Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1991)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1991 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement- I
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work .without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true if ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: D596F117

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On Accuracy Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Dr. Emrys H. Jones, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters are the most common meter used for natural gas flow measurement. They are mechanically simple and rugged devices that are well suited for field measurement of natural gas. On the other hand, the effects that a disturbed flow field have on the performance of a meter are not simple. The fluid mechanics of an orifice meter is a complicated nonlinear phenomenon that is not well understood even after years of experimentation and study.
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Document ID: F2AD2CC9

Other Flow Measuring Devices
Author(s): David L. Thomas
Abstract/Introduction:
Quite often an industry becomes so familiar and comfortable with one or two types of flow elements that other potentially useful and beneficial flow elements may be overlooked, even when they are especially well suited for the flow metering application at hand. This may be the case with the Annular Averaging Pitot Tube In the Natural Gas Industry. Orifice plates and turbine meters, long time standards in the Natural Gas Industry, are good flow elements. But there are times when a flow application will be encountered which will benefit from the characteristics of the Annular Averaging Pitot Tube.
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Document ID: 996E4D30

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jerry Upton
Abstract/Introduction:
(This paper has been prepared by the author based on his experience and a review of the referenced API materials and is presented as an aid to the reader. Neither the author nor Shel1 Oi 1 Company make any representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publicat ion and hereby expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for any violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation. Each individual is responsible for insuring a full understanding of the procedures discussed and methods for safe implementation before using them.)
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Document ID: 785FB977

Application Of Flow Computers For Gas Measurement And Control
Author(s): Fred R . Wenzei
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address existing applications descriptions of battery operated flow computers used for both gas measurement and control functions.
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Document ID: 2F70FA82

Computers For Liquid Meter Proving
Author(s): Michael D. Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Computers can be used to enhance virtually any process that requires control andor data manipulation. This paper will describe some practical applications and functions for computers when used for liquid meter proving. The reliability, speed and convenience that computers offer makes for a more efficient and cost saving proving system. Most types of proving systems utilize a computer to control the proving operation, monitor various sensor inputs and provide detailed calculations of the measured quantities. Two-way data communication capabilities are essential for generating reports and for applications where unmanned operations requiring remote control and data collection are important.
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Document ID: 4835E736

P.D. Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): John Konopa
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive displacement meters have gained a reputation throughout the petroleum and petrochemical industries for performance and reliability. Over the years a.variety of designs have evolved with each having a unique set of periformance characteristics. It is the intent of this paper to explore these differences as well as the basic construction and application of a positive displacement meter.
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Document ID: 8A7788DE

Determination Of Hater Vapor CXNTENT And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of good quality control in a gas transmission pipeline. The following discussion will cover typical methods used by gas transmission pipelines to determine the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas.
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Document ID: 8089C496

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Lee Garf
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this discussion is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of natural gas for water vapor content, and to provide details on the successful application of the thin film aluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
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Document ID: B15080CC

Applications For Electronics In Odorization
Author(s): Daniel Allen Zimmerman
Abstract/Introduction:
Times were when many gas companies with delivery station volumes of less than 20ramcf per day held little regard for accurate odorization. Traditional odorizers with their inherent inefficiency, were the order of the day. Well, times have changed.
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Document ID: 48AADDA2

Crude Oil Sampling For Custody Transfer
Author(s): Thomas F. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of crude oil is decidedly more important now than it has been in past years.
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Document ID: 2E982421

Evaluation & Selection Of Insertion Meters
Author(s): Ron Mccarthy
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion meter is designed to offer a cost effective means to measure liquids, gas and steam in large pipes or ducts, or in small pipes in which the flow cannot be interrupted.
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Document ID: 9F9D957F

Fixed Factor Pressure
Author(s): James L. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
To briefly describe fixed factor pressure measurement and the factors that determine the accuracy of this method of gas measurement.
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Document ID: 76614669

Gri Sponsored Research
Author(s): John G. Gregor, Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
The efficient transportation and distribution of natural gas involves accurate measurement of large quantities of flowing fluids. As gas prices rise, increased economic importance is attached to accurate gas measurement. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas producer, pipeline, and distribution companies that plans, manages, and develops financing for a research and development programs designed to advance gas supply options, end-use, and operations technologies and to conduct related basic research. Research into new and improved methods of measuring natural gas volume and energy flow is a part of this research and development program. This paper is an update of two significant programs which address both new and existing measurement technologies in the distribution and transmission areas.
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Document ID: 7DEE98F1

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Jim Storer
Abstract/Introduction:
As the process control industry moves into the 1990s there is an increasing demand for precise flow measurement. Thirty years ago the accuracy and rangeability provided by the orifice plate and differential pressure transmitter combination was good enough for the typical process. Today as plants become more efficient there is a demand for wider rangeability and greater accuracy than the traditional flow measurement devices can provide. This demand will intensify as our domestic industries move into a more global economy, one in which efficiency will be the measure of profitability.
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Document ID: 97CE993C

High Pressure Measuring 4 Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Melanie A. Acord
Abstract/Introduction:
Int roduct ion Station design begins with determining basic requirements of the station itself. These basics include determining class location, maximum and minimum station inlet pressures, maximum and minimum flow rates, and controlled pressure. Once these have been determined component selection can be made.
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Document ID: DADA58B5

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Daniel J. Hackett
Abstract/Introduction:
Densitometers offer pipeliners, refiners and marketers a measurement accuracy which cannot be matched by inferred measurements. The proper installation and operation of these meters can assure the ultimate performance of the devices. Routine maintenance will directly result in improved accuracy and reliability.
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Document ID: 7C39B5FC

Office Application Of Computers For Flow Calculation
Author(s): Laura L. Sewell
Abstract/Introduction:
The need for increased precision in hydrocarbon measurement is a growing concern for everyone in our industry. In order to achieve the quality of measurement desired, we must learn to fully utilize the many technologically advanced instruments now available on the market. Fully automated chart processing systems can greatly enhance the speed and accuracy at which volumes are calculated and accessed.
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Document ID: DE38320B

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters Using Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Jim Bei
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Energy Resources developed and currently uses a mobile gas turbine meter proving system on 3 thru 8 gas turbine meters at station sites under actual operating conditions. It combines technology from liguid turbine meter provers with new ideas that specifically apply to gas measurement. The prover also contains a gas chromatograph which is used in actual mass flow computations.
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Document ID: 470C1841

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is defined in Webster as freedom from mistake or error. This is contrary to the widespread use of this terra since an accuracy statement is usually given as 0.5% accuracy while the real meaning is 0.5% inaccuracy.
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Document ID: 3F154F4B

The Significance Of Bias In Custody Transfer Measurement
Author(s): William Clingman
Abstract/Introduction:
The contribution of random error and bias to the overall accuracy of a measurement is discussed with particular reference to the determination of heating values of natural gases from composition determinations and direct measurement. The accuracy achievable from composition calculation depends on the quality of the reference standard and how closely the composition of the standard matches that of the unknown.
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Document ID: 526D9507

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From The Other
Author(s): D. A. Herod, D. Sellers
Abstract/Introduction:
This presentation deals with working relationships between field personnel and office personnel. Although many companies have their field people report to one central office, Lone Star Gas Company has their field people report to field superintendents. This allows the superintendents to have closer, personal contact with the field technicians. I have been involved with this type of operation for the past 14 years.
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Document ID: 94FC64EF

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement II
Author(s): Jerry Paul Smith
Abstract/Introduction:
knowledge of the Fundamentals of Gas Measurement is essential for all technicians and engineers that are called upon to perform gas volume calculations. These same people must have at least a working knowledge of the fundamentals to perform their everyday jobs including meter calibrations, specific gravity tests, collecting gas samples, etc.
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Document ID: 49D89F7E

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jack Wirshman
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of any area of technology is usually a slow step-by-step, conservative evolution of many ideas, flashes of inspiration, and slogging persistence. The present day turbine meter can be traced to the efforts of two men - David M. Potter and Edward E. Francisco Jr.
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Document ID: 56C44C5F

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): John Abbruscato
Abstract/Introduction:
This seminar will cober the use of vibrating element liquid densitometers in applications ranging from mass flow determination to interface detection for liquids ranging from light LPgs and refined products to waxy, heavy crude oils.
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Document ID: D200722B

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculators and computers, calculations con be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using different machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is a need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under revieu.
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Document ID: A1D0ACFA

Calibration Of Liquid Provers
Author(s): Steve Everley
Abstract/Introduction:
Th practic volumet the cus based p address necessa well as shootin general convent as an e is paper dea al aspects o ric type met tody transfe roducts. Th the prepara ry for a goo some common g techniques ity, this pa ional bidire xample unles Is with the f calibrating er provers used in r of petroleum e paper will tion procedures d calibration as sense trouble For purposes of per will use the ctional pipe prover s otherwise noted.
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Document ID: EAD88361

Computer Applications In Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Gary Pfrehm
Abstract/Introduction:
The explosive proliferation of microcomputers in the home and office environments is carrying over into commercial applications including the control and measurement of hydrocarbon flow. Today, specialized and general purpose microcomputers are allowing the designer greater flexibility while providing superior accuracy and enhanced man-machine interface capabilities. The wider acceptance of computers has translated into an increase in the number of measurement stations being designed and renovated today which are utilizing state of the art computer equipment,
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Document ID: 9772B4B1

Controlling Sdrges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state-surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who for one reason or another only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it,
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Document ID: C1CB3FEA

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): James C. Fiedler
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review the criteria used in the design of liquid measurement stations. After reviewing this paper, the reader should have a better understanding of the pivotal items to consider in this design, as well as an appreciation for the major components which are a part of liquid metering stations.
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Document ID: 1123A570

Current Status Qp T-P-Fias Odorizatton
Author(s): Dan W. Kemp
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to review developments related to LPGas odorization since 1986. In that year, the Gas Processors Association (GPA), the National LP-Gas Association(NLPGA) and the Propane Gas Association of Canada (PGAC) first became aware of possible problems and took action to answer concerns relating to the effectiveness of the warning agents used in LP-Gas. Affected portions of the LP-Gas industry formed a joint task force to (1) define the problems, (2) investigate alternatives. (3) conduct necessary studies or research, (4) analyze generated data, and (5) propose solutions.
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Document ID: F58F9F2A

Liquid Measurement Techniques & Problems
Author(s): W. Bryan Hoskins
Abstract/Introduction:
Three primary sources of error in crude oil measurement include: 1. Volume Measurement 2. Sediment and Water (S&W) 3. Tenperature This paper is confined to the discussion of techniques for temperature compensat ion of gross measured volumes of crude oil on Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (L.A.C.T.) units, truck and p i p e l i n e A.C.T. u n i t s . The main o b j e c t i v e is to review the fundamentals involved in tenperature canpensation and develop an understanding of the comnonly used devices for this purpose. Evaluation c r i t e r i a will be addressed, with etiphasis on application factors.
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Document ID: 2B72928D

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Gerald C. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Virtually all hydrocarbons are bought and sold by volume, that is, gallons, barrels, liters, cubic feet, etc. This is true for Natural Gas Liquids, too, but variations in component content and density make it difficult to measure them in the conventional volumetric manner. Mass measurement is more accurate for NGLs. Then the mass can be converted to volume for ccnmercial transactions.
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Document ID: 0C09B4F8

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
It is shown that for low gravity, low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities, due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: F1B2B34F

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement Methods Of Proving Corlolis Mass Flowmeters
Author(s): Chuck Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
For more than a decade, the Corlolis Mass Flowmeter (CMF) has demonstrated accurate and reliable measurements in liquid hydrocarbon service. Previous papers have discussed the CMF theory of operation and specifics of liquid measurement applications. This paper addresses the aspects of calibration and proving of the CMF. Various proving approaches are reviev/ed with practical and operational limitations as reported by current users. The activities of the American Petroleum Institutes CMF working group are also discussed and a list of API CMF proving test sites is included.
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Document ID: 72EF2183

Measurement Of Liquified Petroleum Gas
Author(s): Rodney F. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LP Gas or LPG) by definition is any material having a vapor pressure not exceeding that allowed for commercial propane composed predomi nantly of the fol1owing hydrocarbons either by themselves or as mixtures: propane, propylene, butane (normal or isobutane) and butylenes.
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Document ID: 7894DD55

Orifice Meters For Liquid Service
Author(s): Robert E. Bob Vickrey
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice meters have been used for centuries to measure liquids as well as gases. Although they are used extensively today by the gas transmission industry for measuring large volumes for custody transfer, they are also used for the measurement of natural gas 1iquids such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, raw mix, demethanized ethane-propane mix, oil, water, air and steam.
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Document ID: 29FEE711

Turbine Meters For Liquid Service
Author(s): Chuck Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
The liquid turbine meter accurately measures the total flow and/or flowrate of liquids in a piping system. This is accomplished by sensing the linear velocity of the fluid as it flows through the open cavities of the meter. The determination of the fluids linear velocity is done by the rotor which is supported within the meter housing and by design rotates at a velocity that is proportional to the velocity of the fluid flow. Since the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through a given open area is directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate, it follows that the rotational speed or RPM of the rotor is also directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Therefore, by electronically measuring the rotation of the turbine meter rotor, the flow of the fluid through the meter can be accurately determined.
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Document ID: 54B24A0D

Ftmhamehtals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Paul D. Stevenson
Abstract/Introduction:
To the non-chemist, the operation of a chromatograph may seem a little like Black Magic. However, a person does not need a degree in chemistry to understand Chromatography it is easy to understand if it is broken down into its basic components
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Document ID: 8AFA9604

A Different Approach To Total Energy Metering - Final Report
Author(s): William H. Vander Heyden
Abstract/Introduction:
Precision Measurement, Inc., a subsidiary of Badger Meter, Inc., has been developing an Energy Flowmeter. This flowmeter provides direct measurement of natural gas energy flowrate in pipelines. The Energy Meter has been in test in four field sites for over two years in a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute and those companies who have provided site access and testing assistance.
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Document ID: F6844060

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Jim Bieda
Abstract/Introduction:
When gas is processed in a plant, it changes in several ways. First, the volume is reduced by some measurable amount second, the composition changes so that the gas consists almost exclusively of methane and third, the energy content is significantly reduced. These changes are a direct result of the plants primary objective, which is to convert lower-value gas to higher-value liquids. The amount of energy used to accomplish this is referred to as Plant Btu Reduction or PBR. This paper will attempt to explain the significance of PBR and to demonstrate its calculation.
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Document ID: CFD2DBDB

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Energy Resources, along with many transmission companies, has gone to electronic measurement to:
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Document ID: ABF4FEB7

Energy IEASUREMENT UTILIZIM3 On-Line CHRDM?ffOGRAPH
Author(s): P. E. Kizer
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas energy determination has beccme an integral part of the business of most of the transmission, distribution and production ccmpaniestcday. Even before the FEEC Rule 500, allowing Transport Gas, heating value (energy) was gaining in importance. We are, after all, transporting energy. Even Wall Street has given us a new name,Energy companies . Sane ccmpanies produce energy some transport energy some deliver energy but we are all in the energy business. For decades, the means of contract exchange the cash register for gas) has been the MMCF. Now most contracts have at least a BTU specification and many use MMBIU rather than gas volume. It just doesnt take as many cubic feet of gas to heat the heme hot water tank if the gas is 1090 BTU instead of 940 BTU per SCF.
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Document ID: DBB2C273

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the operation and installation as well as the overall importance of combustion calorimeters in natural gas custody transfer and control applications.
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Document ID: 8410243F

Fundamentals Of Gas Turbine Meters
Author(s): Phillip m. Edwards
Abstract/Introduction:
The task of a gas meter is the accurate measurement of the volume of gas delivered to the user. With the increasing cost of exploration, production, and distribution of natural gas, increased importance has been placed on the role of the gas meter as the cash register of the gas industry. In accounting for gas usage, two types of meters are commonly used: Positive displacement and inferential meters. Positive displacement meters operate by alternately filling and emptying chambers of known volume. By counting the number of times the chambers fill and using the appropriate gear ratio, the volume may be measured in the desired units. Two types of positive displacement meters are diaphragm and rotary meters. Because of this method of filling chambers for volume measurement, positive displacement meters are generally limited to use at lower flow rates. At higher flow rates, the size requirements of the measurement chambers becomes a serious drawback. Consequently, inferential meters are usually preferred for high flow rate and high pressure applications.
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Document ID: 708E7611

Fundamehtal Principles Of Self-Operated Recoiators
Author(s): Michael T. Mccann
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device which utilizes mechanical and pneumatic principles to reduce varying high pressure to a constant lower pressure throughout a range of flows. Originally, the regulators primary function was to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, much more is required of a simple spring loaded regulator. Several operating functions are performed. Regulators are no longer just pressure reducing devices but are an integral instrument of measurement and have the internal ability to satisfy the most stringent modern safety codes of the D.O.T. Regulators must be selected and sized to match measurement and safety requirements.
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Document ID: 92F762B9

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): W I L L I Am H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
T h i s paper w i l l a d d r e s s the gas p r e s s u re r e d u c i n g r e g u l a t o r I n s t a l l a t i o n and the i s s ue o f e r r a t i c c o n t r o l of the downstream p r e s s u r e, A gas p r e s s u r e r e d u c i n g r e g u l a t o r s j o b is to m a n i p u l a t e flow in o r d e r to c o n t r o l p r e s s u r e. When the downstream p r e s s u r e is n o t p r o p e r ly c o n t r o l l e d the term u n s t a b l e c o n t r o l is a p p l i e d . Figure 1 Is a l i s t of o t h e r terms u s e d for v a r i o u s forms of downstream p r e s s u re i n s t a b i l i t y . This p a p e r w i l l n o t a d d r e s s the m a t h e m a t i c a l methods of d e s c r i b i n g the a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t em of the p r e s s u re r e d u c i n g s t a t i o n , b u t w i l l d e a l w i t h more of t h e components and t h e i r a f f e c t on the s y s t em s t a b i l l t y .
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Document ID: BE90D1F9

Control Valve Selection And Sizing For Liquids & Gas
Author(s): Joe Mullner
Abstract/Introduction:
Properly sized control valves are essential to obtain good process control. Simply specifying a valve size to match an existing pipe size leaves much to chance and will likely create an impractical situation in terms of initial investment and adequacy of control. Too small a valve will not pass the required amount of flow, while too large a valve will be unnecessarily expensive and will create instabilitv problems at low flow rates.
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Document ID: 30A6883F

Gas Service Regulations - Selection, Installation, And Operaticm
Author(s): Hark Hood
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas pressure regulators have become very familiar items over the years, and nearly everyone has grown accustomed to seeing them in factories, public buildings, by the roadside, and even in their own homes. As is frequently the case with many such familiar items, we all have a tendency tp take them for granted. Its only when a problem develops or when we are selecting a regulator for a new application that we need to look more deeply into the fundamentals of the regulators operation.
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Document ID: 22D1D05A

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Robert Mccaslin
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 3C4A5D16

Operation And Maintenance Of Regulators
Author(s): Larry D, Roger S
Abstract/Introduction:
[Abstract Not Available]
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Document ID: 134E0B1F

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Flexible Restricting Elements
Author(s): Norman Tingley
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition, a valve is a device which can regulate the flow of fluids (starting, stopping, or throttling) by positioning a movable member in relation to a passageway. As is common with other types of valves, its name, flexible element, describes the means by which this type of valve accomplishes its positioning function -the movable member flexes in an elastic manner to control the flow of fluids.
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Document ID: 26282924

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon,
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Document ID: 86DBCE86

Selection Of Control Valves And Assocuted Instruments
Author(s): Dannie Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is used to control fluid flow (I.e. gas or liquid) based on the process demands. Control valves are used in the gas Industry primarily as a throttling device to control pressure and flow rates. They are also used for On/Off service such as meter tube switching or for liquid level control. A control valve system consists three maj or components, a valve body assembly, an actuator, and a controller. Proper sizing and selection of each component is essential for the control valve system to provide satisfactory process control and minimize future operational and maintenance expenses.
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Document ID: EA337A24

Advanced Applications Of Flow Computers And Telemetering Systems
Author(s): Tim Hannan
Abstract/Introduction:
Advanced Flow Computers and Telemetry Systerns are largely dependent on each other for effective implementation of quality accounting systems. Many people within a given company are dependent on the timely delivery of quality informal ion. The often needed information is received via different communicat ion methods. Mos t communicat ion methods today are electronic. Flow computers generally integrate well with this med ium. It is the purpose of this paper to illustrate pertinent considerat ions of advanced flow computer. and telemetry systems.
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Document ID: B379C5AD

Conversion From Volume To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measuremen
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Document ID: 6753B4C6

Basic Scada Systems - From Sensors To Screens
Author(s): John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems, are special types of control systems which allow operators to monitor and control hundreds of remotely located facilities, e.g. compressor stations, valves, etc. The term Supervisory Control infers that only operator initiated setpoint or on/off commands are sent to the remote facility. Automatic, closedloop control is performed only by equipment at the remote facility. Should a connecting communication link fail, the remote facility will continue to operate correctly using the most recent commands received from its supervising master.
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Document ID: E08FBF37

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): R.W. Mckee Metretek. Incorporated P.O. Box Melbourne, Florida -
Abstract/Introduction:
Communication systems for gas measurement data are becoming increasingly important and desirable to natural gas company operations, engineering, supply, accounting, billing, marketing, and customer service departments. This is due, in lare part, to the implementation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1986 that created the concept of open access, Following that were FERC Orders 436 and 500 which gave us the phenomenon we now know as transportation gas.
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Document ID: 5126B746

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measdrement
Author(s): Warren Dean
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent FERC rulings on open transport, the increasing demand for clean burning natural gas versus oil and coal caused by environmental concern, and the economics of faster more accurate billing, the gas production, transportation and distribution companies are evaluating the economies of electronic flow measurement versus charts. The foil owing paper will illustrate the economic impact of Electronic Flow Measurement versus Charts for three different types of gas companies based on the cost Incurred to handle charts. The three types of gas companies evaluated are.
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Document ID: D188777D

Measurement Using Battery-Powered Floij Cohputers
Author(s): Steve Cree
Abstract/Introduction:
Some eight years ago low powered flow computers were introduced and required to prove themselves in three major areas: accuracy, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Electronic gas measurement (ECM) today is maturing in all three of these important aspects of use. Lets briefly look at each one.
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Document ID: 90D82CFA

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1930s, when more and more utilities began to sel 1 1 arge vol umes of gas at el evated pressures, i.e. at pressures above inches water column, it became apparent that devices were needed which, clock or meter driven, would correct measured volumes for pressure and temperature. The first such instrument was introduced by the American Meter Company and soon several other companies introduced similar instruments. These were essentially mechanical calculators of which certain inputs were automatically adjusted as the pressure or temperature fluctuated. Their design has remained virtually unchanged through the years and a great many of these instruments are still in use today.
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Document ID: C4B883EF

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): R. C. Chip Leitschuh, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of on-line erectronic computer systems and their application in custody transfer. Emphasis will be on increased accuracy due to real time consideration of gas measurement parameters.
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Document ID: D5866737

Pressure & Temperature Transducers Installation(, Calibration & Repair)
Author(s): Bill Bowden
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic pressure and temperature transducers, or transmitters as they are generally called, are widely used throughout the hydrocarbon processing industry and the advent of smart microprocessor based devices, which can provide improved performance and communication capabilities, will only increase that use. The maximiim benefit of such transmitters, which are designed to measure a pressure or temperature, convert that measurement to some type of electronic signal and then send, or transmit, that signal to some read-out device, such as a computer or RTU, can only be recognized if they are properly installed, calibrated and maintained.
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Document ID: 6E245C35

Real Time Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Howard m. Sheets
Abstract/Introduction:
Electronic Gas Measurement has now been in existence lor some twenty years. In ihc lasi six years battery powered flow computers were introduced, and for the first lime this allowed full AGA-3 gas calculation to be performed on site in remote locations. Since that time battery powered flow computers have been proving their place in the gas industry,
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Document ID: 287BB738

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert m. Knox
Abstract/Introduction:
Since the 1960s companies involved in the transmission of natural gas have used electronic equipment to measure gas flow and monitor pipeline operation. However, not until the early 1980s were reliable electronic equipment, increasingly accurate instrumentation and inexpensive computer programs all available to provide a system which could economically replace chart recorders.
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Document ID: E6A91185

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Charles R. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
Changes in the custody transfer settlements for natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL) has placed an emphasis on more accurate analyses of these products, especially in the heavier hydrocarbons that fall in the carbon number range from C6 to about C15 or the C6+ fraction. The analyses of natural gas and NGL mixtures moved a major step forward with the development of GPA Tentative Standards 2186, The Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography and 2286, The Extended Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. This paper will briefly review these two methods and gas chromatography as an analytical tool.
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Document ID: 7E4B8DFB

Correcting And Recording Instruments As Applied To Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): August Buchhalter
Abstract/Introduction:
When metering large volumes of gas at elevated pressures using rotary, or turbine meters, it is customary to supplement the meter with an instrument which will correct the metered volume to base conditions.
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Document ID: 77CA25EF

Chromatograph Maintenance And Trouble Shooting
Author(s): Louis N. Cox P.E.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Chroinatographs used in energy measurement and control systerns are designed for minimum amount of ma intenance with high reliability.
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Document ID: E43C9C06

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulfur
Author(s): A. L. Vincent
Abstract/Introduction:
Most frequently, producers and pipeline companies desire to measure hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and total sulfur for compliance with purchase contracts, which generally contain sulfur quality clauses relating to those two parameters. A quarter grain of H2S per one hundred standard cubic feet (0.25 gr H2S/100 SCF) and one grain of total sulfur
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Document ID: A33D8C28

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate using orifice meters.
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Document ID: E0A6E656

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Robert Lindsey
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gases must be dried for any of several reasons. Moisture Analyzers are then used to monitors the water content, There are several different types of analyzers available however, all requi re a representative sample in order to measure correctly, A proper sample system includes an insert ion type probe, insulated stainless steel tubing and appropriate filtration.
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Document ID: 4C83C808

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Borys Mychajliw
Abstract/Introduction:
As you know, moisture and natural gas dont mix. Among other things, moisture lowers the BTU r a t i n g , causes freeze-ups and makes for compressor breakdowns. To address these problems, gas contracts generally set an upper l i m i t of seven pounds per m i l l i o n standard c u b i c f e e t of w a t e r . Thus, m o i s t u re d e t e r m i n a t i o n close to that value is very c r i t i c a l . Enter the e l e c t r o l y t i c method of m o i s t u r e a n a l y s i s , a technology that has h i s t o r i c a l l y proven effective for natural gas applications.
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Document ID: F01C9296

Karl Fischer Vs. Hao Dy Distillation
Author(s): Roy J.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port, Inc, (LOOP Ino.) measures the water content of over TiOO, OfKl ,000 barrels of crude oil per year using the water by distillation method (ASTH U-400fS) . Water determination by distillation was chosen because of some measurement problems built into the LOOls system.
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Document ID: 702EDAB2

Specific Gravity/Relative Density Measurement
Author(s): Richard L., Dick Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1989 Proceedings of the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement there were no less than five (5) papers related to the measurement/determination of Specific Gravity/Relative Density of Gases. They were Determination of Specific Gravity of Gases by Faruk Civan Instruments for the Determination of Specific Gravity of Gas by 1) Marsha Yon, 2) H.E.Lewis, 3) Chuck Gray and 4) E.L.Collins.
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Document ID: F7B769EF

Design, Operation. And MAITENANCE Of Lact Units
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
These are acronyms for various things. T G I F stands for Tail Gate Information Forum. Im sure we have all dropped the tail gate on a pickup at one time or another and had a brief bit of training in the field. B I O L stands not for Bring Your Own Liquid but for Basic Yearning for Oil measurement Learning. M A C O T R A F R O L B T A stands for Manual Custody Transfer From Lease Tanks. L A C T is the automatic counterpart which stands for Lease Automatic Custody Transfer.
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Document ID: 46B89311

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Michael S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
The Deadweight Gauge is the most accurate instrument available for the measurement of pressures. Repeatable readings with accuracies of 0.1% to .02% of measured pressure are obtainable. The device does not require recalibration unless the components have excessive wear or weights are replaced. It is easily transported and set up in the field, requires minimum maintenance, and is simple to operate. Tripod mount ing is available for most instruments.
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Document ID: B66C8EB8

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jack W. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the ever-changing world of gas contracts. The contract characteristics over time can be roughly grouped as follows:
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Document ID: FD2DFF16

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mickey Ashcraft
Abstract/Introduction:
Data gathered from distribution metering and regulating stations is used to determine the income of gas distribution companies. Since these stations are the cash registers of each company, proper station design is imperative. Obviously, improper design of these stations can cause problems with customer bills, but less obvious problems are also created. One major problem is the introduction of wrong information into the decision making process. For example, statistics created by poorly designed stations may result in inaccurate lost and unaccounted for gas figures and could cause needless expenditures in that area. Similarly poor measurement results in inaccurate sales reporting that may affect such seemingly unrelated areas as rate making. With these potential problems, proper station design is not an option, rather it is a necessity.
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Document ID: B7B7DFEA

Elemem-S Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): R. R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic sections of a natural gas 1iquid purchase, sale or exchange contract are: Basic Agreement Basic Terms Genera1 Terms and Conditions and Exhibits. The Basic Agreement area defines the date, parties, ownership id consideration. The Basic Terms area est-ablishes specifics relative to the performance of this particular contract, such as: definitions term delivery/receipt location quantity price invoicing, payment, and accounting product specifications and measurement, sanpling and analysis. The General Terms and Conditions area relates detailed legal parameters, such as: Title Force Majeure warranty/taxes notices laws and regulations record and audit severability non-waiver Entire Agreement and assignment. The Exhibit area provides an opportunity to include deta i1ed i nformat i on in a contract w i thout cluttering up the contract
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Document ID: 59665FF5

Installation Of PYCNDMETERS And Pycnometer Calculations
Author(s): Harold L. Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
In our ever changing world of measurement it should be noted to those who are involved in mass neasurestfent that the A.P.I. Chapter 14.6 is now undergoing seme very radical changes in the way we handle the density meter and all that is used to insure the validity of its results. The reduction of our work forces and the declining prices of our products has forced a new outlook on the way we install and calibrate measurotient equipnent. Once a ccupany has cut. manpcwer to a minimum and still operate, the next is to put enphasis on more accurate measurement of their raw and finished products. This will squeeze the last bit of profit out of its throughput and possibly make a marginal plant a profitable one. The purpose of this paper is to briefly eilain the new methods of Installation of Pycncmeters and Pycnoreter Calibrations using the new A.P.I. Chapter 14.6.
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Document ID: 8892ECA9

Instrument CAIIBR.TION Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): Robert V. Liddle Houston, Texas
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate .calibration of orifice plate flow meters, particularly at remote or inaccessible locations.
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Document ID: 6AEDB5B7

L.A.C.T, Unit Provihg - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transferred at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: 65B4E0D4

Liquid Flow Provers - Conventtonal
Author(s): S. K. Suri
Abstract/Introduction:
Positive Displacement Meters and Turbine Meters are most commonly used for Custody Transfer applications of hydrocarbons. These meters produce good repeatability at a given set of flow conditions however, they produce errors based on changes in flow rate, specific gravity, temperature, viscosity, wearing of parts, buildup of foreign matter, etc.
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Document ID: A28355D1

Liquid Meter Proving Techmiques
Author(s): Janes E. Toiiver
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Meter Proving ia the physical testing of the performance of a meter, in a liquid service, that is measuring the flow or vblume throughput. The meter proof or test, is performed by placing a meter in aeriea with a meter prover, which has a known base volume at standard conditions, in such a way that during any given test run, all the product measured by the meter is also measured by the prover, and equally important, only the product measured by the meter is measured by the prover. Then the meter indication is compared to the known prover volume. Meters can provide more precise measurement of the liquids handled, if they are proved regularly and in actual operating conditions.
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Document ID: 51D026DB

Mabdal Chart Calculatioh
Author(s): J. F. Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
The era of the computer has done much to curtail the need to perform manual chart volume calculations both in the field and the measurement office. Mainframe, mini, on-site, flow, and/or personal computers now perform this task quickly and accurately- A trade publication recently contained an article which detailed some 364 programming steps necessary to cause a programmable, hand-held calculator to perform orifice calculations. Despite this level of technology, those seriously involved in the gas measurement industry should possess both an understanding of what variables are required for calculations, and how each effects the volumetric outcome. A thorough understanding can be of enormous benefit to one who must either perform a manual calculation or determine if a calculation has been made correctly, then one can possibly find what has been done in error and initiate corrective action.
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Document ID: 59126D72

Meter Shop Equipment, Techniques, And Operation
Author(s): Chris Sprlggs Oklahoma Natural Gas Company P.O. Box Tulsa, Ok A-
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas meter, the yardstick and cash register of the gas industry, places in motion the wheels that keep our business moving and growing. It must remain accurate and durable through all kinds of weather and abuse. Whenever the cogs begin to slip or the wheels begin to squeak, its time to refit the cogs and grease the wheels. Otherwise, the cash register begins to slow and to deteriorate. So, the meter shop functions.
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Document ID: 7C1BD7BF

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Dale C. Shuck
Abstract/Introduction:
It is my opinion that flow testing the meters, regardless of the method is just one step in assuring accurate measurement when field testing large displacement measuring stations.
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Document ID: 627C2302

MICROMF,TER Measurement Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The most widely accepted device for the measurement of natural gas and other fluids is the orifice meter. The primary element of the orifice meter is the orifice plate and orifice meter tube consisting of the orifice fitting, or flanges, adjacent piping, and flow conditioner or straightening vanes. The properly designed meter tube should follow the guidelines for manufacture as established by the American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 3 or American National Standard/American Petroleum Institute (ANSI/API) Report No. 2530, herein referred to as AGA //3. This paper will address the tolerances, design, and meter tube inspection according to the guidelines of AGA /3.
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Document ID: 8E18E48E

Determination Of Leakage
Author(s): L. G. Tidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Solving the lost and unaccounted for gas problem is a continuing problem -directly affecting the companys balance sheet. This topic covers every aspect of measurement discussed in this school and all leak detection devices available to the Gas Industry. This is the most generalized subject one could discuss. Any measurement type instrument including the type of meter, quality of gas, gravity, temperature, or coefficient calculation affects the LUFG. The coding of volumes in and out of the pipeline and the accounting entries are all Just as important as the actual leakage.
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Document ID: 5C703DBA

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Frank D. Graves
Abstract/Introduction:
The small volume prover has continued to make a d e f i n i t e impact on the Petroleum Industry. The small volume prover, when applied p r o p e r l y, allows the process of proving meters f a s t e r , and in some cases has shown to be the only way to prove meters successfully.
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Document ID: 40CE9492

Orifice Meter Gauge Calibratlon Using Portable Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an inch of water? The correct answer to this question has taken on increased Importance with the demand for better accuracy and the Introduction of digital pressure Indicators. For example, lets assume that you have just received your new digital pressure Indicator and you decide to verify its accuracy. The manufacturer claims 0.1% accuracy at 100 inches of water. You set up a test using a deadweight tester and a water manometer. After placing a 100 inch of water weight on the deadweight tester, you record a reading of 99,8 inches of water on the digital pressure indicator and 100.2 Inches of water on the manometer. Which is right?
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Document ID: 966639BF

Orifice Meters - Operations And Maintenance
Author(s): Lonnie Grady
Abstract/Introduction:
Many of us who have a field background automatically think of an orifice meter as a black box sitting on a meter tube, recording differential pressure and flowing pressure on a circular chart.
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Document ID: 118ABBE1

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): m. C. Mckinney
Abstract/Introduction:
Training of measurement personnel has become increasingly important during the past few years due to increased energy costs and governmental regulations regarding pipeline operations. Because of this and the loss of many experienced employees due to retirement and work force reductions, Lone Star Gas Companies management has placed top priority on the proper training of measurement personnel. In the past, our Company used the on-the-job approach with equipment manufacturers supplying some specialized training on specific equipment. This method was time consuming and often the bad habits of the trainer were passed on to the trainee. We also found that operating and maintenance procedures were not consistent throughout our system. In addition, the constant advances in measurement technology have made it difficult for each individual district to stay abreast of new techniques.
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Document ID: E39DF625

Proving Amd Repairing Dohestic Meters
Author(s): John Anderson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy in proving meters is one of the most important facets of meter repair. There are many factors which affect the actual proof or accuracy. Besides the equipment used, temperature is one of the most important factors. The handling of meters also affects the accuracy of meters and the end cost of repair for these meters.
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Document ID: 618A57F4

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter factors are reported to four decimals, or to one part in ten thousand. Therefore, in order to achieve the proper resolution of data collected during a meter proving with a conventional pipe prover, there should be at least 10,000 pulses accumulated for each pass of the displacer. If the product of pulses per unit volume emitted, times the volume (In consistent units) displaced between the two detectors is less than 10,000 pulses, the prover is defined as a small volume prover for that particular proving situation.
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Document ID: 213BE557

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will review methods used to increase the resolution of meter pulses related to proving. This technique, recognized by API, has made small volume provers a practical reality.
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Document ID: B16D8B3D

Witnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): Steve Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to put into perspective cause and effect of common gas measurement problems encountered during the inspection of an orifice meter station.
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Document ID: 95706308

Automatic Tank Gauges
Author(s): Jonathan D. Rowe
Abstract/Introduction:
A review ot current tank gauging techniques for storage of plant crude oil stocks, gasoline, asphalt, etc. is made. Newer methods of tank gauging which provide less costly but more accurate and timely hydrocarbon inventory measurements are addressed. Particular attention is paid to Hydrostatic Tank Gauging (HTG), comparing it with conventional level-based gauging techniques. New developments and applications are discussed.
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Document ID: 4652A800

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): Jeffrey A. Householder
Abstract/Introduction:
Truck loading terminals in the United States have been undergoing intensive renovation beginning in the Mid 70s and continuing to the present time The advent of bottom loading, vapor recovery systems, specialized turbine meters and tank monitoring systems have brought numerous benefits to the bulk loading industry. When combined with the ongoing development of Terminal Automation Systems (TAS) and electronic presets, truck loading terminals have now become a high-tech enterprise with dramatic increases in control and monitoring functions.
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Document ID: A75E1902

Determination Of Unaccounted-For Gas - Distribution
Author(s): R. Michael Cowgill
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased competitiveness of natural gas and the environmental significance of the emissions of methane into the atmosphere have focused attention on the subject of unaccounted-for gas (UAF). UAF is defined as the difference between the quantity of gas received into and delivered out of a system for a specific period of time.
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Document ID: A63FE38A

Basic Principles Of Odohization
Author(s): J. T. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The detection of natural gas leakage has long been a concern to the natural gas industry, but never more so than today. Increased public awareness of safety and huge increases in the cost of product liability litigation has resulted in a greater focus on gas odorization. While odorization may be one of the smallest activities in the distribution of natural gas - NONE IS MORE IMPORTANT!!!
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Document ID: 5BB1BEC7

Orifice Fitting And Meter Tube Quality Assurance
Author(s): Steve Klak
Abstract/Introduction:
Orifice fittings and meter tubes have been used as a primary method of metering for quite a long period of time. So long in fact, that one would think the methods of producing a meter tube and the quality assurance that is involved would be rather standardized at this point in time. This is true to an extent. The industry as a whole has been gravitating to a generally accepted level of quality assurance. Over the years, the development of orifice metering, material and testing standards has guided the industry along as to what is required to make quality meter tubes. However, not everyone requires the same level of quality assurance for fittings and meter tubes and therefore they are not all made the same.
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Document ID: 825FFADD

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Burt Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
Today the most prevalent device used in fluid measurement is the orifice fitting. The fitting, with its accompanying orifice plate and meter tube is an extremely accurate and dependable device when built to very exacting standards.
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Document ID: 34D61F14

Calibration Of Storage Tanks
Author(s): m. J. Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
This discussion will deal with the field calibration of upright, above ground, cylindrical, cone and floating roof, steel storage tanks.
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Document ID: 89276D0E

Design Of An Electronic Odorant Injection System
Author(s): Paul F. Zeck
Abstract/Introduction:
Clcan-buming natural gas has become the fuel of choice for millions of consumers around the world because of its versatility and availability.
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Document ID: C244572B

Flow Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Jack Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a discussion of the backpressure testing of natural gas wells and the calculations relating to the evaluation of the information produced from this testing. Procedures for conducting these tests and methodology of testing procedures are discussed.
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Document ID: 526A4B57

Gauging, Testing And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Clarence L. Strance
Abstract/Introduction:
When gauging, testing and running of lease tanks, five separate measurement functions are required. These are temperature determinations, API gravity determination, gauging, sampling, and sediment and water determination.
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Document ID: 7928D3F9

Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
The accurate determination of quantity and quality of crude oil transferred from shore to tanker or tanker to shore, is the function of Marine Crude Oil Terminal Measuring Systems. From the measurement data, a Bill of Lading can be prepared and transport costs, taxes, royalties, and customs fees can be computed. Accuracy is essential as each tanker load represents a value of ten to twenty million dollars. Even errors of 0.1% represent a significant amount of revenue. In addition to accuracy, Meter systems offer several other advantages over older more traditional tank gaging methods. Specification guidelines for meter systems and associated equipment are presented in this paper.
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Document ID: 9C41CB5A

Measurchent Of Large Volumes Of Crude Oil Dy Turdine Meter
Author(s): Larry St. Gersiain
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the only deep water port in operation in the United States for the importation of foreign crude oil. The port facil ity is located in the Gulf of Mexico in Grand Isle Clock 59, approximately 10 miles offshore. The deep water port was designed specif Ifally for unloading very large crude carriers (VLCCs) and ultra large crude carriers (LCCs) up to 700,000 dead-weight-tons (DKT) via single anchor leg mooring (GALM) systems, a pumping platform complex (Fig. 1), submarine pipelines, a booster station.
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Document ID: 87A070A0

Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Application
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Odor monitoring is a complex subject. Odor level test instruments have been in use for approximately fifty years and many users are satisfied with their reliability. There are others, however, who feel that the test results of these instruments are meaningless. Since both sides in this disagreement are using the same type of instrument, the problem appears to surround the manner in which the odor level test is taught and run.
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Document ID: 884C8141

About Ishm 1991
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 4FCD9136


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