Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1992)

Current Directions Of The Gas Research Institutes Program On Indoor Air Quality: Analysis Of Carbon Monoxide Safety
Author(s): Irwin H. Billick, L. L. Altpeter
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has had an active research program on indoor air quality for about ten years. Emphasis has been on the contribution of trace combustion emissions from gas appliances to indoor air quality. The emission products of prime concern are carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide. This paper will focus on GRI research related to analysis of the risk of exposure to high levels of CO and methods to mitigate that risk. Specifically this will include a review of current estimates of risk of death due to exposure to high levels of CO and the current status and research on gas sensors which may mitigate the exposure to hazardous CO levels and other possible natural gas hazards such as gas leakage.
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Document ID: CE978A14

Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Of Gas Transmission Pipelines
Author(s): Daniel H. Pope, David m. Dziewulskp, Samuel F. Lockwood, Daniel P. Werners, James R. Frank
Abstract/Introduction:
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of pipelines and process equipment is identified as a common form of corrosion affecting these types of equipment. MIC is shown to be the result of the action of communities of microbes in combination with other forms of corrosion. MIC profiles for internal and external MIC consisting of biological, chemical, metallurgical and operational factors have been developed. These are used to target facilities for monitoring. Monitoring methods (field guides, kits etc.) developed for use by field personnel are presented along with field guides and methods for testing mitigation measures. The roles of chemical treatments, coatings and cathodic protection in prevention and treatment of MIC will also be presented. Case histories and laboratory experiments will be used to illustrate each point.
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Document ID: C64618A6

Corrugated Stainless-Steel Tubing-An Update
Author(s): Pierre Maheu
Abstract/Introduction:
Its a tremendous pleasure for me to be here in Kansas City, to address this group of delegates of our Natural Gas Industry on The Corrugated Stainless-Steel Tubing (CSST) as a gas piping system. If ever the saying Where there is a will, there is a way was proven to be true in our industry, it was when the commitment of importing the CSST technology on the North American Continent was taken. The initial CSST concept was developed in Japan by Osaka Gas and Tokyo Gas in the early 1980s, where concerted efforts have been made to develop improved and more advanced piping systems to address specific needs and markets. During conferences such as the present one, the pioneers of the concept made presentations to promote it to American and Canadian natural gas industry delegates, who have shown much interest for the new innovative and revolutionary technologies. While the CSST concepts were promoted as being reliable, safe, cost effective and aesthetically attractive, its introduction and general acceptance in the United States and Canada, like many other technologies, have faced many obstacles.
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Document ID: BCC7FC17

The Importance Of Proper Analytical Sampling In Environmental Work
Author(s): Martin Dineen
Abstract/Introduction:
Proper sampling methods are critical for determining the chemical composition of a site in order that accurate and defensible environmental decisions may be made. The natural gas industry is currently facing a number of environmentally related issues. Some of these issues concern gas plant sites, PCBs, mercury and pipeline liquids. It is often necessary to have environmental samples tested in order to arrive at an informed decision regarding an environmentally related issue. Many chemical testing laboratories exist that provide excellent testing services. However, it is usually the responsibility of personnel from the company involved to collect and transport the test samples to the chemical testing laboratory for analysis. Proper sampling, storing, marking, and transporting procedures are critical in obtaining accurate and defensible results from any chemical testing laboratory.
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Document ID: A29A2249

The Significance Of Bias Errors In Measurement
Author(s): William Clingman, Kenneth R. Marsh
Abstract/Introduction:
The contribution of random error and bias to the overall accuracy of a measurement is discussed with particular reference to the determination of heating values of natural gases from composition determinations and direct measurement. The accuracy achievable from composition calculation depends on the quality of the reference standard and how closely the composition of the standard matches that of the unknown.
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Document ID: 0B83A713

Drilling A Relief Well In A Gas Storage Field
Author(s): J. B. Lane
Abstract/Introduction:
Presented below is a case history on a relief well drilled by Southern California Gas Company in 1991. The history will focus on the planning and directional drilling of the relief well. An existing gas storage well at the Honor Rancho Storage Field, located approximately 60 miles north of Los Angeles, developed a casing shoe leak at around 10,000. During repair attempts, the well was inadvertably sidetracked at 7,500 due to a severe dogleg. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to reenter the old 5 1/2 casing below this point. A relief well plan was then developed and executed where the 5 1/2 casing was pulled from the existing well to a depth of 2953. A cement plug was set and a new relief well was kicked off at this point. Utilizing a magnetic ranging tool, the relief well was directionally drilled to 9,912 where the old 5 1/2 casing was intersected. The 5 1/2 casing was then milled for 30 and the wellbore was abandoned. The well was then plugged back to 9023, redrilled 40 north of the previous bottom-hole location and recompleted.
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Document ID: D53A9485

Automated Mains Management System
Author(s): John R. Wappner, Edgar Sweet
Abstract/Introduction:
Stone & Webster offers a unique approach for expedient and effective implementation of an Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (AM/FM) System for a gas utility company under a common designation called -Automated Mains Management System (AMMS). Our professional consulting services in combination with an integrated packaging of compatible computer hardware/software products provides for a highly beneficial and expedient solution. This enhanced decision support capability permits gas utility executives to analyze alternatives concerning more precise and timely allocation of capital improvement funds for replacement of aging and unreliable cast iron and unprotected bare steel gas transmission/distribution mains and services.
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Document ID: 2084D984

Instruments For Odorization Monitoring
Author(s): David E. Bull
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorant monitoring includes chemical analysis for individual components as well as sniff tests for odor levels. Various instruments are available, from field portable chromatographs to digital odor concentration meters.
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Document ID: C9B2B657

A Critical Look At Methods Used For Estimation Of Average Shut-In Pressure In Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): I. Ershaghi, H. Calisgan, J. Chang, Y. Shikari
Abstract/Introduction:
A composite graphic approach for estimation of static pressure in gas storage fields is tested and found to provide improvements under the condition of well interference and moving boundaries. The technique eliminates the need for assignment of shape factors and drainage areas for individual wells. The entire storage field can be represented by a pseudo well located at the center of gravity computed for a particular well location and flow history. As such, the entire drainage area of the field and a single shape factor need to be incorporated in static pressure calculations. A PC software specifically designed to generate the composite plot is developed for field application.
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Document ID: 4721B27E

Experiences Of Design And Instailation Of A Gas Metering System In Czechoslovakia
Author(s): Christopher J. Brown
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the experiences of design and installation of an Electronic System Package for the Fiscal Metering of Gas at two sites in Czechoslovakia. Transgas the Customer, have been actively involved in the transportation of gas within Czechoslovakia since the late sixties. They have been significant suppliers of Natural Gas to western Europe since the seventies. They receive their gas through two 40 inch pipes from the Ukraine, which in its turn is hnked upto the larger Gas transmission network spanning many of the Confederation states. Schlumberger Industries the Supplier, have been supplying System solutions to Metering requirements for over twenty years and we have been active in the eastern European market for over ten years.
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Document ID: F792695D

Ultrasonic Flow Meters-Four Path
Author(s): Karst Van Dellen
Abstract/Introduction:
The multi-path ultrasonic gas flow meter is new in the field of gas flow measurement. But it shows considerable promise as a viable flow meter for custody transfer applications. The ultrasonic technology in gases was delayed because of the more complex transducer design for ultrasonic gas flow meters. The transducers must be in contact with the gas itself. The ultrasonic flow meter performance and its characteristics are nearly ideal. At present, single-path and multi-path designs are on the market. Depending on operational goals, either method can be used. Single-path designs have lower accuracy and repeatability and require longer upstream lengths. Multi-path units are more accurate but involve more electronics. In modern gas measurement technology, there are requests for shorter meter runs and the highest possible accuracy. This is true for production, transportation and distribution operations and for offshore platforms, where weight and space are predominant design factors. Multi-path technology will help fill many of these applications. British Gas started development of a four-path ultrasonic meter for use incustody transfer ten years ago. When the technical development was completed, they exclusively licensed Daniel Industries to produce that meter. The meter was developed considering the highest accuracy yet short meter runs for use in custody transfer. Several test programs with this meter are in progress in Europe, and 20 meters have been put into operational service. It will soon be introduced into the United States and Canada.
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Document ID: DCB47B59

Training Sources
Author(s): Loy Upp
Abstract/Introduction:
With the publication of A.G.A.-3, Part 2 in February 1991 (over a year ago) specifications were tightened in certain critical areas of the orifice meter device. These tolerances will be examined to see what effect they have on the hardware. These interpretations have been varied from manufacturer to manufacturer and are confusing to the user who has not studied them in detail.
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Document ID: 7FDBAFAF

Appliance Parts Procureiment At PSE&G
Author(s): Joseph Defuria, John Woods
Abstract/Introduction:
Public Service Electric and Gas Company has been involved m the procurement and installation of appliance repair parts since 1904. Over the years, there have been significant changes to our organization, replacement part manufacturers and distributors, the nature of appliances, the economy and the nature of the gas business. It is apparent that change will continue to occur and at an ever increasing rate. The only constant over time, as 1 see it, is the need to satisfy the customer i.e., to accurately diagnose the problem, and repair the apphance in an efficient, timely and economical manner. Today the Procurement and Materials Management function is challenged to constantly change and adapt to the ever changing business environment while keeping its major objective firmly in sight. That objective being to have the right part at the right time in tine right place and at the right price to allow the technician to do the job correctly and satisfy the customer.
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Document ID: 18A79FCF

Standard Plastic Failure Report
Author(s): Praful Pandya
Abstract/Introduction:
The A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee has developed a standard Plastic Failure Report Form. It provides a standard format for gathering necessary information for proper determination of the nature and the cause of a failure on the plastic pipe system. The paper presented here discusses the format of this form, its application and potential benefits to the user utility and the gas industry.
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Document ID: 35966285

Update On Gri Distribution Research- Targeting Research For Impact
Author(s): Marlon Mcclinton
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States natural gas industry is undergoing major changes reflecting the broader changes of US. industry. Increased international and domestic competition, environmental issues and the rapid advance of technology is putting increased pressure on the gas industry on improved operations, reduced cost, high quality product and improved reliability. In addition, customers are increasingly demanding consistent, high quality products and service at a value. Given this environment, GRI has identified a vital strategic issue as we approach the 21st century: the enhanced deliverability of natural gas. Despite the potential beneficial applications of gas service, markets for natural gas will be limited to the amount of gas that can be delivered to the user with the required degree of assurance and at a price that matches or beats the competition. Deliverability has two components: the discovery of gas resources and the provision of an adequate transport system. GRIs broader research program addresses issues from the well head to the end user, including the gas transmission and distribution transport system. This paper will highlight GRIs R&D program related to Gas Distribution Operations. It is the goal of the paper to clearly define the needs of this segment of the gas industry identify broad R&D opportunities and highlight results of specific research projects which address these needs.
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Document ID: 3379FDCD

Evolution Of Service Truck Arrangements And Tool Kits For Service Personnel
Author(s): Thomas J. Humphreys
Abstract/Introduction:
BaJtimore Gas and Electric Company, founded in 1816 as the first gas utility in the United States, has experienced significant growth in its 176 year history. Our ability to grow has been tied directly with our ability to provide prompt, effective service. Coincident with the growth in our gas system has been an even more pronounced growth in the expectations of our customers. We now serve, in our 615 square mile gas territory, a population of nearly 2 million (Fig. 1). Our 4400 miles of main and the hundreds of thousands of services those mains supply, require a service force that now numbers over 200 technicians who stand ready to respond to gas leaks, odor calls, and other gas-related emergencies. Our Gas and Appliance Service Department has the responsibility of meeting these service needs. We have established six homogeneous locations throughout the Baltimore metropoUtan area and our basic gas appliance service business includes the servicing of gas ranges, water heaters, and house heating equipment. We have also expanded into the servicing of domestic electric appliances by providing enhanced training for a higher-graded level of technician. Figure 2 shows the breakdown in specialties as we operate now. However, all of our technicians are, first and foremost, ready to respond to any gas-related emergency call. Consequently, by expanding our force and our business with the service of electric appliances, we actually have more technicians available to provide higher density and better coverage to respond to gas service calls.
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Document ID: 2C5F8B2F

A Review Of Adding Perforations Shots( Per Foot) To Existing Injection/Withdrawal Wells And Using 12 Shots Per Foot To Newly Drilled Wells
Author(s): Walter m. Rzepczynski, Donald L. Bielecki
Abstract/Introduction:
Due to late season daily dehverability reductions in many of NGPLs storage reservoirs, it was obvious something had to be done to the existing wells to prevent this occurrence. Some acidization of wells took place but the results were not significant. The Company also did some fracing of wells many years ago, and it also was not a remedy and was considered a dangerous practice which could bring on more problems. Infill drilling could help provide additional late season deliverability but it was not conducive to most of the 13 storage reservoirs. The only remaining alternative was to review how most or all of the existing wells were completed and see if additional gas footage could be perforated or reperforate the existing pay zones by adding more shots per foot. Typically most wells were perforated with the conventional 4 shots per foot (every 3). This was a standard practice and was accepted by most of the industry. It was believed more shots per foot were unnecessary, in fact hinderous to the well casing. A recent study shows no significant reduction in casing collapse resistance in wells shot up to 16 shots per foot with a spiral or sequential patterns (SPE Paper 18843).
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Document ID: 7AA3AA21

Design And Preliminary Engineering Considerations For A 20 Horizontal Drill Project
Author(s): Joseph L. Lavieri
Abstract/Introduction:
During a nine day period in July 1991, Yankee Gas Services Company installed a 1600 foot 20 diameter steel pipeline across the Thames River between Montville and Ledyard, Connecticut utilizing the horizontal drilling technique. Due to a limited work space prefabrication of a continuous welded pipe string was not possible. As a result, twelve 125 foot sections of 20 pipe were intermittently welded and pulled. The non-stop pullback operation required 42.5 hours to complete. The crossing was completed ahead of schedule, under budget and with no impact on the environment. It had minimal inconvenience to the public. All of this demonstrates that trenchless construction continues to play an important role in subsurface crossings.
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Document ID: 51641FF2

Pipeline Safety Issues In A Changing Environment
Author(s): James N. Haynes
Abstract/Introduction:
The current incentive and stimulus to improve gas pipelines in their design, installation, and operation comes from three sectors: modern technology, environmental concerns, and the passage of time. Southern California Gas Company (SoCal Gas) has initiated programs in the investigation of automatic shut-off valves and the use of smart pigs to detect piping flaws in environmentally sensitive or remote areas. The investigation of the need for automatic shut-off valves has been triggered by a proposed requirement by the California Division of Highways to install such valves at each end of any highway bridge which supports gas piping. We have also embarked on an evaluation program to identify and prioritize replacement of aging pipelines, This paper discusses the pros and cons of these topics and presents SoCal Gas progress in addressing these issues.
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Document ID: EC481255

High Pressure Measuring & Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Melanie A. Acord
Abstract/Introduction:
Station design begins with determining basic requirements of the station itself. These basics include determining class location, maximum and minimum station inlet pressures, maximum and minimum flow rates, and controlled pressure. Once these have been determined component selection can be made.
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Document ID: 02EC18C6

Omnet: An Integrated Surface Facilities/Reservoir Simulator
Author(s): Charles A. Weinstein, A. D. Modine, Chet Ozgen, Yusaf A. Shikari
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the recent development by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. (SSI) of a new reservoir simulator that integrates a full function surface facilities simulator with a general purpose gas-water simulator system (OMEGAPLUS) for the gas storage industry. The focus of this Gas Research Institute (GRI) funded research project is to improve the accuracy of simulating gas storage reservoir performance by integrating the effects of the surface facilities gathering systems and thereby improving the deliverability of gas out of these reservoirs. The new product, OMNET, is a full featured software system containing an enhanced version of OMEGAPLUS with a surface facilities simulator engine (TGNET) fully integrated into the solution mechanisms. Two application examples are provided to highlight the new functionality of the system.
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Document ID: FA4AFF3D

A Chipless Pipe Cutter
Author(s): James E. Huebler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the development of a chipless pipe cutter for making hot-taps on steel and cast iron pipes. The technique being developed for Southern CaHfornia Gas (SoCalGas) by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is based on electric discharge cutting. It offers many advantages over mechanical cutters including the elimination of chips and a new form of hottap machine that is much lighter and easier to handle.
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Document ID: BEB1DE4E

Mercury Disposal And Cleanup Issues For The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): John C. Bridges
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, the natural gas industry has used, and continues to use, mercury meters to quantify volumes of natural gas being produced, treated, transported, and sold. The use of these meters has often resulted in small quantities of liquid mercury being spilled/released into the area around such meters. An evaluation of these releases and remediation (cleanup) may be required because of potential worker exposure and/or hazardous waste implications. A brief overview of some of the issues related to mercury remediation is presented including site assessment and cleanup methods, equipment and contaminated media (soil) disposal, costs and applicable regulations.
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Document ID: B738DDE4

Atlanta Gas Light Companys Evaluation Of Electrofusion Technology
Author(s): Jeffrey D. Dyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of polyethylene pipe in the natural gas industry as an alternative to steel pipe has provided an economical, corrosion-free material for reliable natural gas service. The joining of polyethylene pipe can be achieved by direct fusion, or by using mechanical couplings. When polyethylene piping systems are joined by means of a metallic mechanical coupling, additional measures must be taken to maintain a corrosion-free distribution system. The metallic coupling must be cathodically protected by means of a coating and/or a sacrificial anode. The metallic coupling must be monitored and maintained for the life of the polyethylene piping system. In most instances, when repairs are made to polyethylene pipe, a mechanical coupling is typically used. Mechanical coupUngs require less time and smaller trenches for installation compared with direct fusion. Direct fusion requires a larger trench to allow adequate room for using the fusion equipment. In addition, direct fusion requires movement of the pipe, and as a result, a larger amount of pipe must be exposed in order to make a repair. In many cases, a larger trench equates to greater pavement rework.
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Document ID: DDDC358E

Large Diameter Plastic Pipe Usage At Shenandoati Gas
Author(s): Kenneth G. Behrens
Abstract/Introduction:
Large diameter plastic pipe has enjoyed an increasing role in gas distribution systems. The flexibility and ease of handling, coupled with the volume of gas that can be transported, fulfills gas distribution piping requirements in growth areas while providing cost Savings to LDCs. These advantages are discussed below in greater detail based on the actual experience of Shenandoah Gas Company.
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Document ID: BE6CBC7B

Strategic Planning For System Reliability And Expansion
Author(s): John C. Place
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Natural Gas Company recently developed a strategic plan which addresses the long range plans of all areas of the companys business. Two of the plans objectives relate to WNs largest facilities investment, its gas distribution system. The first of these objectives is to ensure that major distribution systems have adequate reliability. Supporting strategies are aimed at developing performance guidelines to be used in the evaluation of system reliability, conducting an evaluation of all major distribution systems against the guidelines, developing a prioritized schedule for action and completing the necessary changes to the systems. The second objective is to achieve market growth through increasing the customer base. Supporting strategies for this objective are the identification of areas within the companys service territory which are likely to experience growth and are not presently served with gas, and performance of a market analysis of potential customers that may be interested in converting to natural gas.
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Document ID: 0448547E

The Environmental Audit: Snapshots For Compliance
Author(s): Adriane P. Borgias
Abstract/Introduction:
Key areas of an envirormiental program are reviewed. The environmental audit is described from the perspective of an environmental auditor. Common areas of environmental noncompliance are discussed with the intent of helping facihty managers understand the audit process. The purpose of this paper is to provide facihty managers with the opportunity to view their facilities through new eyes: those of an environmental auditor. Whether this auditor is from a regulatory agency or from within your own company, this person will view your operations from a perspective which will probably be completely different from your own. Often one finds that an auditors eyes see what others only notice through the lens of a camera. Therefore, the snapshots presented in this paper are intended to give you a different view of your operations.
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Document ID: 12CAF823

Minnegascos Approach To Quality
Author(s): Sandra Cerda
Abstract/Introduction:
Minnegascos Quality Control Program started in 1966 when .062 wall thickness for plastic pipe became Minnesota state law. Since then, all plastic pipe installed in Minnegascos distribution system has been checked and documented. A manual describing Quality Control procedures and products to be tested has been written. The Quality Control Program was soon expanded to include not only plastic pipe and fittings but other gas carrying products used in the distribution system. The incoming inspection program created a bottle neck problem at the QC testing area. During 1989, a study showed that the products received at the warehouse were spending too much time sitting at the QC testing area, on average from the day received in the warehouse to the day placed in inventory. Items that required quality control tests were delayed seventeen days.
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Document ID: 83C622C3

Appliance Parts Procurement Past, Present, And Future
Author(s): Edward C. Miller, Joseph A. Altmann
Abstract/Introduction:
The reality of the energy crisis of the 1970s and the renewed concern for the environment has motivated consumers to demand higher efficiency gas appliances. The results of these demands have forced the manufacturers to completely redesign their appliances to meet this criteria. They have gone from standing pilots, to pilotless ignition, to the new hot surface ignition systems in a few short years. This has had a tendency to overburden parts supply vendors and facilities because of the multitude and variation of different controls in the field today. It is imperative that companies in the appliance repiiir business today review and revamp their stocking and procurement of appliance parts if they want to be in this business tomorrow. Keeping abreast of the latest refinements in technology of inventory management will give their customers better service and help them stay competitive in todays and tomorrows market.
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Document ID: 8DEE5CC1

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert m. Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the 1960s companies involved in the transmission of natural gas have used electronic equipment to measure gas flow and monitor pipeline operation. However, not until the early 1980s were reliable electronic equipment, increasingly accurate instrumentation and inexpensive computer programs all available to provide a system that could economically replace chart recorders. This paper discuss several items to be addressed when considering implementation of an electronic measurement system. Initial and periodic testing requirements are discussed. The impact on field maintenance is dealt with. And, finally, the impact on day-to-day operation is reviewed.
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Document ID: 3023F45A

The Benefits Of Coincidental Production And Storage
Author(s): Laura L. Langer, Mary Ann Gross
Abstract/Introduction:
Storage and production can coexist in a mutually beneficial way. There are situations where such coexistence cannot be avoided. It is necessary for storage operators to be aware of legal instruments, business agreements, and rules and regulations which can be used to facilitate this coexistence and benefit the storage operator as well as the producer by maximizing the exploitation of natural resources and satisfying ownership interests. In this paper I will delineate some of these instruments and arrangements through the discussion of one particular example that Equitrans has implemented at one of our West Virginia storage fields.
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Document ID: 403ECF8E

Remote Monitoring Of Cathodic Protection Rectifiers
Author(s): Michael P. Nolan
Abstract/Introduction:
Our effort to remotely monitor Con Edisons cathodic protection rectifiers began in 1988 when we experimented with the use of the first remote monitor manufactured specifically for this purpose. Although other more costly and sophisticated remote monitoring systems existed at that time, they were not intended for this use. One such system, in fact, was in use on our own system since 1987. It was used to monitor the operation of a stray current drain bond between pipe type feeders and the New York City Transit Authority. We used 22 of its 26 channels to simultaneously monitor current and potentials at various points. Its cost was about 3000, in addition to the 20,000 for its installation. The capabilities of this system greatly exceeded our requirements for monitoring the current and voltage output of a rectifier. After the 1988 installation, comparable units became available. These units provided enhanced software and additional channels for monitoring. In addition, their reduced cost was a critical factor in our decision to continue pursuing remote monitoring.
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Document ID: B5E7A51F

Field Quality Assurance/Polyethylene Piping
Author(s): Robert E. Branin
Abstract/Introduction:
Since 1969, the Southern California Gas Company has developed several programs to ensure that Polyethylene pipe, tooling, and related components meet company approved quality standards. A modern, state-of-the-art polymer laboratory, comprehensive inspection instructions, and an active, readily accessible Engineering Department are available to identify and reject substandard material. However, some defective material will still reach the end user. At SoCalGas we have implemented several methods that allow field crews to identify, reject, and report this material before installation. Included are several, inexpensive, easy-to-use gauges and tools that can be used at the job site to inspect critical job elements.
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Document ID: 43B13F31

Remote Detection Of Pipeline Corrosion
Author(s): J. C. Murphy, R. Srinivasan, C. B. Schroebel, P. Gopalan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the principles and applications of a system for monitoring active corrosion on buried gas pipelines using sensitive, dc coupled magnetometers to detect currents flowing on and from a buried pipeline. The frequency dependence of these currents can be analyzed to determine the rate of local corrosion if the corroding area is known. When the corroding area is not known, the relative corrosion rates of segments-of the pipeline approximately three feet long can be determined. Note that this system measures instantaneous corrosion rate, not metal loss associated with past corrosion. In this sense the method described in this paper is intended to identify active corrosion and allow mitigation before damage to the pipeline has occurred. If the relative corrosion rate is measured over time, then the extent of accumulated damage could be determined.
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Document ID: 697B2818

Utilizing Innovatative Communication Techniques To Improve Service, Quality And Efficiency
Author(s): Edward Ehmer
Abstract/Introduction:
Currently the Customer Services Area is utilizing tomorrows technologies to improve the quality of service to todays customers. This is being accomplished through the efforts of a systems analysis group working within the Customer Services Area. Its main objective is to develop, implement and maintain systems that increase the performance and efficiency of our service efforts.
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Document ID: FB53CB04

Regulation, Analysis And Treatment Of Hydrostatic Test Water From Natural Gas Pipelines
Author(s): John P. Fillo, James m. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Federal and State laws require natural gas pipeline companies to maintain the integrity of their pipelines to protect the public from accidents involving potential failure of the pipelines. The most common procedure used to demonstrate pipeline integrity is hydrostatic testing using water. Waters discharged after completion of a hydrostatic test must typically be managed in accordance with applicable state environmental regulations. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a program to develop industryspecific information on hydrostatic test water discharges and their proper management. The program consisted of a review of state regulatory discharge requirements hydrostatic test water characterization to ascertain the variability and magnitude of the discharge composition, and define sampling/ analytical protocols to properly characterize the discharge treatment investigations to test performance of bench- and full-scale systems, and evaluate the feasibility and economics of alternatives to effect proper treatment/disposal. This paper summarizes the key results derived from this work.
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Document ID: 519097CD

Impact Of Shrinking/Re-Expanding Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): George W. Paul, Yusaf A. Shikari, Fabian O. Iwere
Abstract/Introduction:
Loss of deliverability and an increase in base gas volume can occur when a gas storage aquifer undergoes shrinkage or expansion as demand increases or decreases. These problems result from a combination of water influx, trapped gas, and lower permeability to gas during the withdrawal cycle. Results from a Gas Research Institute project demonstrate, via detailed reservoir characterization, how these factors may be assessed to improve management of storage inventory and deliverability.
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Document ID: 875C1337

Safety And Reliability For Instrumentation Applications In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Peter J. Hanowich
Abstract/Introduction:
This report discusses electrical safety and topics related to the application of electronic instrumentation in the Natural Gas Industry. To define the scope of the report, we define what we mean by electronic instrumentation, gas industry and codes.
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Document ID: FD577823

Use Of Contractor Locators For Workload Peak Shaving
Author(s): Thomas E. Wendt
Abstract/Introduction:
The Wisconsin Natural Gas Company service territory is located south and west of the city of Milwaukee and in the Appleton area of Wisconsin (Exhibit 1). Our service territory covers 1,970 square miles. We operate 8,600 miles of main and have approximately 703 employees. We provide service to 272,000 customers. Our service territory is broken into six operating districts, each with its own service center. Wisconsin Natural belongs to Diggers Hotline, the one-call system for owners of underground facilities in the state of Wisconsin. For the most part, we perform our own locating activities from each of our district offices. The requests for locates are received from Diggers Hotline and transferred electronically to each of the district offices and then manually given to the field locators. Emergency locates are handled by radio dispatch. Normally, we have between 8-25 employees involved on a full-time basis in locating activities. In 1991. we completed 93,000 locate requests at a cost of 1.5 million.
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Document ID: E39D9095

Environmental Clearances For Pipeline Projects
Author(s): Elliott H. Harris
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents some general observations concerning the environmental review process for major pipeline facility construction projects. The emphasis however, is on the procedures required for obtaining permits from agencies responsible for protection of biological resources. Other permitting issues are addressed as well. The basis for the paper is several projects which SoCal constructed. Other projects are also used to demonstrate the environmental documentation required before construction can begin. Issues from these projects are used as examples to illustrate the complexity and sometimes confusing and conflicting requirements placed upon the applicant by the various regulatory agencies,
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Document ID: EFFFE535

The First U.S. Compresses-Air Energy Storage Caes() Plant Status
Author(s): Bhupen Mehta
Abstract/Introduction:
The first U.S. compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant (110-MW 26-hr) was built by Alabama Electric Corporation, Inc. (AEG) in Mcintosh, Alabama, and started commercial operation on May 31, 1991. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is an active participant in the project, with particular emphasis on R&Drelated aspects, turbomachinery, underground storage, recuperator, scientific measurements, and performance tests. Since the plant is the first-ofits- kind in the United States, valuable lessons have been learned throughout its development and initial operation. This paper summarizes the history of the decision to build the plant and its design, construction, and initial operation.
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Document ID: DA80E278

Development Of The Battelle/National Meter Compact Diaphragm Gas Meter
Author(s): Gregory S. Kramer, Raymond K. Kim
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the development of a positive-displa.cement, compact diaphragm gas meter for residential use. The compjict diaphragm gas meter is approximately 25 percent the volume and i5 percent the weight of current meters. It has a rugged die-cast aluminum housing, contains traditional rubber reinforced diaphragms, and uses proven reciprocating valves. It is as accurate as full-size meters, has a temperature compensator option, and will be competitive in price with current meters. It will interface to a wide range of remote and automatic meter reading equipment. The project is being conducted by Battelle and National Meter under funding by the Gas Research Institute.
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Document ID: 217EFCF0

Smart Transmitters: Protocol Developments
Author(s): Jim Cobb
Abstract/Introduction:
Digital technology is having a large impact on field instrumentation. Field digital communications is beginning to have an effect on the way we use instrumentation and this evolution will continue as thefieldbus efforts evolve into an international standard. Digital technology is affecting field instrumentation in two basic ways. The first area is in the actual design of the digital field device utilizing microprocessors and memory storage capabilities. The second area is in the use of digital communications. Each of these brings its own set of benefits and opportunities to us. We are only just beginning to explore the ways that digital field devices can be used to best advantage.
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Document ID: A7709C80

Indoor Air Quality
Author(s): John W. Mcclintock
Abstract/Introduction:
As a result of the 1973 world oil crisis and. in Canada, the 1980 National Energy Program, Canadians converted from oil to natural gas in unprecedented numbers. Since then, homes have been renovated and constructed with energy conservation in mind- In these efforts to conserve energy, homes were equipped with more insulation, were sealed more tightly and required smaller furnaces. The effect of lower input natural gas furnaces on unlined chimneys was to accelerate, in some cases, the deterioration of the chimney wall and create the potential for maintenance and safety problems. Without an adequate supply of fresh air for proper combustion, the potential for producing carbon monoxide became more acute. In efforts to maintain public acceptance of natural gas as a safe, convenient and economical source of energy, Consumers Gas took positive steps to implement safety-related programs and communicate service-related information to its customers.
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Document ID: F2DE3645

Computer-Based Health & Safety Training- Reducing Accidents By Building Safe Behaviors
Author(s): Karen Jackson
Abstract/Introduction:
At least 85% of industrial accidents are caused by unsafe behaviors. Once an unsafe act has set an unplanned event in motion, the consequences are largely determined by luck. One way to impact workers behavior on the job is through a behavior-based training program. Computer-based training offers an efficient and effective method to positively influence behavior while giving workers an opportunity to own their training.
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Document ID: 927E8B68

Three-Dimensional Centrifugal Impeller Finite Element Anaysis
Author(s): P. R. Gelse
Abstract/Introduction:
Finite element analysis is used extensively to analyze impellers. Previously simple one-dimensional analyses were performed. Later twodimensional axisymmetric finite element analyses became the standard. Impeller analyses performed using an option in NASTRAN called cyclic symmetry allowed the user to model a pie slice (Figure No. I ) of the impeller instead of the entire 360 degrees. This modeling procedure allowed not only steady state static analysis but dynamics analysis as well. The big advantage of this technique over previous techniques is that we could perform true threedimensional analysis instead of only one-dimensional or two-dimensional analyses. Full 360 degree models with ANSYS are now used when required and possible, and super elements with ANSYS allow similar three-dimensional dynamic analyses to be performed whenever necessary. The example which follows is a 5M Y impeller, with a 50 inch diameter. There was a concern about long term dynamic stresses, and so a full three-dimensional model was used to analyze the design.
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Document ID: EF2309B2

Large Diameter Polyethylene-An Alternative Solution
Author(s): Robert E. Branin
Abstract/Introduction:
Completilive changes in the marketplace are requiring many gas utilities to look for new methods or processes to redue construction and operating costs. At Southern California Gas Company (SoCal), large diarater (6 PE) pipe was evaluated as a cost-effective alternative to steel pipe. This report outlines the methodology used by SoCal to evaluate and identify the cost-benefits associated with large diameter PE pipe.
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Document ID: 80A90E06

Employee Qualification-A New Era In Training Has Begun
Author(s): Robert A. Stone
Abstract/Introduction:
A national requirement for the qualification of pipeline operating employees is at hand. The Office of Pipeline Safety within the Department of Transportation has been working on a rule for the past five years which is expected to take effect this year. Your existing training program may not fully meet the new requirements with regard to training, testing, documentation, qualification, and performance monitoring. The State of Missouri implemented qualification requirements in 1989 requiring all pipeline operators, their contractors, and subcontractors to be in compliance by June of 1991. A review of the qualification program widely used in Missouri will provide some insight as to the impact of what is about to become a universal requirement in the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: D0BA8954

Update On Wetlands And Impacts On The Gas Industry
Author(s): Ronald Isaacson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute has three ongoing research projects studying impacts of the natural gas industry on wetlands and how operations can be managed to minimize or eUminate these impacts. The first project is developing a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. From this, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The second project is assessing the floral and faunal communities on existing ROWs through numerous types of wetlands across the U.S. The emphasis is on pipelines that were installed within the past 5 years. The third project is eviiluating the administrative, jurisdictional, technical and economic issues of wetlands mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date and the dehverables.
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Document ID: C8EEE8A1

A Network Facilities Management System-An Integrated Environment For Improved Engineering And Operation Of Gas Distribution Networks
Author(s): S. K. Sorem, T. E. Richwine
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a hypothetical case study of a gas companys effort to implement a network facilities management system. The factors that influence the employees environment, both external and internal, are discussed as well as the guiding management goals. A question and solution approach is taken to solving specific problems which the employees face in performing their day-to-day activities. A flexible solution process is presented which solves selected questions. The components of the network facilities management system are presented and some steps the company should take to improve these areas are discussed. Finally, general guidelines (words of wisdom) are presented which should help the company in implementing a working network facilities management system.
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Document ID: F2C42481

Evolution Of Service Truck Arrangements Tools And Appliance Parts
Author(s): Jim Larkin
Abstract/Introduction:
The arrival of new generation equipment with state of the art gas appliance components has resulted in having our service vehicles efficiently stocked with expensive replacement parts, tools, and specialized testing equipment. In addition, the utility service technicians are required to respond to emergencies as well as being dispatched to complete all meter work, maintenance work, and regulatory inspections. The 1990s service truck arrangements are vital. The technicians must be confident that their vehicle inventory is adequately stocked with parts, tools, and instruments, in order to properly execute their daily tasks. Unplanned, unorganized vehicle stock arrangements are costly, unsafe, and could result in poor service to our customers.
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Document ID: 70242E02

Ultrasonic Flow Meters-Single Path
Author(s): Jan G. Drenthen, J. J. Huijsmans
Abstract/Introduction:
Especially in complex pipe configurations and in cases when the gas is not completely clean, sand particles and liquid residues may be present, the accuracy of the conventional measuring methods life the orifice, the vortex and the turbine meter deteriorates rapidly. This, in combination with increased concern about the limits of our natural energy resources, pushes the need for more accurate and reliable instrumentation. One of the very few measuring methods that can be made highly insensitive to this kind of fouling is the acoustic measurement technique For the single path acoustic flowmeter the present papers describes the various measuring methods applied. the prediction of the Reynolds dependence, based on a new set of equations that takes in account the influence of the laminar sublayer. the performance results under various pipe configurations and pressures.
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Document ID: 2D094B18

Summary Of Carbon Monoxide Awareness At North American Gas Utilities
Author(s): Vance G. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1989, the American Gas Associations Customer Service and Utilization Committee sent a survey to its member companies asking, What is your company doing to make the general pubhc aware of the potential hazards from carbon monoxide? All companies responding were taking an active role in making the public aware of carbon monoxide in varying degrees. The same member companies that responded to the first survey were informally polled again in early 1992 to get any updates in their programs. This presentation summarizes the highlights of several gas utility companies current activities with respect to carbon monoxide and public awareness.
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Document ID: 125CA938

Blasting And Its Effect On Liquified Natural Gas Tanks
Author(s): Claude Dore
Abstract/Introduction:
In July 1990, a contractor working on behalf of the City of Montreal requested permission to use dynamite in order to install a new water and sewer system nearby our L.N.G. Plant. Permission was granted after we reviewed the charges of dynamite the contractor intended to use. Our main concern was to protect a distribution line located a few meters away from the work site. A few days after the first dynamite blast (July 19), drops in temperature were observed at the base of tank L SOB. This drop continued for several days. We initiated the following operations to check the foundation heating system: We checked the electric signal between the thermocouple and the control panel but the result was negative. We checked the thermocouple itself but it was in good condition. We checked the conductivity of the heating cables. Again, negative. Finally, we took additionnal temperature measurements using a rigid thermocouple to determine the temperature profile across the tank bottom. This revealed a lower temperature at the perimeter of the tank. To minimize the possible and potential damages, we stopped hquefaction and turned up the heating system to its maximum. Finally, on Friday July 26, we decided to empty the tank for inspection. (Faithful to Murphys law: the tank had to be emptied during the last weekend of July which is historically the period of lowest gas consumption in our network).
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Document ID: 28C0A5F0

Economics Of Electronic Measurement
Author(s): Bradley A. Merlie
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, an increasing number of natural gas production, transmission, and distribution companies have begun to move away from the time honored means of recording gas flow information on paper charts. While the heart of most custody transfer measurement installations remains the meter tube/orifice plate combination, the use of microprocessor based electronic flow measurement (EFM) devices to record metering data is increasing at a rapid rate. These devices are being used to gather flow data on site, and calculate and store volumes based on A.G-A.-3, A.G.A.-7, NX-19, and/or A.G.A.-8 equations. Depending on the manufacturer, data can be stored at intervals from one minute to one hour and as much as one year of hourly data can be maintained in the EFM devices memory. The data can be collected on site with a small hand held terminal or laptop computer, or can be retrieved remotely through the use of a computer and a communication link to the remote location. In addition, on-site displays can make certain portions of the data available for local access.
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Document ID: 82A81C05

U.S- Trade In LNG
Author(s): Philip J. Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Historically, the first cargo of liquefied natural gas (LNG) imported to the United States came from the CAMEL plant, owned and operated by ALGERIAS SONATRACH, in 1968. That cargo was lifted aboard the ARISTOTLE, nee METHANE PIONEER, and delivered to Boston Gas Companys Commercial Point peakshaving plant. The first purpose-built receiving terminal in the United States began operation in 1971. It was constructed by a subsidiary of a non-utility company with a long history in the LNG business, Cabot Corp., in Everett, Massachusetts. Since that date, a total of three additional LNG terminals have been constructed in the United States with a total capacity in terms of vaporized LNG of 23.13 billion m annually. Projections of US. trade in LNG made during the 1970s, Table 1, forecast far larger volumes than were ever realized.
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Document ID: 76EA237C

Electric Transportation: An Update
Author(s): James V. Janasik
Abstract/Introduction:
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) -the research organization of the U.S. electric utility industry-created a program over 10 years ago to support the research and development of new electric transportation technologies. Now, with automakers increasingly committed to electric vehicle (EV) development, EPRIs Transportation Program is shifting its focus away from its initial goal of developing EV technology. Current activities include creating the electric utility infrastructure necessary to support EVs, participating in the development of advanced EV batteries, and supporting the development of advanced urban transit systems and high-speed intercity transport systems. Together, these activities will help ensure a strong role for electricity as a clean, domestically produced transportation fuel.
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Document ID: C663125A

Atlanta Gas Light Companys Evaluation Of Electrofusion Technology
Author(s): Jeffrey D. Dyer
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of polyethylene pipe in the natural gas industry as an alternative to steel pipe has provided an economical, corrosion-free material for reliable natural gas service. The joining of polyethylene pipe can be achieved by direct fusion, or by using mechanical couplings. When polyethylene piping systems are joined by means of a metallic mechanical coupling, additional measures must be taken to maintain a corrosion-free distribution system. The metallic coupling must be cathodically protected by means of a coating and/or a sacrificial anode. The metallic coupling must be monitored and maintained for the life of the polyethylene piping system. In most instances, when repairs are made to polyethylene pipe, a mechanical coupling is typically used. Mechanical couplings require less time and smaller trenches for installation compared with direct fusion. Direct fusion requires a larger trench to allow adequate room for using the fusion equipment. In addition, direct fusion requires movement of the pipe, and as a result, a larger amount of pipe must be exposed in order to make a repair. In many cases, a larger trench equates to greater pavement rework. In searching for alternate methods of repairing polyethylene pipe, Atlanta Gas Light Company evaluated five electrofusion systems. The main advantage of electrofusion is that it provides a simple, reliable means of joining polyethylene pipe while maintaining a corrosion-free piping system. Electrofusion can be used to make repairs in situations where conventional heat fusion equipment is not practical and metallic mechanical couplings are not desired.
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Document ID: 6995B064

A Fleet Managers Role In Support Of Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Author(s): John H. Stark
Abstract/Introduction:
With the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, the use of alternative fuels in motor vehicles has become a priority for industrial fleets. As utility fleet operators, we are affected in two ways. First, we are all considered industrial fleets and so must comply with the Clean Air Act. Secondly, as suppliers of natural gas or electricity, we want to supply the fuel for natural gas or electric vehicles. Brooklyn Unions efforts in the use of an alternative fuel for vehicles dates back to the early 1980s. The initial program was to demonstrate the feasibility of natural gas as a vehicle fuel. During this period, Brooklyn Union maintained this program, while promoting an increased awareness of alternative fuels in vehicles. Todays automobile is a highly sophisticated computerized machine incorporating technological advances that couldnt even be imagined when Henry Ford produced the Model T. Alternative fuels, however, are not new technology. They arrived with the first horseless carriage. What has changed though, is the technology that leads to a better utiHzation of alternative fuels.
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Document ID: AAE1BFD1

Solid-State Isolator/Surge Protector
Author(s): Henry N. Tachick
Abstract/Introduction:
Many existing products designed with old technology are in conflict with current concerns about worker safety and the environment. We are all aware of many functionally acceptable products that have been replaced before the end of life because the risks associated with continued use outweighed the benefit of the function provided. This paper presents an alternative to one such product currently used in the corrosion protection industry.
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Document ID: 6DF1476B

Reciprocating Engine Clean Exhaust Retrofit: A Cost Benefit Analysis
Author(s): William C. Wirz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is primarily concerned with the reduction in regulated emissions of 2 and 4 cycle, industrial, natural gas fired, stationary engines. Background information as well as accepted means of controHing or reducing emissions will be presented. Finally this information will be used to develop a reductions benefit versus cost impact analysis.
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Document ID: 3A898F9B

Dry Seal Retrofit On Centrifugal Compressors
Author(s): Stan O. Uptigrove
Abstract/Introduction:
Maintaining seal oil systems has traditionally been one of the biggest problems faced by operators of centrifugal compression equipment. This problem is compounded when highly toxic gases or very dirty gases are being compressed. This paper describes NOVAs program to identify, research and implement technologically and economically sound means of eliminating the many problems associated with these oil systems. The operating principles, experiences and advantages of dry gas seals are discussed together with the retrofit requirements, cost and performance results. Novacorp Internationals experiences with the retrofit of units in sour gas, petrochemical, refrigeration, refinery and natural gas services are also briefly described.
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Document ID: 04ACAF91

Cost/Benefit Assessment Of 8 Diameter Plastic Vs. Steel Piping
Author(s): John C. Place
Abstract/Introduction:
Wisconsin Natural Gas Company installs medium density polyethylene pipe for mains and services 6 diameter and smaller. WN recently considered use of 8 PE as an alternative to installing 8 wrapped steel main. As with smaller diameters, the installed cost of 8 PE is significantly less than that of wrapped steel main of the same nominal size. A comparative cost/benefit assessment of plastic and wrapped steel, sizes 2 through 8, showed that steel has an increasingly significant advantage over PE main in terms of deliverability as the nominal size increases. This is a result of the more pronounced increase in the wall thickness of PE pipe, and thereby, smaller inside diameter of PE compared to steel pipe. WNs assessment showed that 8 wrapped steel and 8 PE are approximately equivalent in terms of deliverability per dollar of installed cost. Based on this and other factors, WN chose not to initiate the use of 8 PE at this time.
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Document ID: 4A7AB54F

Gri Update On Residential Appliance Research
Author(s): Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC), funded by the Gas Research Institute, is a center of expertise relating to residential and commercial appliance development. The GATC responds to near term technology needs by working closely with manufacturers, identifying barriers to technology application and conducting applied research to overcome them. This paper will discuss some of the curirent and future planned activities of the GATC. The impact of current developments in interior piping on GATC activities will also be discussed.
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Document ID: D1209CCD

Vehicular Fuels For The 90s
Author(s): Roy P. Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
What was your first recollection of gasoline, this fluid today which next to water is the most necessary in our lives? For me it was back in 1944 during World War II when my uncle pulled into an ESSO station with his 38 Chevrolet, purchased some gas and along with the money, gave the attendant some stamps. Until he sold the car in 1952, a sticker with the letter A was still on the rear window. There are few things in life which raise the passion of Americans as does their love for their cars and the products they use to power them. Consider the NASCAR races where the major oil companies sponsor and proudly display their corporate names and products on the race cars and billboards throughout the track. Radio and television ads expound the benefits of Sunoco Ultra with the highest octane available, or EXXON with its Formula 4 gasolines, and so on. What is this fluid we took for granted until the fuel crisis of 1973 and 1979, and more recently, sent a half a million American solders to Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm to fight to keep crude oil-the base product of gasoline flowing to our cars and trucks? What is this orange, tan, blue, or clear liquid which we are so famihar with, and yet know so little about?
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Document ID: 878D37CC

Overview Of Ruhrgas Pvt Research
Author(s): m. Jaeschke
Abstract/Introduction:
The revision of the AGA report No.8 prepared by the AGA Transmission Measurement Committee provides highly accurate calculations of natural gas compressibility factors. The two methods selected to charcterize a natural gas and calculate compressibility factors represents todays state of the art. Both methods are strongly based on the GERG databank to which Ruhrgas contributed a major part. To achieve this Ruhrgas spent the last ten years to promote thermodynamic research and development to improve the accuracy of density and compressibility factor measurements and equations of state. What is or was the interest of Ruhrgas in this research field? Ruhrgas is mainly a gas merchant company (Figure 1). Ruhrgas purchases natural gas from West German reservoirs, from fields in the North Sea belonging to other West European countries) and in the Soviet-Union. She sells the gas to local utilities, regional pipelines, powerstation and industrial users. For the flow of the gas Ruhrgas operates 5400 miles of pipelines, 31 compressor stations and 7 underground storage facilities with a reservoir of approx. lOObillionftS of gases. Ruhrgas sells approx. 1800 billion ft3 of gas. This total amount corresponds to the supply of approx. 30 million residential user.
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Document ID: A7F192E8

Current Technology In Nox Reducing Methods For Large-Bore, Stationary Gas Engines
Author(s): J. J. Mccoy, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The current state-of-the-art for large-bore, stationary gas engines includes methods that can, on new engines, reduce the level of NO, emissions to 2 gm/Hp, but in general that requires a combustion system that includes a precombustion chamber, oversized turbocharger, and a control system that will maintain the proper air/fuel ratio, proper ignition timing, and other control features that will keep the engine from emitting NO. at a higher rate. When talking about methods available for retrofitting to an existing engine, there is a considerable difference in available systems. In commercially available systems, the Clean Bum system offered by several original equipment manufacturers involves nearly a complete engine rebuild, including replacing all the cylinder heads and the turbocharger, plus a control system that will operate the engine within a certain engine map. The cost of such a system is not much less than the cost of a new engine, especially if one were to compare replacing multiple old units with fewer, larger horsepower new units. Because of the expense and limited life (from an engine that may already be 30-40 years old), this is not considered a particularly viable method of NO, reduction.
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Document ID: 62DA8E0C

Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicle Experience Of A Large Transit Fleet
Author(s): Russell Pentz, James P. Lewis
Abstract/Introduction:
In response to the requirement of the Texas Clean Air Legislation and the Federal Clean Air Act, the Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority (METRO) evaluated the economic, environmental and operational aspects of potential alternate fuels. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) became an obvious choice for the utilization by METROS bus fleet because of: (a) weight and size of alternative fuel systems, (b) safety, (c) emissions, (d) short and long term costs, (e) domestic availability/ dependability in long term supply, (f) on-site storage capability, and (g) fuel quality. Through the mechanism of the competitive free market and entrepreneurial spirit of American industry, METRO has contracted for a long term LNG supply at very attractive prices. Although the program was initiated in response to environmental legislation, we project that LNG will also ultimately reduce operating costs. METRO is still researching LNG quality requirements, but our tentative conclusion is that a minimum of 94% methane will be required for highcompression engine applications.
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Document ID: 9B189A5E

Gri Distribution Measurenient Research Update
Author(s): John G. Gregor, Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) plans, manages, and develops financing for a cooperative research and development (R&D) program to address the mutual needs of the natural gas industry and its customers. Operations related R&D includes activities pertinent to the gas distribution measurement area. Current projects planned or in progress, some of which are incorporated into the GRI Metering Research Facility Program, include research on compact gas meters, energy content measurement devices, electronic flow measurement systems, diaphragm meters, and electronic pressure/temperature correctors. The objectives and status of these GRI-sponsored distribution measurement research projects are briefly reviewed.
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Document ID: 32C1E844

Compressor Station Noise Attenuation Techiques
Author(s): G. P. Pappas
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas Ltd. has recently been involved in the design of an acoustically treated compressor station. Noise emanating from a station into the environnent outside the property perimeter is caused by mechamcal equipment in operation and gas flowing through piping and valves. Noise generated from a turbine station varies in power level and frequencv. The noises, varying from the high frequency throbbing type, create a number of problems for surrounding residential homes. Increasingly stringent guidelines and public awareness of noise have resulted in intensified efforts of industry to reduce noise emissions. Significant portions of the design effort of compression facilities are dedicated to the mitigation of noise. This paper provides an overview of noise and considers how a compressor station can be designed and built to meet a silencing requirement. Specific aspects of this were successfully applied to Union Gas Limiteds, Parkway Compressor Station, Canada.
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Document ID: 75134489

Magnetic Flux Leakage Technology For Pipeline Inspection
Author(s): J. Bruce Nestleroth, Thomas A. Bubenik, Robert J. Eiber
Abstract/Introduction:
Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is the most commonly used technology for the in-line inspection (ILl) of natural gas transmission pipelines. There are many classes of pipeline imperfections or defects. Magnetic inspection systems to detect most of these imperfections either exist or have the strong potenial for being developed. Once imperfections are detected, characterization of the defect geometry becomes important. Many variables affect characterization accuracy and the current research challenge is to understand the effect of these variables. The primary focus of the NDE Laboratory of the GRI Pipeline Research Facility has been to develop a knowledge base on magnetic flux leakage so that improved charaterization systems can be developed. This paper begins with a review the basic concepts of magnetic flux leakage for the detection and characterization of pipeline imperfections. Then, a general overview of the factors that effect the application of MFL inspection including pipeline constraints is presented.
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Document ID: 872BBC47

Emerging Market For Natural Gas Vehicles
Author(s): Wally Parker, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
THE NATIONAL CONCERN OVER THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE LARGE PART PLAYED BY AUTO EMISSIONS IN AIR POLLUTION IN MAJOR URBAN AREAS IS INSPIRING A GROWING INTEREST IN THE CLEAN-BURNING CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL GAS FOR AUTOMOTIVE FUEL USE. That quote is from the A.G.A. monthly magazine issue of January, 1971. More than 20 years ago. My point is simply this. Youve heard alot about NGVs for the past several days. Their benefits, their technology, their environmental attractiveness, and the abundant supplies of gas available for that market. All of that is positive. But all of that isnt quite enough. We in the natural gas industry know that the inherent advantages of our fuel were apparent 20 years ago, when the statement I read to you was made. There was an environmental concern then, too, as now, and all the inherent benefits of gas were apparent then yet we couldnt get NGVs to really take off. And weve been working to promote NGVs during those 20 years. But the real turning point for NGVs lies ahead, just ahead. Because its not enough to be the good guys. The guys with the white hats. Or the white handkerchiefs, if you will - remembering the famous white handkerchief test they like to do in my hometown. New York City, to demonstrate our clean fuel. It takes more than being right. So strong is Americas liquid-fuel psychology that it will take reaching a moment in history, too.
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Document ID: CBD96564

The History Of The Gas Turbine Meter
Author(s): Joseph A. Bonner, Winston F. Z. Lee
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter has been used in gas measurement for over ninety years. In the last fifty years, extensive R&D has generated significant advances in gas turbine meter technology. This, in combination with the experience gained from vast field testing and applications over a wide variety of operating conditions have resulted in significant improvements in meter performance and reliability. Outstanding progress has been made in rotor and flow passage design thrust load balancing bearing selection, protection and lubrication internal flow conditioning high pressure calibration field checking national and international standards and other aspects of the meter and its use. Today, the gas turbine meter is accepted and recognized for accurate and reliable custody transfer in the gas industry.
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Document ID: ECB404DD

Reminiscing About The Early Orifice Ivieter Coefficient Studies
Author(s): Harry P. Bean
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Measurement Committee of the National Gas Association (now The American Gas Association) was established 68 years ago to formulate standards for orifice meters and to improve orifice metering accuracy. The 1990 update of A.G.A. Report No. 3 is but an extension of the work began by those very diligent individuals. As you may know, my father was Mr. Howard S. Bean of the old National Bureau of Standards. I grew up amidst some of the great contributors to gas measurement and the physicists and scientists of N.B.S.. With the exception of Dr. Buckingham, I wasnt awed by these men. Being among them was as natural as being with my neighborhood playmates. Only much later in my life did I come to realize how fortunate I was to have basked in the reflected glory of Dads important gas measurement friends.
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Document ID: FD57FDF4

Benefits Of A Pipline Training Simulator
Author(s): Brian J. Mcconaghy
Abstract/Introduction:
NOVAS Alberta Gas Transmission Division (AGTD) is responsible for receiving, measuring, quality control, and transmission of Alberta natural gas within and exported from the province. This responsibility includes the planning, design, construction, and operation of our natural gas transmission facilities in Alberta. The Alberta system carries more than 13% of the gas produced annually in Canada and the United States, including over SOVo of marketed Canadian production. Heading into the 1990s the company was faced with several major challenges, A major pipeline system ecpansion is under way which would dramatically increase the size and operating complexity of the system. To facilitate this growth, an increasing level of facility outages are required at a time when the system is operating at high, and increasing load factors.
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Document ID: 09AD5463

Ultrasonic Coupling For Gas Pipeline Inspection
Author(s): Glenn m. Light, Gary J. Hendrix
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses work being conducted at Southwest Research Institute under funding by the Gas Research Institute on ultrasonic inspection technology of gas pipelines to determine the wall thickness and integrity of the pipeline. It also includes a general description of how ultrasonic technology can be used to monitor wall thickness and detect cracks a discussion of conventional, liquid-coupled ultrasonic technology versus drycoupled ultrasonic technology and a discussion of the tests and initial results obtained during laboratory investigation of drycoupled ultrasonic technology.
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Document ID: 08B319A0

Supporting Utility Operations With A Centralized, Automated Distribution Center
Author(s): Joyce m. Pritchard
Abstract/Introduction:
A study of the entire materials management arena of Public Service Company of Colorado led to the construction of a modern, automated warehouse facility, the Materials Distribution Center (MDC), in 1986. During the past five years PSCo has been working toward full utilization of the MDC and the implementation of the recommendations of the study. In addition to the construction of the facility itself, these recommendations included centralization of inventory next day delivery of material to gas and electric crews centralization of salvage and delivery activities a new Materials Management Infomiation System (MMIS) computer system centralization of gas, electric and transformer shop activities The role of the MDC in the implementation of these recommendations, the achievement of the project benefits, and areas of opportunity are the topic of this paper.
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Document ID: 4286302E

Operational Experience Of The Mopico Compressor
Author(s): Craig m. Linn
Abstract/Introduction:
In May of 1991, an 8000 horsepower integral variable frequency electric motor driven centrifugal compressor (MOPICO) was started up at Transcos Compressor Station in Billingsley, Alabama. This paper shall describe the operating experience of the unit to date. To briefly review the design of the MOPICO, the unit consists of a 10 000 RPM variable frequency driven electric motor. The motor pulls approximately 6000 KW at 10,000 RPM. The motor is integrally coupled to two high efficiency centrifugal compressors, one on each end. The motor shaft is supported by three magnetic bearing assemblies, two which levitate the rotor on two axes on a 45 degree bias from horizontal and vertical and one which positions the rotor in the Z or axial plane (see Figure 1).
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Document ID: BADC54FF

Cost Effectiveness Of Large Diameter Plastic Pipe
Author(s): Mark J. Hooper
Abstract/Introduction:
Large diameter plastic pipe can be installed economically compared to steel pipe. National Fuel Gas is a holding company which owns nine energy related subsidiaries. One of the subsidiaries. National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation, is a public utility that provides natural gas service and transportation of end user gas in western New York and northwestern Pennsylvania. The Distribution Corporation serves approximately 715,000 customers with the principle metropohtan areas being Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Jamestown, New York, together with Erie and Sharon, Pennsylvania. National Fuel has been installing 6 and larger plastic pipe for many years and recently began installing 12 plastic pipe.
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Document ID: E32263F0

Comparison And Application Of Two Methods For Corrosion Evaluation-CORVAL II
Author(s): William A. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is intended to illustrate the theoretical basis, practical application, and results of the implementation of COREVAL 11, Tenneco Gas PC based corrosion evaluation program. The computer program, in its raw form, is based on the empirical work of J.F. Kiefner and P.H. Vieth as outlined in Battelles Project 3-805, A modified Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe. COREVAL II is actually a modification of the PC program RSTRENG described in Battelles report, and it was written by Tennecos Scott Canterbury in early 1990. Further modifications made by this author molded the program into its present state. This paper will describe various facets of COREVAL II in direct relation to its predecessor, COREVAL I.
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Document ID: 4D9185E8

LNG North-Americas Newest Peak Shaving Facility
Author(s): H.E. Melville, Luke V. SCORSONE,LINDSAY C. Lindgren
Abstract/Introduction:
Citizens Gas & Coke Utility have in 1991 commissioned LNG North the latest LNG Pealc Shaving facility in North America to meet the future winter month peak demands of the City of Indianapolis, and Marion County, Indiana. A number of changes with respect to equipment and safety standards have occurred in the nineteen years since their first facility LNG South was commissioned in 1972. An outline of this new facility LNG North is described in the paper and some of these changes are mentioned along with references to Federal regulations for LNG facilities.
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Document ID: B2CC944C

Boring In The Big City
Author(s): Dennis m. Walsh, Joseph J. Marazzo
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past two years, The Brooklyn Union Gas Company in New York City has undergone significant changes in the methods to install our natural gas service and main piping systems. Faced with both increasing costs and increased governmental regulation in the area of street restorations in an urban environment, we have brought trenchless technology to the forefront of our construction practices. This paper will highlight our approach to trenchless technology, how it has helped us to offset our rising unit costs, and has provided benefits to both our customers and the territory we serve. Included in our efforts will be details on the development of a steel pipe splitting system for commercial applications.
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Document ID: AF8DDF0A

Compressor Station Noise Attenuation Techiques
Author(s): G.P. Pappas
Abstract/Introduction:
Union Gas Ltd. has recently been involved in the design of an acoustically treated compressor station. Noise emanating from a station into the environnent outside the property perimeter is caused by mechamcal equipment in operation and gas flowing through piping and valves. Noise generated from a turbine station varies in power level and frequencv. The noises, varying from the high frequency throbbing type, create a number of problems for surrounding residential homes.
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Document ID: 25B45520

Update On Pcb Laws And Regulations
Author(s): Jeffrey J. Davidson, Kenneth R. Meade
Abstract/Introduction:
Compliance with PCB regulations and remediation of PCB releases to the environment combine to present the gas industry with one of its largest environment challenges. EPAs Office of Civil Enforcement has begun an enforcement initiative that is focused on noncompliance with the TSCA PCB regulations. EPA officials have acknowledged that cleaning up PCBs in natural gas pipeline is the intended goal of this initiative, and that significant civil penalties may likely be issued before the end of 1992. EPA has been developing and issuing technical guidances regarding pipeline PCB compliance over the past several years. These guidances, most of which are not yet in final form, are critically important, as they represent EPAs attempt to adapt the rigid provisions of the PCB regulatory scheme, which was developed to address primarily PCBs in electrical equipment, to the natural gas industry. EPA has announced that over the next 18 months it will revisit the entire TSCA PCB regulatory scheme in a formal rulemaking proceeding EPA is actively seeking comments and input from regulated industries (such as the gas industry) on issues such as to how to develop alternative disposal options for PCBs and PCB Items and how to modify the regulations to address articles and equipment not previously thought to be contaminated with PCBs. Due to declining budget allocations to the TSCA office, EPA is not expected to revisit these issues after this rulemaking effort.
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Document ID: 084886C7

Cad Implementation At Connecticut Natural Gas
Author(s): Carl H. Nord
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of implementing Computer-Aided Dispatching at a mid-sized utility. Connecticut Natural Gas is a local distribution company servmg 140 000 customers in the greater Hartford and Greenwich areas of Connecticut. Although we are not a large utility, we pride ourselves on being in the forefront of innovation. We had been reviewing Computer Aided Dispatchmg smce the late 1970s when similar applications were being used to report simple vehicle status for taxi services. As the technology improved and costs became more realistic in 1987, we took an in-depth look and received senior management approval to implement a system. During 1988 and early 1989, we reviewed various systems in use by other utilities, determined what features we wanted and in April 1989, an RFP was sent out to 11 vendors.
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Document ID: 68793C5D

An Overview Of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): W. David Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are present in natural gas production, and, although potentially hazardous to the health and environment, NORM contamination is controllable. Naturally occurring radionuclides are widespread in nature. Ionizing radiation is present in the environment from the atmosphere as well as from many geologic formations that may contain radioactive elements such as uranium, radium, and radon. When these elements are present in oil and gas producing formations, traces of these materials are produced also. Over the life of the production, radioactive elements and their decay daughters are deposited in pipes, vessels and equipment.
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Document ID: A230F451

Installation Effects On Orifice Meters
Author(s): G. E. Mattingly, T. T. Yeh
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents experimental results obtained via support from GRI and an industry-government consortium formed at NIST. Laser Doppler velocimetry is used to measure pipeflows produced by selected pipeline elements such as elbows, reducers, etc., and the effects of tube bundle flow conditioners are also measured. A range of orifice meters are tested downstream of these configurations and explanations are put forth for the observed shifts in meter performance.
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Document ID: 89B39E73

The Clean Air Act Amendments Of 1990: Implications For Compressor Operations And For Gri Research
Author(s): Howard Reiquam, Kathleen S. Locke
Abstract/Introduction:
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the first revision of the Act in 13 years, will have sweeping and significant impacts on most U.S. industry, including the natural gas industry. Some provisions of the CAAA represent opportunities because of the clean characteristics of natural gas. Others, however, represent challenges to the gas industry as it must move to comply with the regulations now being written. This paper focuses on the implications for natural gas compressor stations.
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Document ID: 7A146767

American Gas Association Physical Abilities Study
Author(s): S. m. Mcphail
Abstract/Introduction:
A physical abilities study was conducted for the American Gas Association, which resuhed in the development and validation of a physical abilities test battery for use in selecting employees who are capable of performing the physically demanding jobs within the gas utility industry.
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Document ID: 70A25607

Reciprocating Engine Cleanburn Retrofit Cost Benefit Analysis
Author(s): R. A. Miklos
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 58054AFD

Construction Challenge Of The Kern River Pipeline Project
Author(s): Robert L. Sluder
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline construction in todays environment involves a wide variety of challenges, ranging from the traditional design and logistics aspects, to what are becoming the ever-more predominant challenges of meeting the regulatory and geopolitical requirements placed before us. This paper discusses a recently completed major pipeline project through areas of the western United States previously unaccustomed to such work and the many unique challenges that were faced.
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Document ID: DB2EBD5F

Developing A Rfp And Vendor Selection Process For A Computer Aided Dispatch System
Author(s): John D. Glaser
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Business Unit (GBU) of the Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) is responsible for service to over 1.5 million customers within 2,400 square miles in the State of New Jersey. To provide the quality of service our customers have come to expect the Customer Service Group of the GBU has over 700 field service persons and their supervisors working out of 12 district locations. The Customer Service Group provides response to gas leaks and services all residential, commercial and industrial gas appliances, changes meters, turns on and turns off gas service provides gas appliance inspections and replaces gas appliance parts. AH totaled, the group completes over 2,000,000 orders per year. Currently the mar agement and dispatch of this large volume of orders is completed manually by a dispatch staff at each of the 12 dispatch locations. The GBU has decided to automate this process.
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Document ID: F79F6585

Excess Flow Valve Tests
Author(s): Roger F. Diehnel, Frank W. Maxwell
Abstract/Introduction:
PG&E tested excess flow valves (EFVs) from 8 manufacturers. The EFVs tested were designed to be installed at the inlet to a service line to minimize damage resulting from a service line rupture. Tfests were performed to determine the flow required to actuate the valves under various operating pressures, the bypass flow in the tripped position, and the differential pressures across the valve at the trip point and at the reset point and to observe any other characteristics that would be important in evaluating the use of the valves in our gas distribution system. In general, the valves performed in reasonable accord with the manufacturers specifications. However, we are not convinced that such performance would be beneficial to our system except possibly in special circumstances, and if used widely, might actually degrade overall system safety.
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Document ID: A6CB93D2

MAINSAVER-Maintenance Management Information System
Author(s): Roy F. Williams, Patrick P. Gehl
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the Con Edison LNG plants MAINSAVER Maintenance Management Information System which has been designed and implemented to meet the Federal Safety Standard 49 CFR Part 193 Subparts F-Operations, G-Maintenance, H-Personnel Qualifications and Training, I-Fire Protection and Safety.
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Document ID: 4A26EDDE

Solid Waste Management In A Natural Gas Utility
Author(s): Todd I. Sostek, Sharareh N. Moaddeli
Abstract/Introduction:
Solid waste recycling and reduction is emerging as a key environmental control issue of the 1990s, much as hazardous waste control dominated the 1980s. Recently enacted state and federal legislation will restrict solid waste disposal options, increase the cost of waste disposal, and mandate the recycling of certain wastes and the use of recycled products. This paper contains a brief description of recent legislation affecting solid waste disposal. Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) initiated a new solid waste management program in 1990 under the direction cif an intracompany task force. This paper will describe SoCalGas major waste streams along with associated disposal methods and costs. Current and pending recycling and reduction programs are described along with costs and benefits.
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Document ID: 42B91EF6

Sources And Characteristics Of Wastes From Underground Natural Gas Storage Operations
Author(s): Bernard E. Bartolovic, Frank J. Myerski, John P. Fillo, James m. Evans
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas industry operations produce a number of waters and wastes including drilling fluids, produced waters, and other associated wastes. These materials have been exempted from regulation as hazardous waste under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPAs recent interest in oil and gas industry wastes could translate into more stringent regulations, including possible regulation of oil and gas industry wastes under RCRA. In response to EPAs interest, and in an effort to develop a comprehensive profile of natural gas industry wastes, the Gas Research Institute commissioned a nationwide study of wastes associated with natural gas operations. This two-fold study included a nationwide gas industry waste survey and waste stream characterization effort for various natural gas operations including natural gas production, transmission and underground storage operations, and gas processing/ conditioning operations. This paper addresses the aspects of this study, primarily related to underground storage operations.
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Document ID: 0991EEA5

Plastic Gas Pipe Identification
Author(s): Rodney I. J. Dyck
Abstract/Introduction:
With leadership from the A.G.A. Plastic Materials Committee, the gas industry has decisively moved to apply permanent print lines to virtually all new plastic gas pipe. Additional action to improve the field identification of plastic piping is uncertain. Although the market place is gradually moving towards a color coding system, the A.G.A. Committee did not reach a full consensus in favor of recommending this or other measures.
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Document ID: 17AD0984

Principles Of Odorization
Author(s): J. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The detection of natural gas leakage has long been a concern to the natural gas industry, but never more so than today. Increased public awareness of safety and huge increases in the cost of product liability litigation has resulted in a greater focus on gas odorization. While it is recognized that odorization will not be 100% effective in warning of the presence of natural gas, a basic understanding of the odorants and some of the potential problems in odorization can help in achieving the highest possible results.
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Document ID: 635D7C0E

Reduce Lufg-Using High-Performance Pressure Transmitters
Author(s): Jake Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
The United States natural gas industry produces, transports, and distributes over 20 trillion standard cubic feet of gas each year. Gas metering stations truly are the cash registers of the natural gas industry. The trend is moving toward more complete energy measurement, from wellhead to end user. Therefore, it is essential that the method of metering gas flow be accurate, reliable, and cost effective-especially for gas purchased and resold by various companies.
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Document ID: E8B1CC25

Performance Management Training System
Author(s): Don W. Manuel
Abstract/Introduction:
The design, development and implementation of Performance Management Training Systems must be carefully structured to provide costeffective strategies to help operators cope with the ever-increasing volume of technical information. Operators must be empowered to make decisions and do their work with limited supervision. Integrated training and performance support systems supported by innovative software can help meet this challenge. This paper describes the processes, strategies and tools required to implement cost-effective solutions.
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Document ID: 7CF756FE

Update On The Clean Air Act And Its Impact On Gas Industry Operations
Author(s): Lori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
Today, one and a half years after the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) were signed into law, EPA is struggling to develop the over 175 new regulations, 50 research projects, 25 reports to Congress and 30 guidance documents required by the Act. The purpose of this paper is to present EPAs progress to date with specific emphasis on those areas of the CAAA that impact natural gas operations.
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Document ID: FF9BD68D

Management Audits Of Utility Fleet Operations
Author(s): Salvatore L. Bibona
Abstract/Introduction:
Management audits are a methodical examination of the utilitys efforts to plan, organize, coordinate, direct, and control the companys activities. They focus not merely on the results of management efforts but also on the management processes used to achieve results. This paper describes the audit process, the contents of a typical audit report, and the areas that are reviewed. The auditor will note significant trends over time and may use comparisons to industry averages to support findings. Most important, the auditor will check for the existence, use, and adequacy of management controls in place. In short, the fleet manager must demonstrate that he or she is actually managing the operation through formal goals, objectives, processes, information systems, and control techniques. A utility fleet manager can prepare for an audit by reviewing the results of other audits, especially those by the same firm that will audit his/her utility assessing the strengths and weaknesses of his/her department and developing strategies to deal with areas that need improvement. The manager can take corrective action, study the problem now, or deal with it in the future according to priority. The manager may also receive training in interviewing, information control, and report review techniques. If difficulties do arise from the audit, professional consulting assistance may be needed to either challenge the auditors recommendations or assist in implementing them.
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Document ID: 06F96582

Task Group On Scada Protocol
Author(s): T. C. Whitehead
Abstract/Introduction:
The A & T Committee has established a Task Group to recommend a standard protocol for SCADA and related applications. The intent is to provide a standard means of communicating with field systems (RTUs) provided by multiple vendors. The Task Groups progress to date is reviewed and the highlights of a draft recommendation discussed. In 1990 the newly re-established Automation and Telecommunications Committee struck a Task Group to examine the possibility of standardizing communication protocols used in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA). The Task Group was given the goal of developing an Engineering Note or AGA Report recommending a protocol capable of accessing multi-vendor RTUs on a common data channel and of serving the needs of SCADA and Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) applications.
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Document ID: B4D76DC7

Precombustlon Chamber Retrofits For Part Load Performance On 2Cycle Si Engines
Author(s): Kevin Reyes
Abstract/Introduction:
Fuel and NOx emissions results from approximatly 5000 hours operation with precombustion chamber retrofits on two Cooper GMW type engines will presented. Precombustion cells provide the extra energy required to initiate complete combustion of ultra lean air fuel mixtures present in modern high output engines. Any engine, however has the potential to gain efficiency and reduce maintenance by obtaining increased combustion stability. This potential gain is the basis for Texas Gas evaluation of the precombustion chamber, or Jet Cell, retrofit package offered by Cooper Energy Services.
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Document ID: 02F7B500

Developing A Congruent Set Of Natural Gas Vehicle Standards
Author(s): Paul F. Swenson, Allen J. Callahan
Abstract/Introduction:
Until recently, compressed natural gas vehicle production has been a cottage industry conducted world-wide. As a result, the existing body of engineering standards pertinent to NGVs has been inconsistent, incomplete and in many cases unreflective of current technology. In an effort beginning in late 1989, the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition, assisted by the Natural Gas Vehicle Standards Secretariat established at the American Gas Association Laboratories, undertook development of a congruent set of North American NGV standards addressing these areas: Fueling Stations And Buildings Fueling Connectors Vehicle Fuel Containers Vehicle Fuel Systems This work is presently beginning the transfer process through which it should become assimilated by the appropriate recognized North American standards sponsoring agencies. Subsequently, NGV standards applicable world-wide may result from harmonization of North American NGV standards with those under development elsewhere.
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Document ID: 2B8C218E

Removal Of Pipeline Coatings Containing Asbestos
Author(s): Larry E. Petersen, Gregory L. Ridderbusgh
Abstract/Introduction:
Pipeline companies, in the course of rehabilitating pipelines, utilize various services to remove and replace pipeline coatings. Occasionally, coating systems that contain some asbestos are encountered, and may require special handling. CUPS Systems, Inc., under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) development contract, has entered into a research and development program to design and build a coating removal system that will collect, transfer, and containerize for proper disposal the asbestos containing material. This system was designed to accommodate regulations covering worker safety, visible emissions, and contamination of the right of way. The goal of the system, in addition to proper handling of asbestos containing materia, was to provide a clean pipeline to allow proper application of the new coating system. This paper discusses regulatory aspects that must be considered, the coating removal technology used, and the asbestos contaminated coating handling process developed. Yard and field experimental results are presented.
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Document ID: A49C2B4A

Evaluating The Cost Effectiveness Of Steel Vs. Polyethylene Large Diameter Pipe
Author(s): Sidney J. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of polyethylene (PE) pipe by gas utility companies as a replacement for corroded steel systems and new mmns has generated data about the benefits and value of PE as a pipeline construction material. Most of this data is based on small diameter piping systems. In contrast, this paper compares installation costs of large diameter (6, 8 and 12) steel and PE pipe. Costs for installing the steel and PE systems are determined by comparing the relative costs of installing two hypothetical pipelines: one cross-country and one urban pipeline. Although hypothetical examples are used, the comparisons are realistic because of Carnegies past experience installing similar PE and steel systems. Specifically, the cross-country pipeline is being constructed in rolling terrain with some steep slopes and long narrow ridges like that often found in northern West Virginia. Approximately 60% of the right of way is wooded with some heavy brush and large trees. Pasture and meadows account for the remaining 40% of this terrain. Fifteen percent of the ditch may be in shale rock plus some solid rock. The urban pipelines terrain is also rolling, but unlike the cross-country construction, this area is primarily residential with some small businesses. The pipeline is constructed in the sidewalk, some lawns and across streets.
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Document ID: C8487632


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