Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1991)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Total On Site Measurement
Author(s): John R. Unsing
Abstract/Introduction:
Those of us who are involved in the measurement aspect of gas distribution are also, to a degree, in the information business. We are not only concerned with improving measurement accuracy, while reducing operational and maintenance costs, but we must also provide for the increasing information needs of our companies and customers. All gas purchased and sold today by SoCalGas is billed as energy rather than volume. This requires timely and accurate measurement methods be employed if we are t
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Document ID: F7B2E353

Commercial And Industrial Remote Meter Reading
Author(s): Cllfford R. Pelohat
Abstract/Introduction:
In todayss economy Informaiion has become a key factor that enables businesses to compete effectively and be profitable. The gas Industry Is no exception. Accurate metering Information has always been Important to the earnings of natural gas utilities. With the arrival of deregulation. Just having this Information Is not enough.
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Document ID: 33D4FF09

Dot Pipeline Safety Regulations Affecting Measurement And Regulation
Author(s): Dave Connelly
Abstract/Introduction:
Inspections of our measuring and regulating facilities along with records audits of operating and maintenance compliance by Federal inspectors began with the passage of the Natural Gas Safety Act of 1958. Many amendments and interpretations of the regulations make it necessary to constantly review our Material specifications, design, operation, and maintenance practices to insure that we are in full compliance with the Safety Regulations
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Document ID: B6A6C848

New Developments In Gas Measurements From The Gr! Metering Research Fadllty
Author(s): Robert 1. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
The natural gas industry is undergoing a period of change in response to new business relationships, new technologies, and new developments in gas measurement. Changes in the business of buying, transporting, and selling gas have placed an increased emphasis on the need for accurate, reliable, and costeffective metering. The introduciion of new equipment such as electronic flow computers, new types of flow meters, and real time communication networks have increased the need for knowledg,, planning, and cooperation by people in the gas industry
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Document ID: 25DD12D9

Mercury: Its History And Use In The Natural Gas Industry
Author(s): Adriane P. Borgias
Abstract/Introduction:
Mercury is a metal with a long and literally colorful history. Its use predates historical records. There is evidence that mercury was known in the 15th and 16th centuries BC. In Greece, it was used medicinally by Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine about 400 BC and was also used in India and Persia about the same time. Because certain forms of mercury are bright red, the Chinese mined mercury about 200 years BC to use S vermillion ink and paint.
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Document ID: EABC36FF

Over Pressure Protection
Author(s): Joseph R. Ranney
Abstract/Introduction:
over pressure protection equipment used for natural gas, was a pressure relief device. It consisted of a pressurized pipe faced down into a pool (pot) of liquid (water, oil or mercury). On an over pressure, the gas would displace the liquid seal over cne end of the pipe and bubble to the atmosphere.
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Document ID: 6AD493B2

Maintenance S Operation Of Flexible Element Regulators
Author(s): Claude J. Transue
Abstract/Introduction:
Flexible Element regulators have been used extensively in the gas industry since the early 1950s. The original design, the Flexflow, was introduced by Grove Valve & Regulator Company. The Flexflow is referred to as an Expansible Tube design because a rubber tube stretched.overametal core is expanded to open the va lve. ---!--- -- : - troduced a variation of the design AnSrTcaif Meter inin 1970 called the Axial Flow.
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Document ID: 3C1B83FC

Troubleshooting Of Regulators Including Freezing
Author(s): Edward J. Harrington
Abstract/Introduction:
The number of type of problems hich affect even the most basic regulator are impressive. This paper will address some of these problems and . the repair and action taken to prevent a recurrence. The subject material is a basic farm tap regulator (FIG. 1) and a pilot controller (FIG. 2).
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Document ID: A65FFBDB

Field Electronic Controllers Whats The Big Deal?
Author(s): Dale K. Carter
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to explain the selection, application, and maintenance of field electronic controUers. However, before we concern ourselves with specifics of electronic controUers, lets quickly review the function of any type of controller. In very brief term, a controller
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Document ID: AEA5A359

Fundamentals Of Pilot Loaded Regulatoss
Author(s): Richard Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of any natural gas system would be described as a interconnected network of piping systems, operating at a wide variety of pressures, transtwning gas from productions wells to the point of use in homes and industry. PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOSS control the flow of gas as it is cascaded from systems of higher pressure to systems of lower pressure. Additional PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOSS and BACK PRESSURE REGULATORS (relief valves) are used as safety devices at each interconnection to prevent overpressuring the lower pressure system
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Document ID: 89AFF3C9

Automatic Control Valves
Author(s): Leslie H. Zuck
Abstract/Introduction:
To start everybody off right lets look at a typical automatic control valve They are all constructed with four main basic components. This slide shows the basic globe style configuratonn with the valve body, moveable restriction or inner valve. actuator and bonnet. As we progress with this talk I will show you examples of other body and actuator configuratoons
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Document ID: AD8F3D19

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Glenn Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
IMPORTANCE OF ACCURAWE MEASUREMENT Accurate measurement of Natural Gas is an important but difficult task. The largest Gas Distribuiion Utility in the United States sold gas worth 3 billion last year. The 150th ranking gas company sold 20 million in gas. A very small measurement error, say a tenth of a percent, would result in a 3 million impact on earnings to the largest utility and 20,000 to the 150th largest. Small improvemenss in gas measurement can have a significant impact on the company Onancial statemen.. It should not be difficult to justify the effort needed to improve gas measuremem accuracy
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Document ID: 152D953D

Operation & Maintenance Of Self Operated Regulators
Author(s): Mark G. Warner
Abstract/Introduction:
Self or direct operated regulators are by far the most Widely used in the natural gas industry for controlling pressure and Leting downstream demand. The primary use for self-operated regulators is in residential service, but they are also used extensiveli for farm taps, district regulators. instrument air controllers relief valves. and in many other applictions
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Document ID: 25F2A77B

Training For Disaster Response/Crisis Management/Business Resiimption Activities
Abstract/Introduction:
Why We Are Exndi. Our Training At Southern California Gas, emergency response training is undergoing a major change as the result of the companys decision to expand its a c S ? I ? ? e s ! u r h a v r a l w a ys had training for responding pipeline emergencies. This foremp?oye!sinthre?enrof ma5oemergenc?L ?heny two years ago, we became aware that we were not as crisis- 1 a to y ao we nda i.nougni.
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Document ID: 5136FBEE

API Electroncc Flow Measurement Standard
Author(s): Fred N.-DeBusk
Abstract/Introduction:
The API Electronic Flow Measurement Standard will cover such sections as a description of a system. In the description of Section One you will find the actual description talking about flow computer,, transducers, transmitters, constants, and gas composition. Section TWO deals with definitoons of terminology
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Document ID: 2E3FCE08

Electrical Safety, Intrinsic Safety
Author(s): Paul A. Murray
Abstract/Introduction:
Why be concerned electricll safety? safe, its used everywhere in our daily lives, our homes, offices and industry, yet over 1,000 deaths resulting from - - - r i c l l suho-c-k ar-e r-e-por- t-ed in the United electricl: each year Statei. What makes electricity such a deadly killer? The answers fall into three categories. 1. Ignorance 2. Disregard 3. Unsafe practice
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Document ID: B12D5F5F

SDG&E - Transportation Of Natural Gas In A Deregulated Market. Is Timing More Important Than Accuracy?
Author(s): Stephen R. Taylor Michael F. Sable
Abstract/Introduction:
Deregulation has added a dimension of flexibility to gas utilities. The rigidity of a highly regulated industry has yielded to market forces. Rates are no longer structured to achieve social goals envisioned by some governmental agency, but are geared to costs of service.
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Document ID: 5C0A51A8

Bits, Bytes & Bauds Or( Basic Computer Concepts)
Author(s): Steve-Damato
Abstract/Introduction:
Suppose for a moment that the automobile industry had developed at the same rate as computers and over the same period: how much cheaper and more efficient would the current models be? If you have not already heard the analogy, the answer is shattering. Today you would be able to buy a Rolls Royce for 2.75, it would do three million miles to the gallon, and it would deliver enough power to drive the Queen Elizabeth II. And if you were interested in miniaturizatoon, you could place half a dozen of them on a pinhead
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Document ID: 24A977EA

Telansmon From Mechanical To Electronic Instrumentation
Author(s): Lowell Thomas And Richard Oare
Abstract/Introduction:
Websterss definition of transition is, passage from one place or state to another. Until the preparation for this workshop, we didnt realize how the word fit our instrument shop. The passage has been so gradual that we had to really think back to realize how far weve come. The first electronic devices caused fear, distrust and feelings of ineptness among members of our instrument shop. Not only were we facingamajor change, but we were dealing with something unknown that would be a test ofour professional expertise
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Document ID: 22B46EC4

Combustion Chambers
Author(s): Bill E. Harrell
Abstract/Introduction:
There are liberated in a combustion chamber and in turn is transferred to a process stream through a heat medium such as water, water/ glycol, steam, exhaust gas. The primary **rThehheVtr4d1i,n transfers heat evenly. 2. The coiI t inside wall temperatures are lower than those of direct fired heaters. This reduces process coiI scaling, coking and plugging tendencies
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Document ID: 54096EA3

Test And Evaluation Of Electroncc Measuremett Equipment
Author(s): Cathy K. Chang
Abstract/Introduction:
The instrumentation for gas measurement of gas for non-core customers consists of electroncc volumecorrector and data communication devices. This provides the timely data needed for competitive gas sales. This is the first time that Southern Californaa Gas Company has used electroncc devices for both gas measurement and billing process.
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Document ID: 41F29017

Maintenance Of Test And Calibration Instruments
Author(s): Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers
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Document ID: A70CF833

Mampenance Of Torbine Meiers
Author(s): Ronau) A. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The turbine meter is a v e l o c i ty measuring device. Where an o r i f i ce meter measures by means of a d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure across an o r i f i c e of known diaineter, the turbine oonverts t h e v e l o c i t y d i r e c t l y i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d reading by means of a r o t o r.
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Document ID: 61AF955C

Electrical Gas Measurement
Author(s): David Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The topic of Electronic Gas Measurement is a very difficult one to completely *%equiremen?s pITeseElt different mandated and as different been by the end users, a result, many approaches have made by the manufacturers. The term Electronic Gas Measurement can constitute everything from single meter Solar Powered Flow Computers to devices with many Analog input points, also having
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Document ID: 51ED0D81

Electronic Basics For Measurement Technicians
Author(s): John B. Thompson
Abstract/Introduction:
The move from mechanical measurement instruments to electronic measurement instruments is not nearly as monumentas as the average technician makes it out to be. The challenge is in overcoming not the physical capability to perform but the mental ability to accept a new concept. with this in mind a thorough, but simple, education in ba4ic electronics is required
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Document ID: 1BDFE045

Pressure And Temperature Transducers Their Selection, Application, Calibratonn And Maintenance
Author(s): Wendell G. Ewertscm
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 6A5192F9

Maintenance And Testing Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): William Bunting
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has proven throughout the years its reliability. precision. and accuracy. The reliability and accuracy depend a great deal on the correct insaallation and proper preventive maintenance of the equipment. Custody Meters are those that are used to buy or sell amounts of natural gas to other companies. In House Meters are those used by ones company to monitor flow
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Document ID: 9408AFF0


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