Measurement Library

Measurement Science Conference Publications (1991)

Designing An Ac Measurement Standard
Author(s): Larry Eccleston
Abstract/Introduction:
Using an ac-dc transfer standard usually involves lengthy, complex, and potentially error-prone procedures with ever-present risk of damage to the transfer element. A new ac-dc transfer standard, called an ac measurement standard, has been designed that is much easier to use. Design of an accurate ac-dc transfer standard that it as easy to use as an ac voltmeter and that satisfies the ac voltage needs of the calibration community required innovative approaches, particularly with respect to input circuitry. This paper is a technical discussion of the design processes and solutions that have led to a new, state-ofthe- art ac measurement standard.
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Document ID: 68BFA742

Measurement Potpourri
Author(s): Tom Trigas John Grajera Naftali Stern
Abstract/Introduction:
Various methods of calibrating flowmeters have been developed over the years. The three methods most commonly used today are ratio (transfer standard) calibration, time-weight calibration and positive displacement principle calibration.
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Document ID: 37DEE796

Advances In Dc And Low Frequency Metrology I
Author(s): Patrick Snyder Stuart Streiff Peter Crisp
Abstract/Introduction:
A method has been developed to improve the accuracy of measurements of electrical conductivity by the eddy-current technique. Such measurements are used to determine the conductivity values of non-ferrous metals. High accuracy is especially important for calibrating the standard conductivity coupons which are used to standardize portable conductivity meters. The coupons are calibrated by comparison with primary standard conductivity bars using an inductive probe and the eddy-current technique. Spacing between the probe and coupon (lift-off) is a major source of error. A method has been developed to reduce this error to about ?0.02% of conductivity value.
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Document ID: 5F46AD3F

Metrology Laboratory Instrument Controller Networks Using TCP/IP Pro,tocol
Author(s): John Grajera
Abstract/Introduction:
NetworkIng is the connection of computers for the transfer of data and the control of software. Networks connect people using computers to promote Ideas end the sharing of lnformatlnn throughout corporations and the computing environment. The computers are connected to the networl: cable through a transceiver that matches electrical characteristics of the computer network interface to characteristics of the network cable. Network hubs distribute network connections to many computers from a bridge that protects and fllters local area netvorl:,s from each other end from large broadband networks that may include public access netwari:,5. Network management software allows the confIguratIon of nework....
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Document ID: D91D7510

An Off-The-Shelf Interferometer For The Calibration Of Acclerometer Standards
Author(s): Naftali Stern
Abstract/Introduction:
An interferometer for the calibration of accelerometers was developed in the calibration section of the Ministry of Defense for the purpose of calibrating accelerometer standards. The interferometer was built from off-the-shelf components. The system is capable of calibrating accelerometers from 50 to 500Hz at g levels from 1 to 10. The paper discusses the configuration. construction, special precautions which were taken in order to achieve an uncertainty of about 0.5%. and a discussion of the test results.
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Document ID: 8CB1BFFF

Error Sources In Voltage Standard Intercompaison Measurements
Author(s): Stuart Streilf
Abstract/Introduction:
THE VOLTAGE STANDARD INTERCOMPARISON MEASUREMENT DEMANDS A PROPERLY DESIGNED DC VOLTMETER AND GOOD LOW VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE IN ORDER TO GUARANTEE GOOD MEASUREMENT RESULTS.
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Document ID: B0515F0C

Leak Rate Standards And Calibration
Author(s): Stuart Tison, Laurie Baker
Abstract/Introduction:
A system used for the calibration of leaks by comparison with standards is described. The system is fully automatic, requiring only operator inputs for the value of the comparison standard and entries for the identification of the parameters of the leak being calibrated. Temperature control for the leak being calibrated is incorporated in the system and the temperatures of both the leak being calibrated and the standard are monitored continuously. Calibration accuracy is dependent upon the systematic uncertainty of the standard being used.
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Document ID: 2ADF5A62

Making Tqm Work
Author(s): Jim Herning, Dr. Bill La Reau, Bob Kerr, David Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
Many users have pondered the impact that VXIbus instrumentation will have on their calibration techniques. These small, faceless instruments bear little physical resemblance to their larger GPIB equivalents, suggesting that calibration and verification techniques may radically change as well. Upon detailed examination, however, there will be far more similarities than differences in calibration techniques.
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Document ID: 9445C975

Hardware Overview
Author(s): David Haworth
Abstract/Introduction:
VXIbus is a multi-vendor, open architecture for modular instruments that was designed to satisfy the growing need for an open modular instrument standard. Although,VXIbus is composed of a hardware and sofhvare architecture, this chapter presents a VXIbus hardware overview that includes an in-depth discussion of the electrical functionality. Examples explain how to use the VXIbus electrical functions in a test and measurement system.
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Document ID: A5046944

Cmm Construction. Materials And Dynamics
Author(s): David Genest, Charles Wang, Jan De Nijs
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of Manufacturing Process the design and manufacturing of the various Control is a popular one, but how many corn- components which make up an automobile, panies actually CONTROL the entire process? with electronic (CAD-based) models, results in Thus far, not many. In order to control the hundredsof thousands, if not millions, ofdollars process we must become more knowledge- in savings per product line. able in the generation, management and - evaluation of data.
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Document ID: AF47FA61

Techniques And Methods For Realizing Its 90
Author(s): .I. Travener, H. Sostman, Mangum, E. Pfieffer, G. Strouse T.P. Wang, D. Bediones, R.L.HICKEY, Gustavus Bernal
Abstract/Introduction:
We report results of a study of the non-uniqueness of the ITS-90 at temperatures in the range 13.8033 K to 933.473 K (660.323 C) of a variety of capsule-type and long-stem type standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs). The capsule SPRTs were calibrated by comparison techniques and at some fixed points of the ITS-90 the long-stem SPRTs were calibrated at the relevant defining fixed points. In addition, we present results on subrange inconsistencies for several partly overlapping ranges of the ITS-90. Error propagation curves and errors introduced by extrapolations will be discussed also.
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Document ID: D0C8D748

Straightness Measurement By Laser Doppler Displacement Technique
Author(s): Charles P. Wang
Abstract/Introduction:
In high accuracy coordinate measuring machines (CMM) or precision machine tools, it is important to measure the straightness, pitch and yaw angles of the tr avel of a spindle or bed. Conventional techniques are either inaccurate or very difficult and time consuming.
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Document ID: 3C1064CA

Standards And Methods For Particle Measurement
Author(s): Ike Hartman, Jeanie West, J. Knapp, T. Barber, R. Mead
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview is given of NISTs Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for particle size and of the techniques used in their certification.
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Document ID: 35F58589

Particle Metrology As Addressed By Automatic Particle Counters
Author(s): Jeanie West
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of descrete particles of netter has been performed for many years. Since the late 1950s autmatic particle counters and sizers have been available for this type of measurement. Particle technology has grown considerably since the first particle counter. For instance, Climet Instruments Ccmpahy manufactured their first particle counter, an airborne particle counter in the fall of 1967. The unit had a flow rate of 0.1 cubic foot per minute, sensitivity of 0.3 micraneter , and an analog meter readout. Figure 1. It weighed about 165 pounds. V&en Climet first manufactured this particle counter, there were three particle counter manufacturers in the United States.
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Document ID: 0758AE66

Precision Transparent Sieves In Wicrometer New Answers For Old Problems
Author(s): Julius Z. Knapp, Thomas A. Barber, Richard W. Mead
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays interconnected world, the problems associated with micrometer sized particle measurement accuracy and replicability are approaching critical dimensions. Process control limits and quality assurance tests of particulate content must, at present, specify instrument vendor and model number to achieve modest replicabiity.
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Document ID: 5B28F949

Applying SPC To The Calibration Process
Author(s): Carroll Croarkin, James Miller, A. Meyrick, L. Huntley
Abstract/Introduction:
A review of methods to use linear drift of simple fixed standards is presented. A new technique to allow multivalued standards to be included is described. Finally, Brownian motion or Random Walk techniques to be used for data that exhibits random variations with time is given. Several example sets of data are given.
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Document ID: EA190963

Vxi - Instrumentation For The 90S
Author(s): Larry Desjardins, David Haworth, Arlene Meadows
Abstract/Introduction:
A fully automated system, using conaaercially available equipment, has been developed to calibrate shunts and resistors from one mohm to 100 kohms is described. Calibration set-ups and procedures for this range of resistances are detailed. Auxiliary features of the automated systems software are briefly outlined.
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Document ID: 3199CD70

A Digital Nanovoltmeter
Author(s): S. Langstaff
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the design of a digital nanovoltmeter. Particular attention is given to design considerations employed to achieve the desired input characteristics for an instrument which is to accurately measure very small D.C.voltage sign&( resolution of 1 nV ). Calibration of the instrument is done from the front panel. Full instrument operation is available over the IEEE 488 bus.
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Document ID: A8CD74C3

Cmm Standards, Software And SPC Dmis Impact On Quality And Productivity
Author(s): Valerie Gas, Ted Doiron, Robert Hocken, Steven Phillips B. Borchardt
Abstract/Introduction:
The Dlmenslonal Measuring Interface Specification, DMIS,version 2.1, states that the objective of DMIS Is to provide a standard for the bldirectlonal communication ofinspection data between computer systems and Inspection equipment. DMIS 2.1 is an American National Standard. It Is appearing on more and more measuring machines and computer alded deslgn systems. Will DMIS Improve quality? Will it Improve productlvlty? To evaluate the effect of DMIS, lets consider the benefits and drawbacks of DMIS In these four areas:
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Document ID: E9B820F4

Some Considerations For Interim Testing Of Coordinate Measuring Machine Performance Using A Specific Artifact
Author(s): S. D. Phillips, B. Borchardt
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of a specific artifact, known as the Machine Checking Gage is examined for use as an interim test of CMM performance. The results of several tests using this gage on two different CMMs is reported. Suggestions for making the test more robust and informative are described.
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Document ID: 32A0D1AF

Precision Mass Metrology
Author(s): P. Gibbs, J. Clark, Walter Kupper, S. Holt, C. Harvel, J. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1987 a portable, automated, inexpensive mass and balance calibration system was developed at the Savannah River Site to ensure the reliability and traceability of mass measurements. Automation was achieved by using an EPSON HX-20notebook computer and locally developed software. Since then, the software and hardware have been enhanced to cover a wider range of balances and improve the systems maintainability. The new software/hardware configurations offer greater flexibility over the HX-20 which could only accommodate one application at a time.
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Document ID: 9A09AC1C

The Effect Of Heating Rate During Testing And Round Robin Calibrations Of Type K And Type N Thermocouples
Author(s): T.P. Wang, D. Bediones, R.L. Hickey
Abstract/Introduction:
In this study, adjacent lengths of 20 gage insulated Type K thermocouples in unaged and stabilized or fully aged condition, Type N thermocouples and bare wire couple of K were calibrated at Thermo Electric in triplicate using the standard heating rate and the slow heating rate. Thermocouple wire from adjacent length was calibrated at McDonnell Douglas in triplicate using identically the same slow heating rate as Thermo Electric. The effect of heating rate on the calibration of unaged and fully aged Type K thermocouples and unaged Type N couples are discussed in conjunction of the mechanism of aging of Ni/Cr alloys. The repeatability of calibration at the same location and the reproducibility of tests at different locations are analyzed.
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Document ID: 17E209DA

Validation Of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment
Author(s): Walter E. Kupper
Abstract/Introduction:
Balances and SCSlSS are tested by placing calibrated mass standards on them and ascertaining that the displayed weight values are within given tolerances. A problem arises when the equipment under test itself is the most accurate in its class, i.e., of the type that is being used to calibrate the mass standards in the first place. With a working knowledge of the principles of both the equipment and the process of weighing, it is possible to design test procedures which are simple to use yet convincingly rigorous. This paper discusses the working principles of high accuracy weighing equipment, how they manifest themselves in its performance, and what to look for in B validation test.
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Document ID: F6F8C6E8

Automated Tank Calibration System Using A Portable Computer
Author(s): Stephen H. Holt, Charles D. Harvel, John P. Clark
Abstract/Introduction:
Manual tank calibrations often have variabilities of both a random and systematic nature that often affect the quality of the data collected for determining accurate calibration equations. When performing the calibration run, data omissions and transcriptions often occur (forgetting to tare weigh the prover vessel or miswriting a displayed value). A computer can be used to mmtmize these errors associated with the logging of data. This paper describes an IBM compatible, portable computer based system, developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), that was used to calibrate three tanks in the second quarter of 1990.
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Document ID: D6AB3382

Detector Based Photometric And Radiometric Metrology
Author(s): George Eppledauer, Chris Cromer, R. Phelan Jr, J. Lehman, D. Larson
Abstract/Introduction:
We describe a spectral response measurement technique using silicon photodiodes in a light trapping configuration similar to that used in the UDT QED-200. The QED-200, which has a unit external quantum efficiency, is used to measure the spectral response of the trap in the visible spectral region. By modeling and extrapolating the internal quantum efficiency of the trap, the spectral response from 400 nm to 900 nm can be deduced to better than 0.33%.
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Document ID: BFFBFC3E

Rf And Uwave Calibration And Standards II
Author(s): Glenn Sherwood, Jim Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
Size measurement of wave guides and coaxial transmission line standards has been performed at NIST for many years. Recently, the air gaging systems used to perform these measurements have been enhanced using digital data acquisition methods to facilitate computer analysis. Initial experiments were performed using air gaging probes on a coordinate measuring machine to correlate linear position with size attributes. Related geometric and dimensional characteristics that contribute to the uncertainty of measurement were also studied. Alternative assessment methods have been utilized to provide a more complete characterization of these features and complement air gage size measurements using a systems approach. This article is a report of these developments at NIST.
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Document ID: 5E21C0C5

Enhanced Uncertainty Analysis Of Waveguide Thermistor Mounts
Author(s): James C. Wheeler
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a method for automatic analysis of uncertainties for microwave waveguide thermistor mounts. A computer program is used to calculate the uncertainties using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Navy Primary Standards Lab (NPSL) short and long term errors. The program also stores the data and generates customer calibration reports.
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Document ID: ABFD0FCD

State-Of-The-Art Pressure And Vacuum Metrology
Author(s): Paul Muller Sharrill Dittmann Kenneth Kolb
Abstract/Introduction:
Automated production testing of electro-mechanical devices such as pressure transducers can be achieved using off-the-shelf PC technology. A PC may be readily adapted for operator interface and data storage, and is easily interfaced to the real world through an integrated data acquisition and control system. Statistical analysis and sorting of various performance parameters can be implemented on the PC using standard spreadsheet packages. This paper describes how such a system was constructed for the final testlng of pressure transducers, and how production test data was statfstically analyzed for compliance to performance speciffcations.
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Document ID: B0D19311

Reduced Uncertainty And Improved Reliability For The Pneumatic Piston Pressure Gage Through Statistical Process Control
Author(s): Ken Kolb
Abstract/Introduction:
THE LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE AVAILABLE IN THE NEW HIGH-TECH PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS REQUIRES THE USE OF EXPLICIT DEFINITIONS TO CLARIFY THE TERMS THAT DESCRIBE THE TRANSDUCER CHARACTERISTICS. ACCURACY CLAIMS FOR MANY PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS INCLUDE ONLY PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS LINEARITY, HYSTERESIS AND REPEATABILITY, AND DO NOT ACCOUNT FOR THE ERROR CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE CALIBRATION PROCESS.
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Document ID: B694F233

Uncertainty Analysis
Author(s): Michael Grabe Phd Semyon Rabinovich Harry H. Ku
Abstract/Introduction:
Statutes of standards in the U.S.A. and in the U.S.S.R. are different and the methods of elaboration of new standards are very different too. All State Standards in the U.S.S.R. are developed in accordance with a General State Plan. The positions of this plan are distributed among various organizations and they have to work on them. Thus, the development of standards is a duty for certain specialists rather than voluntary work like it is in the U.S.A.
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Document ID: EDE033A7

Uncertainty And Accuracy In Physical Measurements
Author(s): Harry H. Ku
Abstract/Introduction:
The formulation of the uncertainty of a reported value always involves a certain degree of arbitrariness, depending primarily on how the value is going to be used. Currently there are at least two schools of thought on this subject: physicists interested in detecting differences among results are in favor of the recommendations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPMICIPM 1981), whereas those involved in calibration work and routine measurements follow the orthodox method (see e.g. NBS Special Publication 644).
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Document ID: 9F8D05BE

Developments In Ac Metrology I
Author(s): Paul Baldock Ken Garcia Thomas Lipe
Abstract/Introduction:
A Calibration Artifact may be described as a standard that maintains a small concise set of derived values. Artifact Calibration is the process of transferring the assigned value(s) of an Artifact to a large array of multidimensional parameters. Many of todays modern instruments including precision sources and multimeters use artifact calibration so as to simplify the calibration process and provide means of improved confidence between calibration cycles. In order to support artifact calibration these instruments must have sophisticated internal circuitry that replaces a large part of traditional external metrology methods and yet maintains a rigorous traceability chain.
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Document ID: 122CF21F

Rf And Ywave Calibration And Standards
Author(s): R. Ginley And E. Andrusko B. Sequiera, W. Oldfield, T. Brinkotter R. Judish, And R. Kaiser
Abstract/Introduction:
A method has been devised for simultaneously and rapidly extracting permittivity, E, and permeability, u, of non-metallic solids over a wide range of frequencies from one-port reflection measurements made by an automatic network analyzer (ANA). Reflection measurements of a short, an offset short-circuited airline of length I,, and two short-circuited samples of lengths I and 21 contain sufficient information for extraction of E and u without recourse to any a priori knowledge of the waveguides cross section, dispersion, or loss, or the line length between the calibration and measurement planes.
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Document ID: 448F1535

Automated Tvc Calibrations With Common Laboratory Equipment
Author(s): Kenneth L. Garcia
Abstract/Introduction:
Most laboratorles tasked wfth the calibration of thermal voltage converters (TV&) have on-hand equipment that can be used to automate or semiautomate TVC calibrations. Automatfon can improve precision and accuracy of measurement and it simplffies the gatherlng of large amounts of data that are needed to maintain control charts on standard and working TVCs. The automated TVC calibration system may also be used to measure ac voltages.
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Document ID: 11E8EEA8

Screw Thread Measurements
Author(s): Brian Conroy Joe Greenslade Bruce Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
The three-wire method of measuring pitch diameter is a determining criterion for acceptance of thread plug gages in industry. Measurement uncertainty associated with this process has traditionally been evaluated in terms of the sum of the various components of the measuring system (gage blocks, thread measuring wires, and linear measuring machine) rather than as a unique process. This paper will discuss the results of a multi-laboratory inter-comparison of pitch diameter measurements made on a variety of thread plug gages.
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Document ID: 4A7F7CBE

Thread Measuring Technology In The 1990S
Author(s): Joe Greenslade
Abstract/Introduction:
American industries in the 1990s are requiring more consistent, higher-quality components to meet their objectives for assembly efficiency and product dependability. These are essential requirements for becoming move competitive worldwide in the future.
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Document ID: 1E8AB4AB

Dimensional Metrology Certification
Author(s): Frank Bakos Jr Richard Daniels Walter Mcgee
Abstract/Introduction:
Im sure all of you are aware of the national quality movement. Of course quality transcends everything we do, from how well we manufacture and service our products to how well we bill and satisfy customer complaints. There is a need to do everything we do better.
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Document ID: CF1112BA

Test Development For National Certification Exams
Author(s): Richard Lo. Daniels
Abstract/Introduction:
Any test which measures well ones knowledge of something is developed with a great amount of planning and hard work. Proven development methods are used. Most of these methods have been spawned from Higher Education circles where educators publish and lecture the latest methodology for creating instruments of measurement. Included is the strenuous task of statistical analysis for these educators are adamant about formal test development for validity and reliability.
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Document ID: 1B7279D1

Asme B89 - The Next Certifications?
Author(s): Walter J. Mcgee
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1987, the National Standards Educators Association, in a report entitled THE METROLOGY CRISIS, served notice to American business that virtually their entire industrial complex did not know how to control the shape of its manufactured hardware. It declared that the crisis stemmed primarily from the lack of industrial acceptance and proper use of our national Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standard, ASME Y14SM, and led to an ASME certification program, currently under development.
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Document ID: 9C94A0F1

International Standards, NIST And Ec 1992
Author(s): S. Rasberry And J. Simmins Pat Cooke
Abstract/Introduction:
For nine decades the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and under its former name the National Bureau of Standards, has followed one model of providing traceability to National standards of measurement. In that model NIST offers calibration and reference material services, and leaves entirely to users of those services theburdenofmaintaining anddemonstrating traceability.
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Document ID: F220DB0A

Developments In Ac Metrology II
Author(s): Ian King David Dingley Larry Eccleston
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes the practical implementation of a modular highcurrent, very wide-band transconductance amplifier based upon a design by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) which is capable of outputs up to 20A with a specified frequency response of DC to 100 kHz and a useable frequency range extending to 1 MHZ. The prototype of this unit has enabled the extension of AC current measurement capability at a. National level to 100 Liz and possibly beyond. Descriptions are given of the advantages and limitations of the Multi-Cell appropch to the output stage. The Automated system used to perform final Test, Calibration and Performance verification is described along with the major factors in bringing such a unit to commercial production.
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Document ID: A92E37C8


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