worksheet, comprised of the first two pages of each example in the appendix, summarizes all the financial information contained in the 11 ensuing support worksheets and presents it in a case study format. These cases depict different strategies a pipeline company may choose to verify pipeline integrity each case represents a different strategy. Methods of rehabilitation and corrosion control are listed on the left hand column, and their associated costs over a 40 year time frame (as experienced and researched by Tenneco Gas) are listed on the right. The Risk Assessment section depicts a subjective, qualitative assessment of the amount of risk associated with each case. This paper will display the costs incurred by Tenneco Gas for all categories of rehabilitation and corrosion control included in each case. Cost figures have been researched for those categories included in the model but not utilized by Tenneco Gas in its integrity monitoring and rehabilitation efforts.
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Document ID: 4D902776

A Plastic Pipe Study
Author(s): Harold Winnie, Ronald Bridgewater
Abstract/Introduction:
A number of different polyethylene plastic gas pipe materials are available for use by gas distribution companies in the United States. Several of the major pipe suppliers provide two or more different types of polyethylene plastic gas pipe materials which conform to ASTM-D2513 and other applicable codes.
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Document ID: AF0E4053

Polyethylene Piping Backfill Material Studies At Washington Gas
Author(s): Karl m. Gunther
Abstract/Introduction:
Washington Gas started using plastic piping materials in the late 1950s and always specified that the plastic pipe must be bedded in sand. From the onset of the use of plastic pipe until 1976, sand bedding was used on plastic services and mains because it was thought that sand would provide the maximum in scratch and rock impingement protection. The added cost of sand bedding was accepted as a necessary cost of the installation of plastic pipe.
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Document ID: 837D093A

Quality Assurance And Quality Control Of Natural Gas Analysis
Author(s): Dwight J. Romig
Abstract/Introduction:
Quality assurance and quality control should be an integral application to any analytical laboratory. Laboratory analysis of natural gas is no exception. With an ever increasing emphasis of leak verification, detection of sulfur compounds, gas interchangeability, therm billing, and detection of hydrocarbons through extended analysis, all data measurements regarding the same must be reliable and accurate. Procedures and practices established to prove this are imperative to achieve excellent quality assurance and quality control.
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Document ID: 6D2F6025

An Alternative To Squeezing Polyethylene Pipe For Flow Control
Author(s): Doug Crabtree, Ray Glossop
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas distribution entities in several European countries have successfully utilized conventional line plugging equipment, which has been adapted to polyethylene pipe plugging.
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Document ID: 42D2D39F

Practical Aspects Of Acoustic Plastic Pipe Location
Author(s): J. E. Huebler, Bruce Campbell, G. K. Ching
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas distribution company operation and maintenance activities require precise knowledge of the location of buried plastic piping. Plastic pipe cannot be located if the tracer wire is gone or was never installed. Under sponsorship of the Southern California Gas Company, IGT successfully demonstrated an acoustic plastic pipe location technique and is developing the technique into a practical field instrument. An acoustic signal is injected directly into the gas at a service. The acoustic signal travels in the gas in the pipes, not in the pipe wall. As the acoustic wave travels along the pipe, some of the sound radiates from the pipe through the soil to the surface of the ground. An array of sensors on the surface of the ground perpendicular to the pipe detects the acoustic signal, thereby locating the pipe. Two different acoustic measurements are used. The first measurement locates the pipe to within 3- ft. Then the second technique determines the location of the pipe to within 6-in.
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Document ID: 57DB909F

Installation Of Gas Service Tubing- Mechanical Connections
Author(s): George E. Trought
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper identifies Public Service Electric and Gas as the largest utility in New Jersey serving electric and gas in the 2500 square mile area between New York City and Philadelphia. Described is the 30 year journey from steel services, though copper tubing service inserts, to medium density, mechanically joined plastic for insert and direct burial services. It looks to be future and the possible extension of electrofusion, now used on mains, to service tubing connections.
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Document ID: E33E5416

Socket Fusion Of Small Diameter Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Gerry B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper addresses socket fusion of small diameter pipe, generally less than 2 inches in diameter therefore, this discussion does not cover all plastic fusion procedures. Oklahoma Natural Gas Companys most common method of making joints on the small diameter plastic is socket fusion, but other methods have been used and in some cases are still being used. In addition to primarily using socket fusion, we have used mechanical couplings and butt fusion in certain area locations.
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Document ID: 95B9D4A8

Plastic Service Tubing Construction Using Butt Fusion
Author(s): Patrick L. Burke
Abstract/Introduction:
At Consumers Power Company plastic service tubing, specifically Vi and l CTS, is joined by the butt fusion method unless impractical to do so. Approximately 500,000 services (1,000,000 joints) of these sizes have been joined in this manner since 1971. A buried fusion joint failure has not occurred to date. The preferred equipment is the Mini-Mc hand held unit produced by McElroy Manufacturing, Inc. Fusion joints are not difficult to make and the time involved is minimal. Details of the practice at Consumers Power Company are described in detail below.
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Document ID: CE7C61D1

How To Avoid Doing Time
Author(s): Jeffrey J. Davidson
Abstract/Introduction:
I would like to discuss three things with you today. First, the dramatic increase in environmental enforcement - especially criminal enforcement - and the tough sanctions which can be imposed, both organizationally and individually, for environmental violations. These require high level corporate attention to minimize the risks of individual and corporate criminal liability. Second, the increasing importance given corporate compliance programs by the government in deciding whether to prosecute for environmental violations and in the punishment that may be imposed for such violations. And, third, what features are needed - according to the government - for a corporate compliance program to achieve the maximum benefits for the corporation in terms of minimizing the risk of prosecution and of any punishment imposed.
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Document ID: 3624A23F

Osha Confined Space Entry Regulations For The Gas Industry
Author(s): Phyllis Levine, Margaret Pelletier
Abstract/Introduction:
As you know, OSHAs final rule on Permit-Required Confined Spaces for General Industry was published in January with an effective date of April 15, 1993. Because many valves, regulators and other pipeline components are located in areas that would be classified by OSHA as confined spaces, we were extremely interested in the outcome.
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Document ID: B5715262

Ergonomics: Continuous Improvement To Worker Safety
Author(s): Armen H. Jalalian
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Industry is in a state of dynamic transformation where customers are demanding quality, resources are limited, and competitors are challenging for market position. Continuous improvement is adopted as the method for delivering quality to customers, preserving resources, and staying competitive. Worker health and safety is seen as a resource to preserve. An analogy is made between continuous improvement for quality and continuous improvement for worker safety. Ergonomics is introduced as a multi-discipline science focused on optimizing the interaction between the worker and work environment. Ergonomics is used to identify worker injury risks. Continuous improvement coupled with ergonomics is introduced as the most effective approach to worker health and safety. This study will compile information on ergonomic related injuries and illnesses from 65 gas industry organizations along with demographic and climatic data for their territories. The product will be a relational database capable of identifying worker injury attributes related to work practice, tools, climate and demography. The product will (1) evaluate frequency, severity and cost of worker injuries in the gas industry (2) be a benchmark for gas industry organizations (3) prioritize ergonomics research for the gas industry.
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Document ID: F9F7158C

Upgrade Of The Harrison And Central Propane-Air Plants
Author(s): Benjamin H. Bakerjian, Russell A. Novak,
Abstract/Introduction:
PSE&Gs LPA plants formerly utilized a boiler plant, gas holders, and air jets which were labor intensive. Capital expenditures were justified for the design and construction of vastly more efficient LPA facilities. The new facilities at Harrison and Edison, New Jersey now meet all code requirements and utilize a common design encompassing state-ofthe- art technology. Incorporated in the new design is a flexible mode of operation which provides various levels of control automation and SCADA interface capabilities. The LPA plants were constructed in 1991-1992 and have achieved maximum performance runs. Both new LPA facilities were in operation for the 1992-1993 heating season and supplied critical peakshaving gas supplies.
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Document ID: 6E961572

Sub-X LNG Vaporizer Modification For Increased Vaporization Capac
Author(s): E.R. Vogel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a case history of a unique design change and operational test of a SUB-X LNG Vaporizer at a LNG Peakshaving Plant in the United States. The vaporizer equipment modification increased the LNG vaporization capacity by approximately 25% more than the original design specification.
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Document ID: E6A78B28

Spreading And Vaporization Of LNG Spills On Land
Author(s): 3ILLY D. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The major focus of this work is to develop a mathematical model of the yapor evolution rate from a spreading, boiling LNG pool on a flat, solid surface which takes into account the presence of obstacles to the liquid flow in a simple but reasonable fashion. If these preliminary model predictions show that the liquid flow obstacles significantly effect the LNG soiloff rate, further experimental investigation of the pertinent physical phenomenon will be warranted. This paper summarizes this work in progress.
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Document ID: FD2993DD

Cold Box Inspection For LNG Plant Fitness Methods And Tasks To Determine Cold Box Integrity Including Metallurgical Assessment Of The Cold Box Internal Components
Author(s): Roy F. Williams, Richard A. Hoffmann, Irving Weiss
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the Consolidated Edison LNG Plants cold box inspection and maintenance program performed in 1992. This program included reinsulation of the cold box, examination of all surfaces and instrumentation systems, and a mechanical engineering and metallurgical assessment. The mechanical engineering assessment consisted of evaluating existing pipe hangers and supports, inspecting non-metallic slides for large heat exchangers, and bringing the pipe support components back to original specification conditions. The metallurgical assessment consisted of examining all metal surfaces for corrosion and looking for indications of fatigue and wear damage, cracking, leakage or structural distortion. Also, a back up thermocouple system was installed, and all openings were sealed and inspected for evidence of leakage. To evaluate the benefits of this program infrared (IR) thermographic images of the cold box were taken while the plant was running before any work was started and after the work was completed. The benefits of this work were clearly demonstrated by this in
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Document ID: E2A10802

Fleet Conversion To Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Author(s): George A. Herman
Abstract/Introduction:
The Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO) began fleet conversion to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in October, 1990. This paper covers both the experience gained with this conversion and future challenges facing METRO, and other fleets using this technology.
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Document ID: A17C8361

Why Liquefy?
Author(s): Robert m. Ni Mocks
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas in North America is recovered as a gas, and transported and burned as a gas, so why go to the effort and expense of refrigerating it to -260 to condense it into liquid?
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Document ID: 1F33E6BB

Performance Comparisons Of Turbine Meters At Low And High Pressures
Author(s): Paul G. Honchar
Abstract/Introduction:
There have been many papers written and presented concerning the increased accuracy and confidence obtained by calibration of turbine meters at or near operating conditions. High pressure calibration of turbine meters is still the preferred and recommended method of defining meter accuracy for high pressure applications. This desire is not always achievable due to many obstacles, such as economics, time, and physical limitations. Additionally, there are only about a dozen recognized high pressure calibration facilities in the world that provide this service. This paper will present some comparisons of low and high pressure performance correlations. These comparisons are intended to provide current and prospective turbine meter users with additional insight and understanding of turbine meter calibration.
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Document ID: D669B692

Laboratory Calibration Of Flow Measurement Systems
Author(s): Thomas m. Kegel
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to describe some methods and reasons for laboratory calibration of flow measurement systems for compressible fluids. This paper is organized into the following five sections: Types of laboratory calibration Reasons for laboratory calibration Calibration fluids Capabilities of the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station References
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Document ID: 3760F760

The Safety Aspects Of Handling Odorants
Author(s): Vicki L. Quinn
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization of natural gas as required by law is a standard practice in our industry today. Thus it is important to have a basic understanding of the products and practices involved in odorization. This paper will provide basic information on the physical properties, handling precautions, and first aid measures for odorants, as well as discuss the practices regarding protective gear, materials of construction, closed system deliveries, alternatives for drums, spillage, and container cleanout procedure.
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Document ID: E541E860

Improvements In Flow Conditioner Design
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
Pacific Gas and Electric Company has developed and tested a new orifice meter flow conditioner which minimizes the measurement error caused by the traditional 19 tube bundle straightening vane.
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Document ID: 5113C57B

I Study Of Unaccounted-For Gas At The Southern Alifornia Gas Company
Author(s): Meshkati
Abstract/Introduction:
iring 1991 and 1992, Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) nducted a study to more accurately define and understand the magniie and nature of its unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volume for the 1991 lendar year. UAF is generally defined as the difference between the uasured volume of gas received into the system and the measured volrie through deliveries. To determine this exact difference, the study entified the factors contributing to the losses and the UAF gas volumes sociated with each factor. This paper provides the highlights of the comprehensive report med after the studys completion. It provides an overview of why UAF important, where SoCalGas looked for and found UAF, and how CalGas quantified UAF.
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Document ID: 9428DC32

Compressed Natural Gas Fuel Composition Issues
Author(s): Brian T. Stokes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews the gas industrys efforts to establish new and revised standards and specifications for natural gas vehicle (NGV) fuel systems fueling stations storage containers fueling nozzles and gas composition. The primary focus of the paper is NGV Coalitions Gas Composition Subcommittee and the Society of Automotive Engineers Fuels and Lubricants Technical Committee work on Recommended Practice J1616. Fuel concentration limits recommended in J1616 are discussed, and plans for further investigation are outlined.
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Document ID: 7F9117CC

Development Of An Integrated Efm Device For Orifice Meter Custody Transfer Applications
Author(s): Scott D. Nieberle, John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
Rosemount Inc., with co-funding from the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed an integrated low-cost, low-power electronic flow measurement (EFM) device for orifice meter custody transfer applications. Within a compact transmitter package, the EFM device will measure the relevant flow variables, calculate flow rates and totalized volumes, store the appropriate custody transfer data, and provide a digital communication output. The overall goal of the program is to develop this enhanced EFM device with an installed cost significantly lower than current EFM units while providing higher accuracy and maintainability. This new device will allow real-time electronic flow measurement to be utilized at low volume and remote locations such as wellhead sites which cannot currently justify the cost of EFM systems.
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Document ID: 4FAFA6F6

Gri Metering Research Facility Update
Author(s): John G. Gregor, James E. Johnson, Cecil R. Sparks
Abstract/Introduction:
The status of the Gas Research Institutes Metering Research Facility Program at Southwest Research Institute is reviewed. This significant project was initiated in 1987 to establish an independent flow calibration facility, operated under the sponsorship of the U.S. natural gas industry, for supporting priority flow measurement research, development, and testing needs. Facility capabilities and development progress are summarized along with the ongoing GRI-sponsored research activities.
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Document ID: 620DA01D

Planning And Designing Hori A Drilling Perspective
Author(s): Fred J. Pittard
Abstract/Introduction:
While thousands of horizontal oil and gas producing wells have been drilled, only a small number of successful horizontal gas storage wells have been brought on line. The adaptation of this technology from oil and gas development drilling is likely to accelerate since the success of initial storage wells has been phenomenal, with deliverability six times or greater than typical vertical wells.
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Document ID: B9C48C8F

Optimization Of Roundup Gas Storage Field Using Computer Simulation
Author(s): Nat Olowu, Bill Uding, Gbolahan Lasaki
Abstract/Introduction:
Roundup Field has been in use as a gas storage field since 1979 when it was acquired by Western Gas Supply Company (WestGas). The field provides a reliable means of supplying gas to utility customers in Colorado. In 1990, the use of the field was expanded to include contract gas storage. The demand for contract storage has increased recently and this necessitated a closer look at expanding the capacity of the field.
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Document ID: FC9DD259

Predictive Emission Monitoring System Pems() A Viable Alternative To In-Stack Continuous Nox Monitoring
Author(s): Wilfred S. Y. Hung
Abstract/Introduction:
There is great interest in an alternative to the current maintenance-intensive, weather-sensitive Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) or Continuous Emission Rate Monitoring System (CERMS) for stationary sources. Thisjs particularly relevant for smaller sources(10 MW in power output) as well as sites in remote areas and/or subject to extreme ambient conditions.
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Document ID: 7AB6245A

The Importance Of Drill Bit Selection And Design In Horizontal Drilling Applications
Author(s): Richard J. Gentges
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1991, ANR Pipeline Company contracted Slimdril International Inc. to conduct a series of laboratory tests to determine the drilling performance of various types of drill bits being considered for use in ANRs 1991 horizontal well drilling program. The test results were used as a basis for selecting the drill bit best suited for drilling the formation used by ANR for gas storage purposes at ANRs Reed City gas storage reservoir. The laboratory test results and actual field data were used to develop a matrix body natural diamond bit, and later modify the design to that of a matrix body-blade type PDC bit which provided excellent penetration rates and abrasion resistance. As a result of this effort, overall drilling penetration rates improved nearly three-fold over the course of a seven-well drilling program.
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Document ID: 0E6EE930

Electro-Hydraulic Injector Mode
Author(s): Harry P. Wertheimer
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, a widening spectrum of internal combustion engines depends on electronically controlled fuel injection (EFI) as a key element in emission control strategy. In many cases, the EFI system adds cost or complexity. Large natural gas fueled two-stroke engines equipped with electronic fuel gas injection (EFGI) may not require camshafts nor many other valve train related parts. Thus, such engines can be simplified through use of EFGI.
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Document ID: E6D1992D


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