Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1992)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1992 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement- I
Author(s): D, A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This 1s particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 8C25D60F

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): Gary Hammond
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott and Foxboro) charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter, The Chart Procesor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension ( -/H.P), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: 5BF5B318

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Transmission
Author(s): Gerry B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Several thousand years ago, the writer of Ecclesiastes replied, there is nothing new under the sun. In some ways that could be said of gas loss from a transmission line. There are really just two possibilities. The gas has escaped through an unwanted hole in the pipe or it has been in custody of the pipe and has not escaped.
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Document ID: 86FA53D8

Basic Klecrronics For The Field Technician
Author(s): David E. Adcock
Abstract/Introduction:
When we started out in electronics we were given the same equations which were called Ohins Law. I think that most of us at one time or another have asked ourselves where will we use these formulas? Whether we realize it or not those working in the Electronics Field use them daily without thinking about it.
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Document ID: D8E26849

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): Laura L. Sewell
Abstract/Introduction:
When we started out in electronics we were given the same equations which were called Ohins Law. I think that most of us at one time or another have asked ourselves where will we use these formulas? Whether we realize it or not those working in the Electronics Field use them daily without thinking about it.
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Document ID: EC2B57FB

Basic Application Of Telemetry Systems
Author(s): Fred Wenzel
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the attempt of this paper to convey upon the reader an understanding of basic telemetry principals and equipment as applied to flow measurement systems. This paper is for the newcomer to measurement, and or experienced measurement practitioner seeking a better understanding of the methods of bi-directional data transmission from todays technologically advanced flow measurement systems.
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Document ID: 0AFE8822

Preventicw Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Joe Mullner
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon. There are two areas of freezing. The first is the formation of ice from free water within the gas stream, itie second is hydrate formation, This paper will dwell on ice formation. Information on hydrate formation is available in Gas Engineers Handbook and other publications.
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Document ID: 3F463593

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted means of measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the Orifice Meter. The primary elements of the orifice meter include the orifice plate, orifice fitting or flanges, adjacent piping and flow conditioner or straightening vanes which make up the Meter Tube.
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Document ID: EED96522

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Doug Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
Controllers in one form or another have been around the process industries for a number of years. In fact, they are such a familiar sight in most industrial operations that they frequently suffer from being taken for granted. Yet, the quality of performance provided by a control system is determined by the performance of the controller and the other elements in the loop. The controller, with its various adjustments, is the one element in the control loop that allows any measure of operating flexibility. For optimum performance, it is necessary to use the controller properly. This requires a thorough understanding of some fundamental relationships.
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Document ID: 6FE4A660

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate using orifice meters,
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Document ID: 5BBD7A6A

Self-Operated Regulator Fundamentals
Author(s): Jeff Wolendowskl
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items ovet the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency to take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators.
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Document ID: 3F2DE5CF

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Chuck Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement with todays state of the art liquid turbine meter combines the mechanical aspects of the meter and electronics to measure total flow and/or flow rate within a piping system. The liquid turbine meter is a volumetric measuring instrument. By sensing the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through the open cavities of the meter, the volumetric flow rate can be determined. The flow or linear velocity of the fluid is sensed by the rotation of the rotor which is supported within the meter housing. The rotor is designed so its rotational speed is proportional to the linear velocity of the flowing fluid. Since the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through a given area is directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate, it follows that the rotational speed or RPM of the rotor is also directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Therefore, by electronically measuring the rotation of the turbine meter rotor, the flow of the fluid through the meter can be accurately determined. This principle of flow measurement has been accepted by many industries because the liquid turbine meter provides accurate flow measurement over a very wide range of flow rates on many fluids with a variety of physical properties.
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Document ID: 80EC459C

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
A knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including equipment calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 284CDD0F

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine measurement viscosities. maintenance especially applications. meter has become very popular for the of liquids of low and medium Its compact size. high flow rate, low and superior linearity make it attractive for liquid hydrocarbon When a turbine meter is properly applied within a correctly designed flow system, its best performance can be realized.
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Document ID: 919E309C

Problems In Offshore Gas Heasdrehent
Author(s): Robert J. Rau
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, the operation of offshore gas pipe line systems is a necessity to actively compete in the constantly expanding market areas of our country and to also meet the energy crisis our country faces today. Offshore reserves drilling and discovery have been retarded by cancellation of offshore lease sales, legal battles and political battles based on the modern day ecology revolution. Today, I wish to discuss some of the problems encountered in offshore gas measurement now and also some of the future problems we must face and solve.
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Document ID: D26D649E

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
h i s paper w i l l a d d r e s s the gas p r e s s u re r e d u c i n g r e g u l a t o r i n s t a l l a t i o n and the I s s ue o f e r r a t i c c o n t r o l of the downstream p r e s s u r e. A gas p r e s s u r e r e d u c i n g r e g u l a t o r s j o b is to m a n i p u l a t e flow in o r d e r to c o n t r o l p r e s s u r e. When the downstream p r e s s u r e is n o t p r o p e r ly c o n t r o l l e d the term u n s t a b l e c o n t r o l Is a p p l i e d . Figure I is a l i s t of o t h e r terms u s e d for v a r i o u s forms of downstream p r e s s u re i n s t a b i l i t y . This p a p e r w i l l n o t a d d r e s s the m a t h e m a t i c a l methods of d e s c r i b i n g the a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t em of the p r e s s u re r e d u c i n g s t a t i o n , b u t w i l l d e a l w i t h more of t h e components and t h e i r a f f e c t on the system s t a b i l i t y . UNSTABLE PULSATE OSCILLATE BUZZ PAtNT HAMMER HUNT CYCLE PUMP CHUGS VIBRATE FLOATS SURGES
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Document ID: 413D658E

Evaluation & Selection Of Insertion Type Measuring Devices
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
A requirement exists in the gas industry for simple and economical devices to perform flow measurements in large diameter pipelines. Such measurements are made for a variety of purposes, none of which require custody transfer accuracy, such as pipeline dispatching, line break detection, compressor surge control, gas odorizing, etc. While applications may differ, a number of commonly desired features can be defined. It is the intent of this paper to examine the extent to which insertion turbine meters meet the requirements of the industry and the performance which may be expected from these devices.
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Document ID: 618DE73A

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum Industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored 1n open tanks or In tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: 26910E49

Odorization - Natural Gas
Author(s): Larry Sheffield
Abstract/Introduction:
Many people feel that gas odorization is one of those necessary evils forced upon gas utilities. However, gas companies recognize the advantage of the product they distribute and are cognizant of the objective of maximizing proper handling and safety to the public. In this paper we will cover the requirements of gas odorization. We will start with the federal law to see why odor is added, what is added, and how much is added. We will also investigate the ways to make that job a little easier for all of us by taking into consideration proper planning for storage so that chances for mishandling are reduced-
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Document ID: 108BB41E

Carbon Dioxide Neascrnent Experience
Author(s): David V. Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of the major production companies have made significant coBB.itments to a continuing program for tertiary recovery. Due to favorable reservoir response, Carbon Dioxide (cot) has been selected as the principal injection material for tertiary recovery projects in the Nest Texas and the Rocky Nountain areas. As a result, the oil and gas industry, and more particularly the measurement industry, has been given the responsibility to design systems to handle a material for which little operation experience has been developed and for which there were minimal amounts of PVT data.
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Document ID: 6BEC8216

Ohsitb Provino Op Gas Turbine Meters Usino Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Jim Beesoa
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper examinee a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that blends technology from liquid turbine meter provers with innovative ideas that particularly apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and currently uses this mobile sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 thru 15 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also incorporates a gas chromatograph which is used in the actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: E246473F

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transferred at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: 4D836248

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 1374D701

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): B.C. Chip Leitschuh Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of on-line electronic computer systems and their application in custody transfer. Emphasis will be on increased accuracy due to real time consideration of gas measurement parameters.
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Document ID: C3462C71

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Dale C. Shuck
Abstract/Introduction:
it is my opinion that flow testing the meters, regardless of the method is just one step in assuring accurate measurement when field testing large displacement measuring stations.
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Document ID: DF5504F6

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jack W. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the ever-changing world of gas contracts. The contract characteristics over time can be roughly grouped as follows:
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Document ID: 5F7BDAED

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Charles R. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
Changes in the custody transfer settlements for natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL) has placed an emphasis on more accurate analyses of these products, especially in the heavier hydrocarbons that fall in the carbon number range from C6 to about C15 or the C6+ fraction. The analyses of natural gas and NGL mixtures moved a major step forward with the development of GPA Tentative Standards 2186, The Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography and 2286, The Extended Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. This paper will briefly review these two methods and gas chromatography as an analytical tool.
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Document ID: 60DA3FCC

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of good quality control in a gas transmission pipeline. The following discussion will cover typical methods used by gas transmission pipelines to determine the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas.
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Document ID: C3F9E099

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Field Gaugers
Author(s): Scott Cain
Abstract/Introduction:
This session is split into two major sections: A Systematic Approach to Development and Hardware Selection. The first, A Systematic Approach to Development, discusses the various stages of the development process and provides practical guidelines on the development of portable computers for field gaugers. Attendees should come away with a good understanding on how to tackle projects of this nature whether it be an in-house development or in conjunction with a vendor. This section primarily concentrates on the software development aspects of the project.
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Document ID: 8BA3377F

Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Thomas F Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite sample is gas collected in a sample container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during some specific period of time.
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Document ID: 84210A66

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: 7451C780

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrow
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of any laboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are extremely important. LABORATORY PROCEDURES 1. CONDITIONING OF SAMPLE CYLINDERS 2. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 3. LABORATORY SYSTEMS 4. CALCULATION OF DATA 5. CONCLUSION 1. CONDITIONING OF CYLINDERS
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Document ID: B73ED4CE

The Carl Fischer Coulometric Titration For Moisture Determination
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
Carl Fischer Moisture Analyzers incorporate the ooulometry principle applied lo a chemical titration which is fasler, more convenient and often more accurate than conventional water determinations. Available in Lab Model as well as a Portable, Moisture Analyzers are easy to use and fully automatic. The Portable Model has a rugged case forfieldwalerdeterminaiions, and is capable of 10 hours of continuous operations before needing rech:u-ging. This Lab Model is AC powered, eliminating battery maintenance requirements. Incorporating a special electrolysis current control system. Moisture Analyzers assure fast, accurate measurement of even trace water content.
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Document ID: DCC1F3E0

Selection And Sizing Of Control Valves For Gases And Liquids
Author(s): Joe Mullner
Abstract/Introduction:
Properly sized control valves are essential to obtain good process control. Simply specifying a valve size to match an existing pipe size leaves much to chance and will likely create an impractical situation In terms of initial Investment and adequacy of control. Too small a valve will not pass the required amount of flow, while too large a valve will be unnecessarily expensive and will create Instability problems at low flow rates.
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Document ID: AD2E51D0

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents overall considerations of combustion calorimeters as well important installation and operational criteria in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: C06F9402

The Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Orifice Meters
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier
Abstract/Introduction:
Based on the new ANSI/ API 2530 (1990/91) orifice meters are capable of achieving uncertainty levels on the discharge coefficient that range below 0.5%. To achieve this level of uncertainty on the coefficient certain conditions must be met. These conditions are as follows:
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Document ID: B7D7F4AD

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Pipeline Group (APG), along with most transmission companies, went to electronic flow measurement (EFM) to: Increase accuracy and resolution Make on-line correction of flow variables Increase speed in data retrieval Reduce capital expenditures 5. Reduce operational expenditures
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Document ID: 8BA92A0B

Neasurehent Of Large Volumes Of Crude Oil By Turbine Heter
Author(s): Larry St. Gernaln
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil port (LOOP) is the only deep water port in operation in the United States for the importation of foreign crude oil. The port facility is located in the Gulf of Mexico in Grand Isle Block 59, approximately 18 miles offshore. The deep water port was designed specifically for unloading very large crude carriers (VLCCs) and ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) up to 700,000 dead-weighttons (DWT) via single anchor leg mooring (SALM) systems, a pumping platform complex (Fig. 1), submarine pipelines, a booster station and a 48-inGh
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Document ID: 96CA79AD

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - III
Author(s): James W, Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties, The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement, Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the gas laws.
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Document ID: C64837CF

Theoretical Uncertainty Of Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Zaki D. Husain
Abstract/Introduction:
Ori fi ce meters are the most common meters used for hydrocarbon flow measurement. They are rugged and mechanically simple devices that are suited for flow measurement in the field. In 1779, an Italian physicist, Giovanni B. Venturi (1746- 1822) performed the first recorded work that used orifices for the measurement of fluid flow. Many years of field experience with a wide range of meter sizes, variety of fluids, and numerous investigative tests have identified al1 major contributing factors of the measurement uncertainty of orifice flowmeters. Because of their long history of use and dominance in the fluid flow measurement, their designs, installation requirements, and equations for flow rate calculation have been standardized by different organizations in the United States and in other countries. These standards provide the guideline for the users to achieve accurate flow measurement and minimize measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses different factors that contribute to the measurement inaccuracy and provide an awareness to minimize or eliminate these errors. Different standards on orifice flowmeters and measurement uncertainties are referenced Ref.1-7.
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Document ID: 59FA425D

The Industrys Revised Orifice Metering Standard
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier, E. Beaty, J. E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
New research and measurement technologies have produced new equat ions and mechanical speci fications which significantly improve the uncertainty levels for orifice measurement. This paper provides both an introduction and a summary of the four parts of the 1990/91 revision to the orifice standard.
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Document ID: 8F3E111D

Development Of Orifice Meter Standards Past, Present And Future And A Discussion Of Orifice Meter Statistics
Author(s): Edgar E. Buxton
Abstract/Introduction:
The flow of water through a hole (orifice of some description) was, no doubt observed for centuries. Systems of canals in conjunction with storage reservoirs for conveyance were in use in Eirypt in the 14th Century B.C. Early use of orifice meters for measurement of flow rates were reported in service in Rome near the end of the first Century A.D. An interesting statement found in Encylopaedia Britannica suggests that some of the pipeline transport and measurement probleras also had an early beginning. He found a number of practices in vogue which were inimical to public service.
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Document ID: E8E67318

Pressure And Temperature Measurement Devices - Liquid
Author(s): Richard O. Lebrun
Abstract/Introduction:
Primary pressure elements and pressure transmitters can be used to measure various forms of pressure. They can be used to measure gauge pressure (psig) absolute pressure (psia) or vacuum pressure (inches H20 vacuum). The following shows the relationship of the various forms Of pressure that can be measured with primary pressure element and pressure transmitters.
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Document ID: AF32D26A

Fundamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): G. A. Borst
Abstract/Introduction:
During the eighteenth century, it was discovered through the efforts of three men of science Bernoulli, Torricelli, and Venturi) that the pressure of a flowing fluid varies as its velocity changes. When a flowing fluid is caused to speed up by restricting the cross sectional area of the flow stream, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy and the pressure drops. This relationship has been found to follow the law:
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Document ID: D2CD203B

Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas industry is in a changing environment whether you are a producer, transporter or distributor due to the changing federal regulations. Energy is measured in Therms, 100,000 BTU or in Deka - Therms, 10 Therms. Gas sales are based on MMBTU which is the Dekatherm content of the gas. One Dekatherm, 1 million BTU. represents the energy contained in 1,000 cubic feet of gas which has 1.000 BTU per cubic feet
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Document ID: A6ABEA1D

Chromatograph Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Author(s): Louis N. Cox.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Chroma tographs used in energy measurement and control systems are designed for minimum amount of maintenance.
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Document ID: 2AE120E6

Fundamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Chromatography is a physical method of separation where the components to be separated are distributed between two phases: a stationary bed of large surface area, and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed. A gas or vaporized liquid mixture is physically separated into its individual components through this stationary bed.
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Document ID: C6A4F52B

Multipath Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters
Author(s): Karst Van Dellen
Abstract/Introduction:
The multi-path ultrasonic gas flow meter Is new in the field of gas flow measurement. But it shows considerable promise as a viable flow meter for custody transfer applications, The ultrasonic technology in gases was delayed because of the more complex transducer design for ultrasonic gas flow meters. The transducers must be in contact with the gas itself.
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Document ID: A27D0C1E

Effect Of 1991 Revision Of Ansi 2530 On Orifice Meter Run
Abstract/Introduction:
The error in the coefficient of discharge has been reduced by approximately one half when orifice meters conforming to the new revision of the standard are used. These new orifice meters are constructed to much tighter dimensional and configurational requirements than in the past. Orifice meters which do not meet the requirements of Part 2, must have an in-place calibration run to determine the coefficient of discharge curve over the range of Reynolds Number expected.
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Document ID: D5C0B438

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for 1 ow gravity, 1 ow carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 3897ACF2

Transient Lightning Protection For Electronic Measurement Devices
Author(s): Richard B. Pyle, Ronald W. Henderson
Abstract/Introduction:
The detection and location of Hghtning using magnetic direction finding has been used by university, government and commercial agencies to detect lightning in the continental United States for several years . The current national network consists of over 125 sensors located throughout the United States in three distinct networks collecting, correlating, solving for the locations of the ground strikes and disseminating that information to network subscribers in real-time. The networks are operated by Geomet Data Services (GDS) in Tucson, Arizona, the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), all working cooperatively to produce the National Network. This paper seeks to describe the design, operation and implementation of the National Lightning Detection Network as it exists today.
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Document ID: D365E659

Pressure And L-Emperature Transdieers Insimiation, Calibration, And Repair)
Author(s): Steve Paetz
Abstract/Introduction:
This session covers and transmitter. the electronic transducer Webster defines a transducer as a device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power (usually in another form) to a second system. Microphones and speakers are one of many types of transducers. In our field of work, we know it to be a device that can transform pressure, tank levels, temperature, etc. into an electrical signal.
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Document ID: E970DF82

A S T A T U S On E L E C T R O N I C Data Interchange Standards And Protocols
Author(s): R. C. Leitschuh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Ttie Metered Volume Statement is an industry familiar technical invoice which serves to document a quantity of gas and/or equivalent heating value recorded through an individual meter or netered location. The statement is primarily used in custotty transactions for invoicing periods and often provides sufficient information for cierational verification- While the Metered Volurte Statement is recognized as a standard docunent, it has never been established in a standard format. Ihe statements are as united in structure as the parties responsible for issuing them. The elements vftiich ccstrprise a typical industry statement, however, can be grotied in three basic segments
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Document ID: 7C210ADE

Chrcmatograph Applications & Problems Frcm A Users Standpoint
Author(s): Duane A. Neefe
Abstract/Introduction:
The chromatograph is becoming more inportant to the pipeline industry due to the demand for Real Time volumes. To ctotain volumes vrfiich do not need to be corrected for gas properties, it is necessary to have the gas properties such as specific gravity, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and BTO values within the flow coirputers operating parameters. When these values are used within each flow calculation cycle, the accuracy of the measurement obtained is much greater than vdien corrections for si.per compressibility are applied after the volume is accumulated.
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Document ID: 6514F5E3

Hiol Hiessure Measuring And Regulating Station
Author(s): J. Bryan Butler
Abstract/Introduction:
High pressure measuring and regulating stations are an important part of every pipeline system. Their primary function is to provide safe arwi dependable high pressure measurement and regulation of natural gas transported from one pipeline to another. High pressure measuring and regulating stations are located along pipeline systems at sales and purchase points such as
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Document ID: 6EF01D94

Micrometer Measurements Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Paul Heald
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurements of orifice meter tubes are required to Insure compliance with the tolerances and requirements of the measurement standard commonly referred to as ACA #3. A third edition of the measurement standard is in partial publication, which is now referred to as API 14.3. However, ACA 3, GPA 8190-85 and ANSI 2530 also refer to this same standard. Part 2 of this third edition published in February of 1991 is titled Specification and Installation Requirements. Part 2 covers the tolerances and requirements of orifice meter tubes. Compliance with these is necessary to minimize uncertainty (error) in measurement. Tolerances and requirements have been established to require manufacturers to fabricate tubes that are similar to those used to develop data for the flow equation, i.e. minimize uncertainty. Another important criteria being the consistency of manufacture of tubes between manufacturers.
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Document ID: B2A3AC27

Economics Of Electronic Measurement
Author(s): H.D. Diane Milleson
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past ten years there have been many changes in the Natural Gas Industry. Some of the changes have made it Impossible to do business in the same old way with the same old equipment. although the primary measurement device, the orifice, has remained the same, the secondary devices have indeed changed drastically.
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Document ID: B2D1444B

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Alton L. Gates
Abstract/Introduction:
In the early 1970s when the price of gas went from an average of 17: per thousand cubic feet to 2.00 and the words take or pay became prevalent, many companies started thinking about advanced training programs. Many organizations, such as ours, had basically used the hands on or the on the job training approach. Utilization of these methods often fostered bad habits, as well as, a lack of standardization in our organization. This method often lead individuals to conceive erroneous ideas about measurement, and worst yet, perform jobs without basic knowledge of flow calculations, square root functions or how positive displacement meters actually work.
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Document ID: 9D3AE884

Orifice Meters Operation And Maintenance
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Meredith
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate measurement is of utmost importance to all companies involved in the purchase or sale of natural gas. Orifice meters act as a cash register for the industry. Proper operation and maintenance of the orifice meter is essential to ensure that both producers and customers receive an accurate account on every delivery. The orifice meter was developed in the early 1900s. They have become the industry standard for measurement of large volumes of natural gas.
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Document ID: 14CBA9E9

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Paul A. Ward
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes pulse interpolation applied to dynamic liquid meter provers. Micro-computer technology has found its place in virtually every area of instrumentation. From simple field transmitters to control room mounted central processing units, these powerful integrated circuits offer reliability, speed, convenience, and cost effective methods of saving work.
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Document ID: 7EC9716C

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Janet m. Penz
Abstract/Introduction:
The first dry type positive displacement gas meter was made in 1843 by William Richards. Thomas Glover further improved on the design in England and it came to be known as the Glover 2 diaphragm, sliding valve, 4 chamber meter.
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Document ID: F782F0B8

Mechanically Driven Electronic Volume Correctors
Author(s): Mark A. Keirs
Abstract/Introduction:
I feel as though I have a unique opportunity in writing this paper. The opportunity may be yours however. I am but a beginner at this game. Having only been with the company I represent, and involved with the gas industry as a whole, for less than a year at the writing of this paper. My observations are formed of one unbiased by experience with mechanically driven instruments, by one who has grown up surrounded by electronics and technological advancements and by one who believes these advancements should be taken advantage of as tools for success. I am, however, a believer in the theory that you are a product of your environment and I have been fortunate to be exposed to many knowledgable people and alot of quality written information much of which was generated as a result of this school. Therefore much of the meat of this paper will sound very familiar, but thats due to my belief that there is quality offered by whats available in the market today.
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Document ID: C9FA7B53

Instrument Calibration Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): m. S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IT IS ESTIMATED THAT AS MUCH AS 17 BILLION CUBIC FEET OF UNACCOUNTED FOR GAS IS WRITTEN OFF EVERY YEAH. WITH ENERGY PRICES FLUCTUATING LIKE THEY DO, IT IS NO WONDER THAT MANAGEMENT INSISTS ON THE MOST ACCURATE MEASUREMENT METHODS AVAILABLE.
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Document ID: 7B0BEAD2

Continued Development Of The Total Energy Meter: Integration Of Existing Orifice And Turbine Metering Systems.
Author(s): William H. Vender Heyden
Abstract/Introduction:
Direct measurement of energy flowrates in pipelines is a desired form of instrumentation. Direct measurement instruments eliminate the requirements for approximations and interpolations of natural gas properties. Direct measurement methods bypass the traditional need for composition analysis, supercompressibility, density, and viscosity estimates in natural gas measurement.
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Document ID: C2CF4B5E

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): James P. Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas turbine meter was introduced to the natural gas industry in 1963. The original units were 6 flanged meters with 125 pound working pressure cast aluminum bodies that allowed for a capacity of 30,000 CFH at 4 oz. inlet pressure. Due to the quick acceptance of this new gas metering concept by all phases of the gas industry, the development of additional sizes and working pressures of gas turbine meters has been rapid. Today, gas turbine meters are available in the following sizes and working pressures as illustrated in Table 1:
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Document ID: BF0F7011

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted-For Gas Distribution
Author(s): C, m. Spriggs
Abstract/Introduction:
All gas systems leak. Gas escapes every system in one way or another. This is true because gas is permeable to every system. For instance, with PE2306 pipe, the volume of methane lost through permeation in one mile of two-Inch pipe operated at 60 psi is about 0.26 cubic feet per day. So, if every system leaks, then how much do we lose? Hence, we have unaccounted-for gas.
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Document ID: 770FB138

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): C. W. Wilkerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960s because: 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year. 2. The cost of ethylene has increased from 2 cents per lb. in the mid-1960s to more than 30 cents per lb. at todays cost.
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Document ID: 00528F8F

Design Of An Electronic Odorant Injection System.
Author(s): Paul F. Zeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Clean burning natural gas has become the fuel of choice for millions of consumers around the world because of Its versatility and availability. Because natural gas is colorless and odorless, modern natural gas odorization procedures have been established as a means of saving lives and protecting property.
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Document ID: 764652B0

H,S Detections And Determination
Author(s): James W. Canterbury
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide (HjS) and total sulfur, in varying amounts, are found in almost all natural gas fields. In some cases, it is so small that the product is referred to as sweet gas. Many fields, however, produce sour gas, which is a gas with an HjS and total sulfur level high enough to require its removal or sweetening. Several methods are available to do this sweetening. However, that is a separate subject and not a part of this paper.
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Document ID: 02F1A5D8

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Paul K. Tomita
Abstract/Introduction:
Surge protection in liquid pipelines is a requirement in any type of system that is operating at pressures close to the pipeline pressure rating. Under these conditions any change in fluid velocity can cause the internal pressure to exceed the pipe pressure rating, potentially damaging the pipeline. The following Is description of a simple pressure surge. The components are a reservoir, a pipeline and a valve.
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Document ID: 3C2EA30C

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Ralph Batten
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the analysis of natural gas liquids has been explored in many different manners, this paper will discuss only one of the methods adopted - the one which is readily accepted -- the GPA 2177 Method for the analysis of demethanized hydrocarbon liquid mixtures containing nitrogen and carbon dioxide by gas chromatography.
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Document ID: 7D5C4BBD

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): Laura L. Sewell
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased precision in hydrocarbon measurement is a growing concern for everyone in our industry. In order to achieve the quality of measurement desired, we must learn to fully utilize the many technologically advanced instruments now available on the market. Fully automated chart processing systems can greatly enhance the speed and accuracy at which volumes are calculated and accessed.
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Document ID: E3379778

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): C. W. Lecure
Abstract/Introduction:
It is said, one measurement, you have ACCURACY . Two measurements, you have an ARGUMENT. Far fetched, perhaps not as far out of line as one may first believe when it comes to measuring the cubic foot of gasses.
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Document ID: 9ED266ED

Lpg Odorizatiom With Ah Audit Trail
Author(s): Ace A. Astala
Abstract/Introduction:
LPG odorlzatlon with an audit trail is probably one of the most significant things that we do when we are selling LPG for residential use. The audit trail is one of the ways to ensure that the LPG that you are selling or shipping has been properly odorized and you can go back to this if needed at any time. This documentation may be the only record to show that you or your company has been odorizing the LPG according to your company procedures and the law.
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Document ID: C2C19A4D

Orifice Meters For Liquid Service
Author(s): Robert E. Bob Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been used for centuries to measure liquids as well as gases. Although they are used extensively today by the gas transmission industry for measuring large volumes for custody transfer, they are also used for the measurement of natural gas liquids such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, raw mix, demethanized ethane-propane mix, oil, water, air and steam.
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Document ID: F9FCC8E9

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas F. Weiker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidedly more important now than it has been in past years. The price of a product will determine the interest a company and its personnel have in the measurement and quality of its feeds (raw materials) and products. Because of the price of crude oil today, the general interest in proper sampling is drastically increasing.
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Document ID: 1FF61F98

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jack Hirshman
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of any area of technology is usually a slow step-by-step, conservative evolution of many ideas, flashes of inspiration, and slogging persistence. The present day turbine meter can be traced to the efforts of two men - David M. Potter and Edward E. Francisco Jr.
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Document ID: 35809BD2

Tvunbviizing The Effects Of Pulsation Induced Gage Line Error
Author(s): Dale Schafer
Abstract/Introduction:
Pulsations created by compressors, flow control valves, regulators, and some piping configurations are known to cause significant errors in gas flow measurement. In recent years the Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC), a subsidiary of the Southern Gas Association, commissioned and fiinded various pulsation research projects at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) in San Antonio, Texas.
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Document ID: 1EF79962

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Philip C. Morris
Abstract/Introduction:
To audit or not to audit, that is the question. If you believe that gas and liquid measurement is an exact science and not subject to mecheinical and human error, then read no further. If on the other hand you agree that machines and people make mistakes it follows that you should have some system in place to protect yourself from these mistakes. The basic purpose of an audit is to insure that you are properly paid for the product you delivered.
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Document ID: 757B0E26

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): John Abbruscato
Abstract/Introduction:
This seminar will cober the use of vibrating element liquid densitometers in applications ranging from mass flow determination to interface detection for liquids ranging from light LPGs and refined products to waxy, heavy crude oils.
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Document ID: 04B2CC68

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Gerald C. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Virtually all hydrocarbons are bought and sold by volume, that is, gallons, barrels, liters, cubic feet, etc. This is true for Natural Gas Liquids, too, but variations in component content and density make it difficult to measure them in the conventional volumetric manner. Mass measurement is more accurate for NGLs. Then the mass can be converted to volume for commercial transactions.
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Document ID: 6E5DCDBC

Orifice Meter Gauge Calibration Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an inch of water? The correct answer to this question has taken on increased importance with the demand for better accuracy and the introduction of digital pressure indicators, For example, lets assume that you have Just received your new digital pressure Indicator and you decide to verify its accuracy. The manufacturer claims 0.1% accuracy at 100 inches of water. You set up a test using a deadweight tester and a water manometer. After placing a 100 inch of water weight on the deadweight tester, you record a reading of 99.8 Inches of water on the digital pressure indicator and 100.2 inches of water on the manometer. Which is right? The answer to this question will be evident after the following discussion of manometers and dead weight testers and their relationship to digital pressure indicators. 1 will also include a discussion of accuracy and resolution as it applies to digital pressure Indicators.
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Document ID: F71AF920

Measurement Of Liquified Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Rodney F. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LP Gas or LPG) by definition is any material having a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for commercial propane composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons either by themselves or as mixtures: propane, propylene, butane (normal or isobutane) and butylenes.
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Document ID: 11C685FD

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer (L.A.C.T./A.C.T.)
Author(s): Leland S.Hastings
Abstract/Introduction:
As stated in A.P.I. Manual of Petroleum Measurement Chapter 6, Metering Assemblies 6.1.4.1. Sampling. In most instances the value of a crude oil run is determined on the basis of net standard volume, which includes corrections for meter factor, temperature, pressure, and water and sediment content. Therefore, the composite sample accumulated in a run period, and any portion used for the determinationof density (gravity) and water and sediment content, must be representative of all crude oil delivered. Where density (gravity) and water and sediment content are based on a sample fccsii the composite sample of the run, the procedures used must ensure that this secondary sample is representative of the composite sample. Where density (gravity), water and sediment content, or other physical characteristics do not affect the value of a crude oil, sampling may be eliminated by mutual agreement (see Chapter 8 for additional details). The sampling should be proportioned to the flow rate through the meter, either directly by the meter or by an appropriate timing device.
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Document ID: E2CA1564

Basic Scada Systems - From Sensors To Screens
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems, are special types of control systems which allow operators to monitor and control hundreds of remotely located facilities, e.g. compressor stations, valves, etc. The term Supervisory Control infers that only operator initiated setpoint or on/off commands are sent to the remote facility. Automatic, closedloop control is performed only by equipment at the remote facility. Should a connecting communication link fail, the remote facility will continue to operate correctly using the most recent commands received from its supervising master.
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Document ID: 3CFC8DBE

Auditing Of Gas Measurement And Gas Accounting Systems
Author(s): William H. Wright
Abstract/Introduction:
An auditor of gas measurement is one of the most diversified and challenging jobs in the gas industry. The qualifications include accounting and the technologies of field operations, the ability to cormiunicate in all levels of work is essential, along with the desire to constantly learn.
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Document ID: 553FEAE8

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have caused so much anticipation? What benefits can really be expected? Here are the major benefits:
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Document ID: A6F78C4D

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert m. Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
SINCE THE 1960S COMPANIES INVOLVED IN THE TRANSMISSION OF NATURAL GAS HAVE USED ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO MEASURE GAS FLOW AND MONITOR PIPELINE OPERATION. HOWEVER, NOT UNTIL THE EARLY 1980S WERE RELIABLE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, INCREASINGLY ACCURATE INSTRUMENTATION AND INEXPENSIVE COMPUTER PROGRAMS ALL AVAILABLE TO PROVIDE A SYSTEM WHICH COULD ECONOMICALLY REPLACE CHART RECORDERS.
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Document ID: 79385AA3

Flow Measurement Using Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Donald Ginesi
Abstract/Introduction:
When a fluid moving in a closed pipe strikes a blunt faced, non-streamlined object at high flowrates, it separates and moves around the object (also called the bluff body) in two streams. This separation does not allow the fluid streamlines to remain parallel, and they curl back upon themselves as shown in Figure (1). The result of this separation and back flow is the formation of whirlpools, also called eddies or vortices.
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Document ID: B6FB5164

Shipboard Sampling For Accountabilitt In Custody Transfer
Author(s): E. Garsetti
Abstract/Introduction:
The importance of water measurement in the marine transportation of crude oil is considerable. A study carried out by the Institute of Petroleum and reported in Petroleum Review has shown that on a sample of 6,500 voyages, the quantity of water detected in the outturn was on average 0.13 percent higher than had been declared in the bill of lading and, furthermore, a discrepancy of 0.5 percent between the outturn and bill of lading water content was not unusual. These discrepancies have enormous financial implications and highlight the need for improved sampling and analysis methods. Indeed, this study showed that the larger water discrepancies occurred when the hill of lading had been based upon shore tank manual sampling techniques and analysis by centrifuge. The problems associated with manual sampling had long been suspected and over seven years ago SGS Redwood set out to develop a portable sampler which could be used to collect representative samples of crude oil and products being loaded onto or discharged from a vessel.
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Document ID: DA3F53E8

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers.
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Document ID: 654A4AEB

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
SEDIMENT AND WATER (S&W) ARE NATURALLY ACCURRING COMPONENTS OF PRODUCED CRUDE OIL. IN THIS PAPER WE WILL DISCUSS WHAT S&W IS AND WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO MONITOR AND TEST FOR ITS PRESENCE IN CRUDE OIL. IN THE API MANUAL OF PETROLEUM MEASUREMENT STANDARDS (MPMS) CHAPTER 1, SEDIMENT AND WATER IS DEFINED AS A MATERIAL COEXISTING WITH, YET FOREIGN TO, PETROLEUM LIQUID, THAT REQUIRES A SEPARATE MEASUREMENT FOR REASONS THAT INCLUDE SALES ACCOUNTING.
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Document ID: 35A2CEB7

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred Debusk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow computer applications in a companys measurement system have an impact far greater than simply another kind of measurement device. The reason for this impact is the many different groups of people that use information from the metering site. This list includes:
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Document ID: 6E8C0433

Installation Of Pycnometers And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
In our ever changing world of measurement it should be noted to those who are involved in mass measurement that the A.P.I. Chapter 14.6 is now undergoing some very radical changes in the way we handle the density meter and all that is used to insure the validity of its results. The reduction of our work: forces and the declining prices of our products has forced a new outlook on the way we install and calibrate measurement equipment. Once a company has cut. manpower to a minimum and still operate, the next is to put emphasis on more accurate measurement of their raw and finished products. This will squeeze the last bit of profit out of its throughput and possibly make a marginal plant a profitable one. The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain the new methods of Installation of Pycnometers and Pycnometer Calibrations using the new A.P.I. Chapter 14.6.
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Document ID: C75D6759

Flow Computer Applications In A Companys Measurement System Have An Impact Far Greater Than Simply Another Kind Of Measurement Device. The Reason For This Impact Is The Many Different Groups Of People That Use Information From The Metering Site. This List Includes:
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
Advances in computer and electronic technology are made every day. Thirty years ago vacuum tube instruments were used when high speed readout was required. Electromechanical counters that could go aa fast as forty counts per second were just becoming rehable, but only if the circuit designer knew how to interface them to a pulse transmitter. Virtually all positive displacement meters had local mechanical readouts, and temperature compensation was done by liquid filled bellows driving wheel and disk integrators with planetary gear drives. Remote monitoring and control of metering stations required huge rooms full of clattering racks of relays - and the a,ssociated maintenance headaches, and rows of push buttons, counters, indicator lights and annunciator windows.
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Document ID: D86454EB

Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas Continuous On-Line Analysis
Author(s): Dr. Lance Silvemian, Dr. Jacques Mettea, Borys Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
Tne negative effects of moisture in natural gas are well known. During winter, for example, water vapor can combine with natural gas under pressure to form solid hydrates, resulting in freeze-ups. The hydrates clog valves and orifices and may cause permanent damage. Water vapor also causes corrosion of pipes and equipment.
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Document ID: 23D2D393

Natural Gas Odor Level Testing - Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Odor level determination is a difficult subject, and leads to much discussion. Odor level test instruments have been in use for approximately 50 years and many users are convinced of their reliabi1i ty. There are others, however, who feel that the test results of these instruments are meaningless. Since both sides in this disagreement are using the same type of instrument, the primary problem appears to surround the manner in which the odor level test is taught and run.
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Document ID: BC9DC9E5

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Frank D. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
The small volume prover has continued to make a definite impact on the Petroleum Industry. The small volume prover, when applied properly, allows the process of proving meters faster, and in some cases has shown to be the only way to prove meters successfully.
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Document ID: 3172F552

Flow Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Jack Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a discussion of the backpressure testing of natural gas wells and the calculations relating to the evaluation of the information produced from this testing. Procedures for conducting these tests and methodology of testing procedures are discussed.
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Document ID: 1F674F83

Automatic Takk Gauging
Author(s): Woodrow W. Oglesby, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Automatic tank gauging encompasses a variety of measurements. In an attempt to determine either the volume or mass of the product in a storage tank, attention needs to be directed not only to the actual measurements, but also to the tank installation and data handling between the tank and the operations office. All these influence the final results and the validity of the data.
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Document ID: 4450DAB6

Flow Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Jack Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a discussion of the backpressure testing of natural gas wells and the calculations relating to the evaluation of the information produced from this testing. Procedures for conducting these tests and methodology of testing procedures are discussed.
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Document ID: 93023E83

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): David P. Resch
Abstract/Introduction:
The loading of petroleum products at Truck Loading terminals has undergone a great deal of renovation since the early 70s. These changes have taken place thanks mostly to the introduction of electronic instrumentation and control devices which replaced what was traditionally mechanical equipment at the load rack. Through the 80s and into the early 90s this equipment has been refined and its features expanded to meet the needs of modern truck loading facilities. The electronic preset is responsible for much of this improvement, and while product accountability, reduced operating cost, and improved inventory control continue to be one of the significant benefits of the electronic preset, government regulations will have a large impact on the upgrading effort. The clean air act which many major metropolitan areas must comply with, legislates regulations requiring a certain percentage of oxygenates in the gasolines sold in their area. These regulations may prohibit the petroleum products from being directly delivered in their refined form, and may require that they be blended with products such as Ethanol or Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). Combining this with the requirements of Midgrade and higher performance type gasolines for todays fuel efficient automobiles, the blending requirements start to multiply- The scope of this paper will focus on the new requirements for blending and how todays electronic preset will meet the challenge by offering two types of blending solutions, the sequential (batch) blender, or the ratio (in line) blender.
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Document ID: F45CA993

Meter Shop Equipment. Techniques, And Operations
Author(s): m. Lynn Camp
Abstract/Introduction:
A meter repair operation, in order to be effective, must operate in an efficient manner and maintain the highest quality possible. To do this, good equipment must be used, techniques that improve efficiency should he practiced, and effective cost controls must be employed.
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Document ID: 40E223DB

Displacemem- Meters For Liquid Measuremem*
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive displacement (PD) meter. The emphasis will be on the factors influencing the design and performance of the meter for liquid petroleum measurement. However, these factors can be applied to other liquids as well.
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Document ID: 9DBB3E0D

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Mr. Peter E
Abstract/Introduction:
The 1978 first edition of the API Manual of Petroleum Measirrement Standards, Chapter 4, Proving Systems, and sections Z & 3 describes the various designs of Pipe Provers provides the calculations to be used and the procedures to be followed. Because these p r o c e d u r e s and calculations are fairly involved and difficult for the operator to perform, computers are now being used to p e r f o r m the c a l c u l a t i o n s and control the operation of the prover mechanism.
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Document ID: C5F389AE

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Wyman Hammock
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has become very popular for the measurement of liquids of low and medium viscosities. Its compact size, high flow rate, low maintenance and superior linearity make it especially attractive for liquid hydrocarbon applications. When a turbine meter is properly applied within a correctly designed flow system,its best performance can be realized.
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Document ID: 44D4DE30

Marine Crude Oil - Terminal Measuring System.
Author(s): E.R. Robinson.
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past 5 years the Institute of Petraleum in London has been conducting an extensive survey of statistics relating to the marine movement of crude oil around the world. This survey has shown up some of the major problems which occur between bill of lading and outturn and which result in real or apparent loss to the purchaser. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the findings from the survey and to indicate the importance of some of the measurements along the chain, and to discuss the role which competent independent inspection companies should fulfill in helping to reduce loss.
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Document ID: 2747AEB7

Overview Of American Petroleum Institute Committee On Petroleum Measurement Copm() Activities On Fluid Measurement
Author(s): Ronald C. Chittim
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during World War 1. The experience demonstrated that oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because under U.S. antitrust law, industry competitors can work together toward mutual objectives using API as the forum.
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Document ID: 3157E168

Office Application Of Cwipdters For Flow Calculatioh
Author(s): Laura L. Sewell
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased precision in hydrocarbon measurement is a growing concern for everyone in our industry. In order to achieve the quality of measurement desired, we must learn to fully utilize the many technologically advanced instruments now available on the market. Fully automated chart processing systems can greatly enhance the speed and accuracy at which volumes are calculated and accessed.
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Document ID: 11D35C39

Calibration Of Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tanks By The Optical Reference Line Method Qrlm(), Optical Triangulation Method Otm() And Laser Ranging Method Lrm()
Author(s): Richard m. Sheppard
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past eight years major procedural and technological advances have been made In the area of tank calibration. France has developed and has been using an Optical Trlangulatlon Method which uses the measurement of angles to determine tank diameter. Japan has developed a laser type azimuth and distance measuring system which has been used in the calibration of approximately 200 storage tanks and some vessel tanks. The Optical Reference Line Method (ORLM) was originally perfected in Belgium and is currently an API Standard.
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Document ID: 6270A4C1

Measurement Fundamentals Crude Oil And Refined Products
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no question that the industry needs better f l ow measurement. Just considering the value of product handled makes that abundantly clear.
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Document ID: EBE46318

Liquid Meter Proving Teomiques
Author(s): James L. Zeringue
Abstract/Introduction:
The proving of a liquid meter is the actual test conducted on a meter to determine its accuracy and performance. Meter performance is the relationship of the amount of liquid or throughput registered on the meters counter to the actual quantity of liquid which passed through the meter. The only way to ascertain this relationship is to calibrate the meter against a known volume. The terms calibration, proving, and prover are used in the industry when referring to the means of establishing the accuracy of a meter. The goal of a meter proving is to obtain the greatest accuracy possible under the circumstances and environment surrounding the meter.
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Document ID: 2CF31888

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Hydrocarbon Liquid Measurement
Author(s): J. Baumoel
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural advantages of Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeter technology, for the type of applications presented by the Hydrocarbon Processing industries, has been clouded by a lack of information on its true capability, coupled with misinformation and conflicting claims by different suppliers. Disappointing experiences with early models, or inferior designs, have discouraged some from reexamining the current state of the art, which would reveal profound advances in the applicability and performance of this instrumen
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Document ID: 1696D66F

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Charles G. Shannon
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid flov meters are the cash registers of the industry. Whether the liquid meter is used in a plant for internal measurement for inventory control purposes, or in transactions between producers and pipelines, pipelines and refiners, refiners and marketers, valuable commodities, crude oil, refined products and liquified petroleum gases are bought and paid for based on what these meters say is going through then.
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Document ID: BB34435C

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using different machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review.
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Document ID: 1A3715D0

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of L.A.C.T. Units
Author(s): Gary Harrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The object of this paper is to give persons not familiar with L.A.C.T. Units a basic understanding of their Importance in the oil Industry. L.A.C.T. stands for Lease Automatic Custody Transfer. These Units are used in the measurement of crude oil when the oil Is being transferred from the producer to a purchaser.
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Document ID: 56FDFAD3

Liquid Measurement - Techniques And Problems
Author(s): J. G. Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
(This paper reflects the authors experience and reviews industry measurement practices. Neither the author nor Shell Oil Company makes any representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for any violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation. Each individual is responsible for knowing the legal requirements applicable in his jurisdiction and ensuring a full understanding of the procedures discussed and methods for safe implementation before using them.)
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Document ID: EBD543D2

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other
Author(s): D. A. Herod, L. G. Herron
Abstract/Introduction:
The field group generally thinks of the office group as a bunch of eraser thumping, coffee drinking complainers. The office group often thinks that the field is a bunch of people riding around in pickup trucks, traveling from coffee shop to coffee shop. Both of these statements are incorrect. The more correct statement should be that the field group and the office group are partners in a common goal. That goal being the accurate measurement and accounting of gas.
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Document ID: 9F991771

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot Operated Regulators
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Prior to discussing the fundamental principles of pilot operated regulators, lets first define a pressure regulator. A pressure regulator is an automatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: ACFEAB33

Gas Service Regulators
Author(s): J. m. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
A Gas Pressure Regulator is an autoraatic device which controls the media flow and maintains a desired media pressure while reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: 0FCD9504

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): A. L. Eberle
Abstract/Introduction:
There are more domestic meters in service than any other type of gas measurement equipment. The domestic meter Is a diaphragm type meter with a capacity rating of 175 to 275 cubic feet per hour. Proper proving of domestic meters is necessary to insure accurate measurement of gas making certain the customer receives the correct amount of gas and the gas company receives pay for each cubic foot used,
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Document ID: 312593B7

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation of the natural gas industry has resulted in significant changes on gas ownership between the wellhead and the burner tip. This has resulted in an increased emphasis on the timely and accurate tracking of natural gas as it moves through the gathering, transmission, and distribution system. Gas meters, a variety of types and sizes, are relied on for carrying out this monitoring process.
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Document ID: 62EF8A84

Relative Density Specific( Gravity) Measurement
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
Todays demand for real time accurate gas measurement has led the industry to take a closer look at every aspect of the measurement system including the flow calculation and each instrument which contributes information to the calculation. Gas is no longer obtained from long-term known sources. Therefore, gas quality cannot be assumed to be stable and fixed-faclor measurement is becoming obsolete. Open access and new transportation agreements have added to the need to continuously monitor variables like relative density rather than accept periodic laboratory results from gas samples for the determination of the needed current flow and energy information. Technology is now available tor relative density measurement which offers higher accuracy and continuous digital signals for direct input to microprocessor-based flow computer and gas control systems.
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Document ID: 78523AAD

About Ishm 1992
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: E8688735

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Hydrocarbon Liquid Measurement
Author(s): J. Baumoel
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural advantages of Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeter technology, for the type of applications presented by the Hydrocarbon Processing industries, has been clouded by a lack of information on its true capability, coupled with misinformation and conflicting claims by different suppliers. Disappointing experiences with early models, or inferior designs, have discouraged some from reexamining the current state of the art, which would reveal profound advances in the applicability and performance of this instrument.
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Document ID: 0F41B5B1

Sampling Lpg And High Vapor Pressure Liquids For Component Analysis With Water And C0 And Natural Gasoline As A Contaminant
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
With the measurement and accounting of LPG and light products becoming more important, the collection of a representative sample and its analysis is also important. Many measurement stations that have been in the field for years are not designed to collect a sample of a stream that is contaminated with water, amine and natural gasoline. The streams that are contaminated with CO , methane, N and the lighter contaminates are also difficult to sample. If the systems are not designed to specifically handle all of these contaminates, the mass measurement and component balances of the plants and pipelines will be inaccurate.
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Document ID: 2765ECB4

Btd Determination Of Natural Gas Using A Portable Chromatograph
Author(s): B. R. Tompkins
Abstract/Introduction:
Fast, accurate, and low cost analysis has become more important with the Increased demand for onsite results in many industries. The ability to have answers in real time without being tied to a laboratory and its schedule saves valuable time and resources.
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Document ID: BDB0125B

D-O.T. Title 49 Regulations For Transportation Of Sample Containers
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
During my travels around the United States talking about sampling and sample containers, it has come to my attention that the oil and gas industry in the U.S. needs to be a little better informed on proper handling, shipping and transportation of sample containers of all types. Since everybody in the oil, gas and chemical industry seems to be involved in taking samples and handling sample containers, it behooves us to understand the laws and rules that govern their transportation.
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Document ID: 45C91759

VERIFICATION/CERTIFICATION Of Devices Used In Hydrocarbon Measurement
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
Every day, custody is transferred on thousands of barrels of crude oil. When this custody takes place, we want to know the temperature, the API Gravity, the S & W Percent and the Volume. For the devices that are used to determine these, we must know that the devices are accurate. We can have these devices certified inhouse, at the factory, from the supplier, or from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
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Document ID: 92FDEEFB

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): David Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
It would seem with the advent of electronic measurement and electronic custody transfer of natural gas and other petroleum products that witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing would become an obsolete practice In the petroleum industry. This, however, is not the case. Due to low volume measurement, remote locations, dollar cost of electronic measurement, and agreements between companies regarding electronic custody transfer, witnessing orifice meter calibration and field testing will continue to be an integral part of the petroleum industrys future. Even as technology moves forward and electronic measurement becomes common within the petroleum industry, electronic hardware used in measurement will, like the orifice recorder, only be a secondary measuring device.
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Document ID: 3EF8D9F7

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Densitometers offer pipeliners, refiners and marketers a measurement accuracy which cannot be matched by inferred measurements. The proper installation and operation of these meters can assure the ultimate performance of the devices. Routine maintenance will directly result in improved accuracy and reliability.
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Document ID: 9540EF1C

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): David A. Rehler
Abstract/Introduction:
Distribution metering and regulating stations effectively serve as the cash registers of gas distribution companies. While the potential for lost revenue due to improper design is a serious consideration, it is not the only one. The potential exists for problems such as excessive noise levels, inaccurate reflection of lost and unaccounted-for gas, and numerous potentially hazardous situations. The best time to eliminate the potential for problems is during the design process. This, together with the critical nature of these stations, dictates that proper design is imperative.
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Document ID: E35ACBD7

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): C. W. Heflln
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas pressure-reducing regulator is a mechanical device whose primary function is to reduce a varying inlet pressure to a near-constant outlet pressure at flow rates varying from lockup to full regulator capacity.
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Document ID: BEE39B9E

Liquid ItCASLEtEBfl* Siktign Design
Author(s): Scottie Diplantis
Abstract/Introduction:
A liquid measurement station is a designed and engineered package of valves, pipe, instrumentatico, flow meters and wiring, configured to produce accurate measurement data in the delivery of a product in a process unit or in a custody transfer between a buyer and seller, A liquid measurement station could be as sinple as a manually operated single meter run or as conplex as a milti-meter run tanker loading facility with a multi-tasking ccaitrol/ccwputer system.
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Document ID: 0044011F

Liquid Fujh Pbckess Ocnvbitichrl()
Author(s): Al Oarsquo
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Flow Provers are measurement systems used as a standard against viiich Liquid Flow Nfeters can be check to determine meter perforrrance and calculate a Meter Factor. Provers of various types are widely utilized in the liquid hydrocarbon measurement industry and have provided a means for maintaining m9asurement accuracy for a broad range of applications - from proving positive displacement meters measuring heavy crude to proving turbine meters measuring 1ight hydrocarbon condensate. The Principles of Liquid Flow Provers have been well established for many years.
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Document ID: 06D0575A


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