Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1992)

International Measurement
Author(s): Howard Castrop Robert, Burdine, Rick Randall, Wesley Mcelveen Rolf B. F. Schumacher, Peter Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: EF7ADAD4

Cmm Calibration And Standards
Author(s): Mark Twaalfhoven, Jim Henry, Steven Phillips
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a condensed version of the paper titled The 1990 NET Scales of Thermal Radiometry 5. The NET calibration services in thermal radiometry are based on measurement scales derived from blackbody physics. A blackbody radiator at the temperature of the freezing point of gold and Plancks radiation law are used to establish the NIST Radiance Temperature Scale by calibrating a variable-temperature blackbody against the gold-point blackbody at 654.6 nm and performing subsequent measurements of spectral-radiance ratios to extrapolate this calibration to extended temperature and spectral ranges. From 1968 until June 30, 1990, the temperature of the primary blackbody standard used in these scale realizations was that assigned to the freezing point of gold in the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68 l I),
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Document ID: C44F25BB

Probe Lobing Effects On Cmms
Author(s): Jim Henry, Westin Vermillian
Abstract/Introduction:
Today more than ever before, the importance of calibrating probes tips used on CNIMs is an important part in achieving accurate measurement results. CMMs are five to ten times h more years accurate today than they were ten years ago. Ten ago the CMM was used to primarily measure locations of features on parts. Today the machine is location, size, and many times the form of measured.
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Document ID: 33C61E15

Recent Developments In Cmm STANDA.RDS
Author(s): S.D. Phillips, B. Borchardt, Jim Henry
Abstract/Introduction:
To standardize the practice of determining whether work pieces comply dimensionally with the drawing specified per Y 14.5.. It will address the topic of methods of dimensional measurement for determining datums, form, profile, orientation, measurement uncertainty etc. of work piece features in accordance with Y14.5.
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Document ID: AF7A2804

Calibration Interval Establishment And Adjustment:
Author(s): John Ferling, Howard Castrup, John Larsen, Frank Butz, Tony Adams
Abstract/Introduction:
An Automated Resistance Maintenance Program is described. The system will maintain working values of resistance in the range 0.001 ohm to 10 kilohms based on primary standards of resistance at 1 ohm and at 10 kilohms. Three or more resistors are connected in series to a voltage/current source and the voltage drop across individual resistors is monitored with a scanner and high-resolution digital voltmeter. Rapidly acquired difference measurements taken between resistor pairs are statistically analyzed using the least squares method.
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Document ID: F659B2EF

An Automated System For The Comparison Of Resistance Standards From 1 Ohm To Several Kohms
Author(s): Neil Faulkner
Abstract/Introduction:
A current comparator resistance bridge has been used by the Fluke Primary Standards Laboratory for many years to compare resistance standards from 1 Ohm to 1 MOhm. This bridge provides excellent transfer uncertainties but requires a skilled technician to operate. When the workload is heavy this ties him up for many hours a day of tedious work. In - addition the data must be manually entered into a computer for analysis and the printing of a report which is time consuming and subject to error.
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Document ID: 56648162

The New Hardness Standard And Its Use
Author(s): Dr. John Smith, Edward Tobolski, Dr. Giulio Barbato, S. Desogers, A. Germak, Dr. John Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of standard references for a conventional quantity like hardness needs a large amount of cooperation between the certifying authorities to coordinate the work involved. The first problem consists in the very definitions of the hardness scales, which do not allow the influence quantities (mainly due to the cinematics of indentation and the stiffness of the machine itself, which are insufficiently or not defined in standard documents) to be completely controlled.
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Document ID: 9663E1B5

Humidity And Moisture Metrology
Author(s): Miguel Cerezo, Mark Brownawell, Don Doucet, James Mcandrew, Michael D. Brandt, Bob Hardy
Abstract/Introduction:
An unusual type of precision dew point generator has been built at General Eastern Instruments. In conjunction with a corporate move to new facilities it was decided change the dew point generator used for testing and calibration of our product (optical chilled mirror dew point instrumentation) from a divided flow system to something with a good theoretical basis.
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Document ID: 8DD4F1B5

Generation And Measurement Of Ppb Level Moisture In Gas: Application To Distribution System Component Evaluation
Author(s): James J. F., Michael D. Brandt
Abstract/Introduction:
The generation of controlled, static humidity levels is valuable for a variety of purposes, most notably the calibration of hygrometers. We have integrated such a static moisture generator into a system capable of generating moisture levels whose time dependence may also be controlled: in effect, a moisture pulse generator. This new dimension enables us to use the device as a tool for the qualification of components of gas distribution systems with respect to their interaction with moisture*.
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Document ID: C327F639

Accurate Humidity Calibration: From The Laboratory To The Plant Site
Author(s): Bob Hardy
Abstract/Introduction:
All humidity instruments normally receive a basic calibration in the laboratory under closely controlled environmental conditions. These instruments are then shipped to the plant site, exposed to rough handling, vibration, and pollutants. The end user must then install and/or use these instruments and assume them to be operational with valid calibrations. How can the user be assured of an accurately calibrated instrument, one that will provide accurate measurements when connected to his process or data retrieval system? A mobile instrument of versatility and convenience for producing atmospheres of known humidity is described. Humidities may be varied from 10% to 95%, the temperatures from 0C to 7OC, the air flow from 2 to 20 standard liters per minute. The humidity is entered, controlled automatically, and maintained constant to an accuracy of 1% relative humidity. This mobile humidity reference allows the determination of plant site humidity instrumentation accuracies without removing the instruments from the plant location.
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Document ID: 7607A981

SPC Applications In Metrology
Author(s): Bernard Warchuck Jr., Ravi K. Dhar, Henriequs Koeman, John Larson, Steven Cook
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays competitive environment, organizations must be dedicated to the never ending task of continuous improvement associated with improving the control and management of its processes and systems. They must continually find better ways of doing everyday tasks in order to take advantage of each opportunity to reduce costs and improve the quality of work performance. Toward that end, SPC is a powerful tool that can be utilized to the fullest extent possible not only in manufacturing processes, but in administrative processes as well.
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Document ID: ACFB6B1F

Calibration And Verification Of An Alternating Current Ratio Bridge System
Author(s): David C. Parrish
Abstract/Introduction:
An ac ratio bridge accurately measures the ratio of two external resistors using transformer ratio arms. It is designed primarily to support resistance thermometer calibrations, with the thermometer being an unknown resistance compared to a known standard.
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Document ID: 366EBE43

Use Of Statistical Techniques To Predict Multifunciion Instrument Performance
Author(s): Henriecus Koernan
Abstract/Introduction:
This article discusses the use of statistical techniques to predict the performance of multifunction, multirange instruments. The power of these techniques is demonstrated. - Acquisition of data is facilitated when the instrument can be calibrated using artifact cal standards.
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Document ID: D52B58EE

Placing The Tar On Terra Firua
Author(s): John C. Larsen
Abstract/Introduction:
The conformance of a product to its specifications is determined through taking measurements. Measurement techniques and systems are needed and, with modern day demands, may be complex as the product technology they support. Therefore, the taking and interpretation of measured information is a valuable science that is an integral part of quality control and quality assurance functions.
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Document ID: B4843711

Automation And Networking In The Calibration Laboratory
Author(s): Raian Kaiser, James Triplett
Abstract/Introduction:
Automation is an important issue for calibration iabs. Automation of lab instruments can increase throughput and reduce operating costs, but automated equipment is often more expensive initially and must be economically justified. Since labor costs and operating expenses have become major .management issuesfor the nineties, equipment utilization, productivity and efficiency may become almost as important as calibration specs. Most labs have limitedfunds for purchasing new equipment. Those finds should be invested to insure that future calibration lab requirements wont obsolete a piece of equipment before the end of its usejul life.
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Document ID: C2A80DA1

PRESSURE/VACUUM Metrology
Author(s): Dick Hyland, Pat Looney, Chuck Ehrlich
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision liquid column manometers can cover pressure ranges from 0.1 Pa to 1 MPa in both absolute and gage modes with uncertainties as low as 2 parts per million (ppm). This paper will discuss their operation, the problems that contribut-* to their uncertainties, and their use as calibration devices.
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Document ID: 09E2F9E8

New Capabilities At NIST
Author(s): David Livigni, Xiayou Li, Norm Mease, William Cleveland J. Michael Hall, William Cleveland
Abstract/Introduction:
The responsivity of optical detectors to light can vary when the light illuminates different areas of the detector. A scanning system for measuring the uniformity of the responsivity of optical detectors, and methods of quantifying the degree of uniformity are described here. Surface plots and topographical maps of the measured responsivity are presented along with a statistical treatment. Sampling theorem restrictions affecting the accuracy of the results are described. Scans of actual detectors are included to show the range of uniformity possible.
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Document ID: 152EF16D

Air Speed Calibrations At Teie National Institute Of Standards And Technology
Author(s): N. E. Mease, W. G. Cleveland, Jr., G. E. Mattingly, J. m. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
The wind tunnel facilities and equipment used for air speed calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are described with details of the tunnels construction and their performance characteristics. The mathematical relationships for air speed computations are shown and error budgets for both the Pitot-static tube and Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measuring systems are discussed. The performance relationships for these two systems and the advantages of each are presented. Examples are given to show the method for accounting for changes in fluid density by including the effects of pressure, temperature, and humidity. A relationship is given for computing air speed from Pitot-static tube measurements, including the effects of compressibility. Random uncertainty analysis for the air speed relationships is discussed and quantified using the NIST conditions. The associated systematic error estimates are discussed in terms of round-robin assessment methods.
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Document ID: ACC56294

Automated Air Flowrate Calibrations At Teie National Institute Of Standards And Technology
Author(s): William G. Cleveland, Jr. George E. Mattingly
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the recently completed automation of air flowrate calibration facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD. This effort encompassed the automation of the flow calibration facilities used for meters flowing air up to approximately 0.05 m3/s using timed collection techniques. The flow-rate of air passing through the meter under test is determined using conservation of mass principles and automated measurements of pressure, temperature, and collection time of a known volume of air. Two types of displacement devices are used: mercurysealed piston provers for lower flowrates and bell gasometers for higher rates. The techniques used for automated calibrations and the menu-driven software are described. The accuracy improvements due to automation justify an overall accuracy quotation for NIST air flowrate measurements in this range at 0.20% or better.
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Document ID: 3B8D0F2B

Real World Examples
Author(s): Gail Dimitroff,David Graves, Sandra Frazelle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will explore the prevailing system of management in the West, one which has discouraged individual initiative. The results are decreased innovation and a reduction in applied technology. To restore motivation, innovation, and joy in work and learning, a transformation of management is essential. This transformation requires application of a system of profound knowledge and an understanding of processes and statistics. Areas of understanding include: system optimization, blending statistical analysis with human empowerment, and the practical use of theoretical knowledge.
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Document ID: D16879AF

Measurement And Continuous Process Improvement
Author(s): David Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
The mission of a CPI process is to produce a (1) characterization of a process and (2) a set of recommendations for improving the process to management so that they can more fully understand, improve, & manage the process.
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Document ID: 2D608006

Implementing Total Quality Managemfxl! In A Metrology Department
Author(s): Sandra J. Frazelle
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss a method of implementing the concepts, philosophies, and methodologies of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a Metrology Department. It will relate specifically to the Metrology Department at Rockwell Internationals Defense Electronics Facility in Anaheim, California however, this implementation plan can be applied to almost any company on a large scale or to any other group or department within a company. The same principles apply.
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Document ID: D96B9A7E

The U.S. Metrication Plan
Author(s): Dennis Swyt, James Mccracken, Paul Lynch
Abstract/Introduction:
How has the maintenance of the volt in the metrology field changed over the past several years? How do these changes a effect the way different performance parameters such as stability, uncertainty, and noise are specified.7 These questions are pertinent to users of todays DC Reference Standards (DCRSs).
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Document ID: 80E524C6

Ac Metrology
Author(s): Warren Wong, John Pickering, De-Xiang Huang, Joseph Kinard
Abstract/Introduction:
The Fluke 792A, a linear solid state thermal transfer standard, is used to make high precision ac/dc transfers between 10 Hz and 1 MHz. This transfer standard has robust input protection, fast settling times, low output drift, and accepts input voltages between 2mV and 1OOOV. Its one year uncertainty is 10 ppm for many amplitudes and frequencies. The ratio of product specification to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uncertainty is as low as 2: 1.
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Document ID: 717436A0

Design And Application Of A Portable Multifunction Transfer Standard
Author(s): John Pickering
Abstract/Introduction:
As accuracies have become higher and as more stringent formal traceability requirements are being asked for, it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet all the conflicting needs of establishing a traceable calibration hierarchy at reasonable cost.
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Document ID: 14745722

Ac-Dc Differences Of High Voltage Thermal Converters
Author(s): De-Xiang Buang, Joseph R. Kinard
Abstract/Introduction:
For some high voltage thermal converters (HVTCs), ac-dc differences vary with age, test timing sequence, and voltage level, especially for 1000-V ranges at frequencies above the audio range. A major contributor to these variations is dielectric loss and its changes with temperature, voltage, and frequency. The results of intercomparisons of HVTCs and certain methods to reduce ac-dc - differences and their voltage coefficients are described.
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Document ID: DE157EF6

Vision - Based Inspection
Author(s): Eileen Hallman, Don Christian, Henry Pfister
Abstract/Introduction:
Both frequentist and subjectivist approaches to statistics are formulated in terms of complete sets of incompatible events over which stable probability distributions are defined. Thus to apply statistics to experimental results measurements must be controlled, i.e. their results, and the errors affecting them, must belong to stable statistical populations. Error population means are strictly systematic errors (errors of method) determined by the experimental specification and are not random variables sampled by the experiment. Because there is always a level of magnitude below which such errors are not investigated experimentally, use of subjective error distributions is unavoidable when assessing their corresponding uncertainty components.
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Document ID: D4154047

Status Report On The ISO/IEC/OIML/BIPM Guide, Expression Of Uncertainty In Measurement
Author(s): Barry N. Taylor Chris E. Kuyatt
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper briefly summarizes the background, status, and contents of the Guide, Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, that is currently being completed by ISO/TAG 4/WG 3.
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Document ID: 81FC818F

Statement Of Uncertainty In German Standards And Calibration Services
Author(s): Wolfgang Wiiger
Abstract/Introduction:
The statement of measurement uncertainty based on an empirical standard deviation will be discussed and contrasted to the worst case statement. The standard deviation concept was recommended in 1980 by BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) it is embodied in the German standard DIN 1319 Teil4 and used within PTB, DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst) und WECC (Western European Calibration Cooperation).
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Document ID: 774B7579

What We Can Learn From The Japanese About Process Metrology
Author(s): Craig Van Degrift, Masayoshi Koike, Walter Liggett
Abstract/Introduction:
In quality engineering (Taguchi Methods), evaluation and improvement of a system by the SN (signalto- noise) ratio is proposed. Three Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) have been established based on quality engineering concepts. .One standard is on tolerancing rules for plastic dimensions, and the second is on calibration methods for micro-volumetric apparatus. The newest JIS estabhshed in 1991 is on general rules for calibration systems. This paper describes the concepts of these standards together with the background of standardization.
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Document ID: 0056DC17

Japan And The Science In Measurement Science
Author(s): Craig Van Degrift
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the emergence of Japan as a technological powerhouse is well recognized, its efforts toward basic research are less noticeable. Following a 1985 Japanese Cabinet decision that Japan must also be at the forefront of basic science in order to continue its technological progress, a number of actions were taken to encourage more basic research. Evidence of this effort is now apparent in the increased quantity and quality of Japanese scientific publications. The Japanese research environment is described and a brief survey of Japanese activities in measurement science is presented.
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Document ID: 61A8333F

Empirical Optimization Of Measurement Systems
Author(s): Walter Liggett
Abstract/Introduction:
Consider measurement-system adjustment based on experiments with artifacts that are remeasurable or reproducible but do not have known values. In the experiment considered, the system is adjusted in different ways, and at each adjustment, the same set of distinct artifacts is measured. The use of such an experiment to determine the optimum adjustment is complicated by the lack of known values for the artifacts. In particular, this is true for the estimation of the calibration curve and random error for each adjustment, which is required for the optimization. In this paper, the intended results of optimization experiments and the attendant complications are discussed.
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Document ID: CDAC8887

The Fe&ml Move To Metric: Public Law, Llocand NIST
Author(s): Dr. Dermis A Swyt
Abstract/Introduction:
Since its initial development, the metric system of measurement has evolved to become the modern International System of Units (SI) and been formally accepted by all the nations of the world save three and all the industrialized nations save one, the United States.
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Document ID: 6DD0EF81

Rf And Microwave Metrology
Author(s): A. Golub, S. Richard, D. Nagle, Brian Sequeira, Gerome Reeve
Abstract/Introduction:
Dielectric measurements have been made at microwave frequencies on Corderite, Sodium Aluminate, Sodium Zirconate, and Sodium Titanate between -196C and +536OC and on Yttrium-stabilized Zirconia at room temperature and at 600 C. The method used is a one-port technique that was presented in previously published work l-3 and is now commercially available 4. We report here on the special considerations pertaining to microwave measurements of dielectric properties that are sensitive functions of temperature -- specifically, sample holder design, reference plane extension, and sample stability and preparation. We also discuss improvements that have enhanced accuracy and increased throughput from one measurement per 8-hour day to three measurements per hour.
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Document ID: 83F813A2

Mass Metrology
Author(s): Walter Kupper, Allen Bare, Emil Hazarian, Bill Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
There are four legitimate ways to express the concentration of mass or weight per volume: absolute density, apparent density, absolute specific gravity, and apparent specific gravity. All four concepts are used in practice and defined in ASTM Standards. However, the differences between them are often ignored and many use the word density as a catch-all. The paper discusses the four concepts on the basis of their ASTM definitions and explains the mathematical relationships between them. The practical importance is illustrated with numerical examples.
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Document ID: BD3028ED

Semi-Automated Weight Calibration
Author(s): Allen Bare
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will discuss the use of semi-automated balances and the associated software for use in weight calibration. The utilization of computers and digital mass comparator balances has enhanced our ability to make high-accuracy mass measurements. Additional quality and productivity resulted from updating software, balances, and methods. Mass metrology software provides for a reliable means of performing complicated data reduction formulas without risk of mathematical errors.
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Document ID: FC729BA8

Sone Characteristics Of Weighing Devices
Author(s): Emil Hazarian
Abstract/Introduction:
Technical and metrological characteristics that are typical to all measuring devices are recalled, with emphasis on weighing mechanisms, particularly equal arm balances. A detailed mathematical analysis of some of these characteristics such as stability, sensitivity, accuracy and fidelity is attempted, along with discussion of elements that are increasing or decreasing them. This paper may provide a better perception of some of the basic principles used to design, construct and utilize weighing devices in order to improve the efficiency of operating the existing equipment.
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Document ID: A86002EC

What Does A Mass Report Of Calibration Say?
Author(s): William D. Moore
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to aid the technicians and engineers who use mass reports of calibration in their work. This paper will be a simplified synopsis of the terms used in a mass report of calibration. The reader is urged to consult the references for a better understanding of the report.
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Document ID: 816B5C3D

Measurement Potpourri Do-It-Yourself Improvlzments I N A C C E L E R O m E T E R C A L I B R A T I O N
Author(s): James Tostenson, Naftali Stern
Abstract/Introduction:
A paper written for last years proceedings entitled An Off-the-Shelf Interferometer for the Calibration of Accelerometer Standards covered the theory and construction of an interferometer system put together from off-the-shelf components. The current paper shows how such a system can be improved using do-it-yourself methods. A method of calculating the uncertainty budget of the system based on the IS0 Standard proves that the original budget calculations were correct.
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Document ID: C619860D

Space Shuttle Tile Automated Dimensioning
Author(s): James. Tostenson
Abstract/Introduction:
The re-entry of Space Vehicles into the atmosphere after completing missions in orbit around the earth or the moon has been accomplished many times in the past two decades. Past man rated vehicles like Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo carried from one to three astronauts and were quite small and compact in size compared to the Space Shuttle Vehicle and required much less of an area to have re-entry insulation to protect the capsule and its occupants from the heat during re-entry. Insulation on past vehicles was an ablative type that actually charred and peeled away the dynamic heating of re-entry carrying the heat away from the capsule. These vehicles were used for only one mission.
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Document ID: FEF20860

Measurement Science Conference Official Attendee List
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 44C5D09F

1992 . Measurement Science Conference Official Exhibitor List
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 4AF0A20A

Silicon Photodiodes Matched To The Cie Photometric Curve Using Color Filter Glass
Author(s): James P. Ritzel, Spike Sojourner
Abstract/Introduction:
Color filter glasses are integrated with silicon photodiodes for spectral matching to the CIE Standard Observer. To match the relative response of the human eye to radiation at a given wavelength, unique subtractive color glass filters are prescribed to a thickness and installed in front of the detector. The filters mold the spectral response of the detector/filter combination to simulate the relative response of the human eye. The sensors may be manufactured on a production basis, however, careful attention must be paid to both detector and color glass filter variations.
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Document ID: 1074BF71

Photometry With Filtered Detectors
Author(s): Kathleen Muray
Abstract/Introduction:
Color measurment techniques are discussed, comparing accuracy in chromaticity coordinates and x dominant values obtained by two different methods. Detectors matched with specialized filters exhibiting response curves like the CIE color matching functions are simpler and useful tools for most industrial applications. Limitations in their applicability is also shown.
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Document ID: 5D1819E5

Integrated Graphical Programming Environment For Vxi Calibratiopj
Author(s): Aaron Seeler, Eric Sacher, John Grajera
Abstract/Introduction:
The concept of automating the calibration process is not new. The many facets involved - Measurement Results, Inventory Management, Traceability Reports, Certificate Generation, and Calibration Procedures, quickly leads to an intense programming task. With the trend of both hardware and software becoming modular, it is now substantially easier to build such a system.
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Document ID: 399E2B53

Instrument Interchangeability Through Resource Descriptions
Author(s): Eric Sacher
Abstract/Introduction:
Building generalized Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) systems where instrumentation can be readily interchanged without extensive reprogramming has been a pervasive goal for most ATE users. The key for accomplishing this is through standards, and the IEEE Standards 488.1, 488.2 have contributed significantly towards this goal at the electrical and message protocol interface level.
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Document ID: E0302CD9

Vxibus Instrumentation Performnce And Calibration For The Metrology Laboratory
Author(s): John m. Grajera
Abstract/Introduction:
VXIBUS INSTRUMENTATION IS NEW TECHNOLOGY. IF IT HAS NOT YET IMPACTED THE TESTING IN YOUR LAB, IT WILL.....
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Document ID: A1555724


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