Measurement Library

American Gas Association Publications (1991)

Electronic Transfer Prover
Author(s): Rick Ensch
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters. 1. Low Pressure Flow Prover 2. Critical Flow Prover 3. Transfer Prover The low pressure flow prover and the critical flow prover involve the measurement of several variables which in turn may cause the compounding of errors before the final accuracy can be calculated. The transfer prover requires only the input of temperature and pressure differences between the prover and the meter under test. Resuhs obtained from a transfer prover should be more accurate and repeatable and compare more favorably to the accepted standards of the bell and piston provers. Transfer proving was initially developed to provide an easier and more accurate field meter proving method. Because of the capacity capabilities of transfer provers (2000 CFH to 80,000 CFH) transfer provers are utilized in meter shops where prover capacity is limited and allow for shop testing of the larger capacity meters.
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Document ID: C6317AAD

Construction Practices For Corrosion Control
Author(s): B. m. Dearing
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion of metals is a natural phenomenon which returns the metal to its native or ore state from whence it came. Man has found many uses for metals since the Bronze Age, one of these is fabrication into pipe for transporting methane gas as a source of energy. At one time, it was thought that pipe required periodic replacement as a normal part of business. In the early 1900s pipe was coated with pitch, asphalt, wax, et cetera to prolong the life. The first step of corrosion control therefore is coating the pipe with a dielectric material. Each corrosion control coating must contain the following properties: Be applied on a properly prepared surface Have sufficient adhesion to the metal surface to effectively resist migration of moisture Be sufficiently ductile to resist cracking Have sufficient strength to resist damage due to handhng and soil stress Have properties compatible with any supplemental cathodic protection Have low moisture absorption and high electrical resistance to be an electrically insulating coating Must be inspected just prior to lowering into the ditch and any damage detrimental to effective corrosion control must be repaired Must be protected from damage resulting from adverse ditch conditions and When installed by boring, driving or other similar method, precautions must be taken to minimize damage to the coating during installation.
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Document ID: 3F6233C1

The Cost Benefits Of Horizontal Drilling
Author(s): S. D. Josh, W. Ding
Abstract/Introduction:
In the last few years, horizontal well technology has advanced significantly. More and more horizontal wells are being drilled around the world to produce hydrocarbons. Horizontal wells can also be used for gas storage reservoirs to increase deliverability during periods of peak demand. This paper reviews the possible applications of horizontal wells in gas storage reservoirs and their cost-benefit analysis.
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Document ID: 60787A36

The Gri Role In Gas Storage Technology Research
Author(s): Yusaf A. Shikari
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the past two decades, the significant growth in gas storage has been one of the most prominent changes in the natural gas industry. Mid-70s saw the beginnings of the regulatory reforms that have, to this date, continued to prompt the local distribution companies, central power producers, and large industrial (and certain commercial) gas customers to participate directly in the purchase and transportation of gas rather than relying on the interstate pipelines. UnbundUng of utility services and rates and pricing of energy based on its market value (rather than cost-of- service) are becoming more common. Operating procedures are being revised to improve efficiency and increase throughout. As this restructuring moves the natural gas industry towards a deregulated, competitive environment, gas storage is becoming a vital, strategic component of the energy service market in the United States (U.S.). Recent forecasts of steady growth in gas demand-and prospects for improved gas supphes-will further enhance opportunities for new storage projects in coming years.
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Document ID: 92561162

The Select Compact Gas Meter
Author(s): Eugene L. Orourke
Abstract/Introduction:
The paper describes the new Select compact gas meter. The meter utilizes positive displacement to measure gas flow over the wide range required for a domestic gas meter. The meter is small and light weight. It measures only 6 and x 3 wide x 2 deep and weighs less than 1 1/2 pounds. Accuracy is 0.5% between one and 250 cfh. The meter is electronic providing great flexibility in readout schemes and power supplies. The meter will be competitive in price and quality with todays meters. It is expected to be available for industry use in two years. The paper also describes Select Corporation and its affiliated companies.
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Document ID: 8F76CB30

Interchangeability Of Regasified LNG
Author(s): Paul C. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
LNG generally has a composition different from typical domestic gas available to most distribution systems, generally with more ethane and, therefore, more carbon atoms per umt volume. This has raised concerns about the differences in burning characteristics, or interchangeability. Although LNG is not the only higher carbon gas, it is the one of most interest to this audience. This paper summarizes the atperiences of some companies in dealing with this issue.
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Document ID: B53990DF

Flame Propagation In Natural Gas Pipelines And Facilities
Author(s): Kem Mcvey, Christopher Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
The Flame Propagation program consists of a live demonstration using a simulated natural gas pipeline, electrical fittings and conduits to demonstrate the effects of flame speeds and pressures on pipelines and pipeline facilities. During the course of the demonstration, various concentrations of air and fuel mixtures wilt be ignited to show the characteristics of flames and how they react. A portion of the program also demonstrates how flame travels through conduit, associated piping, and electrical fixtures. The rationale behind explosion proof equipment is explained. The following is an overview of the information presented in conjunction with the demonstration.
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Document ID: 40CA5A7A

Ase Certification: One Companys Implementation Experience
Author(s): Albert R. Bayes, Paul m. Hoeting
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1990, The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company, Transportation Department, revised, evaluated and effected job descriptions for its servicers and mechanics. The journey for pursuit of certification and job revisions extended over a period of eight years. The higher level mechanic job qualifications include two to four requirements for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) certifications and Utility Hydraulic certification. Grandfather provisions were allowed for all incumbent workers and those promoting within one year after the effective date. The ASE certification requirements were included to motivate management and workers to maintain proficiency in maintenance of utility vehicles. The ASE qualifications requirements, partially dependent upon outside training and testing, will reward those who achieve certifications and other qualifications with promotions in line with bargaining unit seniority. Certification implementation has encouraged Transportation Department managemeni to search for new methods and sources of training, especially for utility (mobile) hydraulics, which does not have an industry-wide certification recognized. A department training team of exempt and non-exempt employees will help direct the course of future training in an atmosphere of participative management as defined under the Companys We Care programs.
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Document ID: A32FEED8

Stress/Strain Neutralizer
Author(s): Joseph K. Campbell
Abstract/Introduction:
An introduction to the basic engineering principles and the operating philosophy of the stress/strain neutralizer. The product passively absorbs the thermal and pressure expansion of large diameter/high pressure piping systems in compressor stations . . . in such a manner that pipe forces on compressors and the corresponding expansion stresses in the piping are reduced effectively to zero.
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Document ID: B7132C02

Directional Drilling As An Alternate Construction Method In Wetlands
Author(s): Lydia Gromadzki Dorko
Abstract/Introduction:
Columbia Gas Transmission, in partnership with ANR Pipeline, constructed 8.9 miles of 20 pipeline from Swedesboro to West Deptford in Gloucester County, New Jersey. Henkels & McCoy, Inc. was contracted to install the 47,623 of pipe of which 22,174 (47%) was identified as wetland construction, with the most sensitive wetlands being Raccoon and Mantua creeks. These two tidal marsh areas were selected to be directionally drilled. Land & Marine, Inc. completed the 1535 Raccoon Creek and 1651 Mantua Creek crossing as a subcontractor to Henkels & McCoy. This was Columbia Transmissionss first attempt at employing this very viable solution for construction within wetlands. This presentation centers on the process Columbia went through to install the pipeline in the Racoon and Mantua creek areas. I will discuss: Definition of the drilling procedure Acquisition of drilling parameters Selection of contractor Description of directional drilling method Construction of pipeline Evaluation of the procedure after construction
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Document ID: 4FA868E4

Live Main Insertion
Author(s): Thomas H. Robinson
Abstract/Introduction:
Live main insertion is an evolution of the past revolutionary technology of insertion into abandoned facilities. The rationale behind using the annular space of a live carrier main to supply the gas to the customers that have yet to be changed over to the new system is not a revolutionary idea, but it is an idea that challenges our conservative ways of thinking. Do the following questions come to your mind as they did mine and to others around me: Is this new technology safe? Is this cost effective? Is the annular space adequate? Will the end seal process work? Will our work forces be able to coordinate their work with the contractors work? Will the hardware hold up? Is the process too complicated for reasonable execution and safety factors? Can we fall back to the traditional method, if this new technology is too demanding or fails?
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Document ID: A05FD750

Job Tracking And Management: PG&Es New Business Construction Information Management System
Author(s): Barbara A. Schaefer
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes the features of the Job Tracking and Management system (JTM). Pacific Gas & Electric Company is developing this software to streamline and simplify the process of providing new gas and electric service. The program is designed to eliminate duplication of information entry and to reduce the amount of paper processing. This will decrease the time interval between a service request and a meter set. JTM includes modules to help with such functions as scheduling of construction and estimating, sharing of information among operating departments, and correspondence with customers.
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Document ID: 9BA22FD2

Field Operation Of A Portable Piston Prover For Testing Gas Meters
Author(s): Ronald E. Beaty
Abstract/Introduction:
The ability to calibrate meters while they are installed in the piping configuration that is normal used for the operation is necessary for optimum accuracy. Amoco is using a bi-directional gas piston prover for this application with outstanding success. Although the operating concept is similar to the bi-directional liquid prover, the design is quite unique. The design and calibration of the double wall piston prover are fully discussed. The prover, which is truck mounted for ease of transportation, is connected to a duel turbine meter manifolded. The manifold is designed to allow either meter to be used individually or in parallel for master metering. Operational experience with testing field turbine meters in situ routinely demonstrate repeatabilities of 0.5% under the worst conditions. At higher pressures and greater flow rates, repeatabilities of 0.1 to 0.2 are normally achieved. The new orifice meter standard allows for in situ calibration which can easily be accomplished with the prover and master meter combination.
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Document ID: 0EF8C987

Compressor Station Automation Using Distributed Control
Author(s): T. W. Clarke
Abstract/Introduction:
The Alberta Gas Transmission Division (AGTD) of NOVA Corporation of Alberta owns and operates a natural gas transmission system in the province of Alberta which transports over 80 per cent of marketed Canadian production. Due to the pipelines geographic size and span, emphasis on remote operation has always been strong. NOVAs compressor station facilities are operated centrally by remote control using a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. NOVAS compressor stations are automated to allow for unattended operation and are only manned during abnormal or maintenance conditions. Current compressor station control system designs use a hybrid combination of programmable logic controllers and personal computers with software systems from various vendors, connected via a proprietary, limited functionality data highway. This paper reports on the feasibility of using modern distributed control technology to provide an integrated approach to compressor station control system design. The paper describes system selection criteria, implementation experience, and control performance. The ability to implement an Information and Control System at the compressor station, allowing enhanced remote access to compressor station data as well as local access to remote computer systems, is briefly discussed.
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Document ID: 45B552B3

IMAGIS-Indianapolis Mapping And Geographic Infrastructure System, A Gis Consortium
Author(s): Charles E. Wormann
Abstract/Introduction:
Geographic Information System consortiums are in various stages of development or discussion in many cities, counties, and states throughout the country. This paper details Citizens Gas & Coke Utilities experience with the first multi-participant public-private sector consortium, IMAGIS -Indianapolis Mapping and Geographic Infrastructure System. IMAGIS can be defined as a consortium of organizations that share a common database of spatial information for different applications. It is the first, large multiparticipant GIS project involving both public and private organizations in North America. In a nutshell, IMAGIS is the result of a mission many thought impossible -bringing the government, utility, educational and private sectors together to deal jointly with their infrastructure management challenges. The project represents a geographically spatially oriented information processing system that integrates the infrastructure management needs of over two dozen different agencies and organizations into a comprehensive network of shared resources. Two broad goals of IMAGIS are to provide a countywide, land related digital database and to serve the various ongoing analytical and reporting requirements of the participating organizations.
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Document ID: F79262A1

Pipeline Crossing Research At The Gas Research Institute: An Overview
Author(s): K. B. Burnham
Abstract/Introduction:
For the past five years, GRI has funded a major research project at Cornell University evaluating cased and uncased gas piping crossing railroads and highways. This paper presents an overview of that work and a description of the major tasks and their principal results, including the three-dimensional finite element modeling and the field tests that validated this analytical work.
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Document ID: B8B6E0B6

The Aging Of LNG Facilities
Author(s): Richard A. Hoffman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a review of the principal areas of an LNG facility. It discusses inspection procedures, monitoring systems, and maintenance of the critical components of an LNG plant, from a materials and corrosion viewpoint. It addresses the efforts required to keep an LNG plant fit for service. The issue at hand is one of plant fitness-or how to keep a plant fit for continued service.
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Document ID: C07B905F

The Changing Significance Of Scada Information
Author(s): Andy Wike
Abstract/Introduction:
The 1970s saw the introduction of computer-based Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems to pipeline operations. The 1980s introduced sophisticated SCADA software packages into Gas Control computer systems to provide advanced monitoring and control functions. In the 1990s, we are now witnessing substantial changes in the purposes to which operating companies are applying their SCADA data. The dissemination of this SCADA information within an operating company can have a significant impact on the way in which a company conducts its business, and the level of success that company enjoys in the market place. This paper examines the developments associated with the changing significance of SCADA information and describes some of the operational and business applications to which this information can be applied.
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Document ID: 35F95712

Expert Systems Within Columbia Gas
Author(s): David m. Thomson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Columbia Gas System has been involved in development of expert systems for over five years. TWo expert systems are operational: Glycol Dehydration Expert System and Regulator Design Assistant. The Glycol Dehydration Expert System solves the problem of high water vapor content in the outlet gas stream of a dehydration unit. The Regulator Design Assistant designs monitor/control regulator sets, including an optional bypass regulator and measurement. The Glycol Dehydration Expert System is PC-based while the Regulator Design Assistant is available on the corporate mainframe computer.
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Document ID: FD8CF588

Trends In Environmental Criminal Enforcement And Preparing For Defense Of An Environmental Criminal Case
Author(s): Kevin A. Gaynor
Abstract/Introduction:
To properly prepare for the defense of an environmental criminal case, it is imperative to understand: the regulatory climate that creates the possibihty of an individual or corporation being indicted for environmental violations: the governments attitude towards a potential defendant and the potential defendants mental profile. When these are understood then, and only then can a defense counsel begin to prepare the potential defendants defense adequately. This section will discuss this critical preparatory stage and then move to examine the process of preparing the defense and the decision points that a potential defendant faces in the course of the governments investigation and prosecution of an environmental crime. Reference is being made to a potential defendant because, until a party is indicted by a grand jury, the party is not yet a defendant. As discussed further herein, the pre-indictment phase is a crucial time frame from the defenses prospective. Accordingly, the defense preparation discussion will focus on this period.
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Document ID: 50097BC7

Distribution Piping Group Verification
Author(s): R. G. Reid
Abstract/Introduction:
Corrosion can and quite often does, attack the smallest piece of isolated pipe. The damage from this little piece of pipe can be as serious as the main line. Thus the Corrosion Control System is expected to and must account for literally all the piping. Over the years, with thousands of miles of pipe, much of it experiencing construction changes, through the hands of many people and circumstances, some piping can get lost from the records. It is or becomes unaccounted for piping. It can be unrecorded, unmonitored and even unprotected. This paper describes Union Gas Distribution Corrosion Control System, the realization of unaccounted for piping and the resultant group verification to find it.
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Document ID: 6C192DAC

Stress On Buried Pipelines
Author(s): Roy W. Daines
Abstract/Introduction:
The focus of this article will be to study the stress on a buried pipeline as a result of internal pressure and external loading. In calculating the secondary stresses we will concentrate on the effects of the following: Earth loads Earth and vehicle loads for flexible pavements and Earth and vehicle loads for rigid pavements. Corridors were chosen for the construction of high pressure pipelines which carried these facilities through wooded areas, over steep country sides and across many farm fields. Today these same corridors are subject to construction of major roadways, high-rise developments and subdivision construction. The expense to relocate these gas facilities requires the developer to work with the pipeline engineer in determining an acceptable design for both. Another major concern of the pipeline engineer is the requirement for cased crossings by railroads and various governmental agencies. In 1982 tests were conducted in Racine, Wisconsin in a cooperative effort between IGT and Wisconsin Highway Department. These tests concluded that the existing equations to be discussed in this article give conservative figures and that no industry model exists today to accurately predict the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses in a pressurized buried pipeline. However, the use of the existing equations will result in safe designs.
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Document ID: 9E6917BC

Bioremediation Of Compressor Station Chemicals
Author(s): Sam Fogel
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an evaluation of the biodegradability of compressor station chemicals. The important chemicals are identified along with those environmental fate processes which determine how chemicals move and dissipate when spilled in the soil and ground water environments. Biodegradation is one of five important fate processes which include: Biodegradation Chemical reaction sorption dissolution volatilization The chemicals frequently found at compressor stations which can serve as potential food sources include: PCBs Ethylene Glycol Lubricating oil Ethane Solvents (e.g. acetone) Gasoline Knowledge of chemical structure and properties provides insight into the biodegradability and fate of these chemicals in the environment. The fate properties allows prediction of environmental impacts. For example, if a chemical is highly water soluble, it will dissolve into water and migrate either as run off or leachate. It a chemical is slowly biodegradable it will be persistent in the environment. Tible 1 lists these chemicals in relationship to their environmental fate properties.
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Document ID: 53AE093C

Quality Assurance For Natural Gas Network Construction And Maintenance
Author(s): Paul Mitnyan
Abstract/Introduction:
In the energy industry, and more specifically for a natural gas distribution company, the question can be considered: How can quality improvement help a company become a better natural gas distributor? To answer this question, the challenge is often to find the natural way to implement a process of which the aim is quality improvement. Clearly, the approach will be different for a service oriented company, than for a manufacturing company.
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Document ID: CD1DA338

Installing Long Lasting Polyethylene Piping Systems
Author(s): Karl m. Gunther
Abstract/Introduction:
Laboratory and Engineering personnel frequently issue instructions to the field with respect to techniques that, if followed, will result in properly installed plastic piping systems. A hst of such rules to be followed is listed as such in WGLCos operating instructions:
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Document ID: 55945EFF

Microcomputer Based Compressor Air/Fuel Ratio Control System
Author(s): Lawrence m. Foreman
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the history on the progress Columbia Gas Transmission has made in air/fuel ratio control on reciprocating engines. These include two cycle turbocharged, four cycle naturally aspirated, and emission control in general- Each section discusses the basics of air-fuel control for each of these engine types and concludes with the overall direction for controls that Columbia is heading.
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Document ID: 48EA28A7

Alternative Renewal Methods-Large Diameter Pe Insertion
Author(s): Chris Hartig
Abstract/Introduction:
The subject of this paper is the insertion of an in service 20 cast iron natural gas pipeline with 18 polyethylene pipe. The format of the paper is informational in nature with a minimum of technical text on the subject. The paper covers the evaluation process of several renewal alternatives that ultimately led to the selection of large diameter insertion as the renewal methodology. Also discussed in detail is the engineering of the project and the construction phases of the insertion process including installation of alternate feed mains, isolation of the existing 20 cast iron main and eventual successful insertion with 3000 feet of 18 PE pipe.
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Document ID: 71450532

Grs Internal Inspection System For Gas Distribution Mains
Author(s): Michael Wilkey, Richard Wiesman, Glyn Hazelden
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is currently funding the development of an internal inspection system for use in 4 to 6 diameter gas mains. This effort began in 1986 with an exploratory research effort to determine the feasibility of a pipe crawler capable of operating within these pipe diameters in a live gas main. Foster Miller, Inc. (FMI) is currently under contract to develop the MOUSE. GRI has just recently let several contracts for the develop of an array of sensors capable of detecting defects in the pipe while being pulled by the vehicle. FMI has developed a modular concept for the vehicle which will allow the reconfiguration of an inspection MOUSE to meet the requirements of a particular user and a particular application. The modular MOUSE will be a system of cars or modules which can be coupled to accommodate a wide range of inspection distances and requirements. These modules will include tractor or locomotive cars, battery cars, umbilical and electronics cars and optional testing or inspection cars that could be added to perform particular testing procedures as desired by the gas utility.
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Document ID: E34A746B

Certification Of Gas Controllers- Columbia Gas Transmission Corporations Approach To Anticipated Dot Requirements
Author(s): Russell E. Fenner, John J. Harper
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of the development, status, administration, and future of Columbia Gas Transmission Corporations formal Gas Controllers Training Program developed in anticipation of DOT Certification requirements. The training program includes utilization of a Gas Controllers Training Manual, completing an On-The-Job Training Checklist, and attending a four-day Gas Controllers Training School that is supplemented with a Gas Controller Training School Manual. The training program was developed with the purpose of providing all trainees at Columbias multiple Gas Control Centers with the same, accurate, and consistent, general and site specific information, and identifying and documenting exposure to this information through a check hst and question and answer system.
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Document ID: 7ACD1671

The Industrys Revised Orifice Metering Standard
Author(s): R. G. Teyssandier, R. E. Beaty, J. E. Gallagher
Abstract/Introduction:
New research and measurement technologies have produced new equations and mechanical specifications which significantly improve the uncertainty levels for orifice measurement. This paper provides both an introduction and a summary of the four parts of the 1990/91 revision to the orifice standard.
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Document ID: 1F1574C7

Vsat Communications Technology For Scada System Communications
Author(s): Vernon J. Sterba
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses the methods Enron Corp used to study and formulate its SCADA telecommunications policy. The objective involved consolidating the overlapping telecommunications systems of the four different companies that formed Enron. The economics and other factors involved in choosing VSAT technology are reviewed as are some practical observations in the installation and use of VSATs. Enrons use of VSAT satellite technology for mainframe access and video receiveonly are also discussed.
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Document ID: 11EF9BB2

A Scada-Lnterfaced Gas Controller Training System
Author(s): Grant E. Mccracken
Abstract/Introduction:
The complexity and dynamics of pipeline operations have never been greater than they are today. With the move towards open access operation, the old habits of pipeline operations are quickly being retired. This, coupled with the need to train new Gas Controllers and pending operator certification requirements, has placed new emphasis on Gas Controller training programs and training tools. If pipelines always operated the way we would like, the training requirements for Gas Controllers would be greatly simplified. We would not have to worry about training for detecting malfunctions at compressor or regulator stations, we wouldnt have to train the Gas Controller to take the reported SCADA data with a grain-of-salt, and we wouldnt have to be concerned with detecting pipeline leaks. This, however, is not the case and therefore the implementor of a training program must consider how the Gas Controller will be educated in the detection of unusual (but inevitable) operational problems. On-the-job training programs typically fall short of providing for this education. Unusual problems are too infrequent for the Gas Controller to gain the experience and confidence required for dealing with these emergencies.
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Document ID: 40644CFA

The Development Of An Aquifer Storage Field In Denmark
Author(s): J. E. Knudsen, H. Obro, m. Aagesen
Abstract/Introduction:
The Stenlille natural gas storage field is being developed in a deep aquifer to a projected working gas volume of 300 million Nm (II bcf) and a withdrawal capacity of 7.2 million Nm (270 MMscf) per day. The decision to develop the storage field was taken following an appraisal programme which included a reservoir analysis, the drilling and testing of seven wells, and a long term gas injection test. The storage is planned to be operational by end of 1994 although full capacity is not projected until end of 1999. The total investments for the planned development amounts to 1.5 billion D.kr. (250 million US), including the value of the cushion gas.
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Document ID: A45BFDD1

Strategy And Planning For Pcb Remediation Activities
Author(s): Thomas E. Carlisle
Abstract/Introduction:
Many gas utilities are faced with environmental liabilities related to the existence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transmission and distribution systems and related equipment and properties. This paper suggests some simple ways of viewing PCB remedial programs to make the program manageable The paper also identifies critical issues which arise and ways to approach the management of these issues.
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Document ID: 8E31AF0E

Well Deliverability-What Works And Where?
Author(s): Farrile S. Young, Yusuf Shikari
Abstract/Introduction:
A comprehensive review of the technology currently used by the industry has been prepared. Operators assessment of the relative costs and benefits of deliverability enhancement techniques now in use was obtained. The sources of information were the A.G.A., and operator surveys and interviews. Eighty-five percent (85%) of the industries injection/ production wells were included in a gas storage data base that was developed (in dBase IV format). Each of the reservoirs described in the data base was classified according to lithology, trap type, and reservoir driving mechanism. TWelve reservoir types evolved, but only seven classifications were found to contain 94% of all active storage fields. Average reservoir properties were assigned to each of the reservoirs in the data base.
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Document ID: EAAF0AA2

Apis New Standard For Electronic Flow Measurement Systems
Author(s): J. F. Shiflet
Abstract/Introduction:
The application of electronic microprocessor technology to field measurement devices has proved to be a significant improvement in the data acquisition and resulting gas volume calculations within the natural gas industry. The industry has historically given a justifiable priority to the reduction in the overall uncertainty of all aspects of measurement accuracy. In response to the concerns or needs of various elements of the industry, the American Petroleum Institutes Committee on Gas Measurement formed the Electronic Flow Measurement Working Group. The intent of the group was to develop and publish a minimum standard for electronic flow computers. This paper is intended to provide a status and content review of the API-Electronic Flow Measurement Standard as of March 15, 1991.
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Document ID: 05E218E7

Asbestos Substitutes
Author(s): Karen Nichols
Abstract/Introduction:
Venture Products has been in the gasket manufacturing business for a little more than 10 years, and we have been involved in non-asbestos gasketing for approximately 8 years. One of our major accounts went to a non-asbestos program system-wide in 1984, so we got in on the ground floor, so to speak, insofar as non-asbestos applications are concerned. Before I get into the comparisons of materials, I would like to point out that in our opinion compressed asbestos is possibly the best allaround gasket material offered for use on engine/compressor applications. Compressed asbestos is tough, durable, has good compressive strength, and can operate continuously at elevated temperatures. None of the currently available non-asbestos substitutes can make this claim. Unfortunately, compressed asbestos was lumped into the free asbestos controversy, and it will no longer be commercially available for gasketing after 1993. Venture Products Company is discontinuing the marketing of asbestos at the end of this year.
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Document ID: 5C5BA8A1

Working Together In An Emergency
Author(s): William R. Skinner
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Illinois Gas serves nearly 1.7 milHon customers residing in 544 communities in the northern third of Illinois, excluding the city of Chicago and some North Shore suburbs. Our corporate headquarters is in Naperville. Field operations are conducted out of seven division offices located in Bellwood, Crystal Lake, Glen Ellyn, Gienview, Glenwood, Joliet, and Rockford. Natural gas is an economical, dependable and safe fuel. Northern Illinois Gas along with other gas utilities have a reputation for safety and we are committed to ensuring the continuing safety of our customers by providing continued training in the use and control of natural gas.
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Document ID: B2E205DF

The Plastic Pipe Data Bank
Author(s): Jerry L. Lucas
Abstract/Introduction:
Over the years, the use of plastic pipe has grown to where it accounts for almost 100% of the smaller diameter pipe installed by gas distribution companies. This increased usage brings with it the need to manage the important information and data associated with the use of plastic pipe. To meet this challenge, SoCalGas developed a computer diskette - The Plastic Pipe Data Bank Bank. The Plastic Pipe Data Bank compiles information on approved materials, design limitations, physical properties, code requirements, comparisons to steel, dimensions/tolerances, industry statistics, and more. The diskette was developed to be user-friendly and provides a novel approach to meeting the needs of a changing industry.
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Document ID: 8177F247

Cogen Pulsation Effects On Turbine Metering
Author(s): Joe W. Bronner, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper provides a report on field and laboratory experiences with the effects of cogeneration-induced pulsation on turbine meter flow measurements. Within the natural gas industry, an increasing number of delivery points are to cogeneration facilities. At many of these facilities, compression and flow regulation activities produce pulsation which affects gas measurement with turbine meters. It has been found from both field experience and laboratory testing that pulsation can produce sigruficani errors in turbine metering however, the conditions under which pulsation causes measurement errors are not easily identified. Pulsation research has been conducted at the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Metering Research Facility (MRF) and this paper summarizes how the presence of pulsation can be diagnosed to indicate potential for metering errors, and describes solutions applicable at field installations.
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Document ID: F3259006

Codes And Standards Issues For Interior Gas Piping Systems
Author(s): Robert Torbin, Paul Belkus
Abstract/Introduction:
The introduction and long term acceptance of corrugated stainless steel tubing (CSST), like many other new technologies, has faced several institutional obstacles prior to its code approval. When first evaluated in 1984, CSST had neither a product standard nor code recognition. Although field and laboratory tests have proven the tubing to be both reliable and cost effective, there were many other code and safety concerns yet to resolve. Safety concerns focused on puncture resistance, certain installation practices, and the physical differences between the hardware from different vendors. The first step to the eventual adoption of revised code language was the development of a performance standard for CSST. This document was eventually adopted by A.G.A. Laboratories as a testing requirement, designated as A.G.A. 1-87. Using this document as a springboard, efforts were then focused on obtaining model code acceptance. To date four of the five national model codes have adopted new language recognizing CSST as an acceptable alternative gas piping material for indoor use. In parallel, the A.G.A. 1-87 document has been converted into a national consensus standard under ANSI.
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Document ID: A54B4114

CNG-Tomorrows Fuel Today
Author(s): Roy Dwyer
Abstract/Introduction:
Why the gas industry has a responsibility to accept and use CNG in our fleets and extend its use throughout the industry. The war is over! so announced President Bush to the country in March. Winning the post war political and economic battles may prove to be far more difficult than the military victory. With the troops returning home and gasoline prices at the pre-war levels, averaging 1.10 to 1.25 per gallon, the American people tend to forget the hard lessons of 1973 and 1979 when OPEC nations held the world hostage by cutting back crude oil production. With the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August of 1990, once again a knife was held at the neck of the oil importing countries with oil per barrel going as high as 40. Predictions of shortages, 2.00 to 3.00 per gallon, and gas lines, were again predicted, however, there was a major difference between the 70s crisis and this years-that being putting the lives of 500,000 troops on the line. The fact is America in 1991 has become more dependent on imported crude oil, much of it from unstable regions of the world, than at any time of its history.
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Document ID: 64D941CE

Gas Turbine Meter Field Calibration
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes a patented mobile gas turbine meter proving system that combines technology from liquid turbine meter provers with new ideas that specifically apply to gas measurement. Arkla Pipeline Group developed and currently uses this sonic nozzle prover on gas turbine meters ranging in size from 3 to 12 at meter station sites under actual operating conditions. The prover also contains a gas chromatograph which is used in actual mass flow computations. Several examples of prover results will be explained.
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Document ID: 44E03883

Distributed Processing Scada System
Author(s): B. Kenneth Fouts
Abstract/Introduction:
At CNG Transmission Corporation, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system plays an important role in the operation of its 8,400 miles of pipeline, 64 compressor stations, and 13 storage pools. CNG Transmission Corporation is an interstate pipeline company operating principally in West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland and Virginia. Willowglen of Calgary, Canada is installing a master station, using SUN Microsystems hardware, to replace the existing 12 year old system. The distributed processing master station consists of workstations, processors, and peripherials communicating over an elhernet Local Area Network (LAN). The Willowglen software SCADACOM is an advanced object oriented application. The Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) are an interesting combination of 200 Daniel, 80 Kledyne, and 20 Bristol computers, at 150 remote locations, communicating via modbus protocol. The communications hnks include private microwave (analog and digital), multiple address radio, leased telephone circuits, VSAT satellite, fiber optics, pubhc dial telephone circuits, and private cable routes.
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Document ID: 7BCAF38F

Excess Flow Valves
Author(s): Paul E. Oleksa
Abstract/Introduction:
The East Ohio Gas Company is a large user of excess flow valves (EFVs). Over 200,000 of these valves have been installed in our system over a 15 year period. Our experience with these valves has been very positive. We believe that excess flow valves can be part of the answer to the design of service lines, but that each company must review their applicability to its own piping system. Generally, excess flow valve use is limited to new and renewed single meter residential service lines where the operating pressure generally is 10 psig or higher. There are certain other limitations that must be considered, such as presence of oil in the pipelines.
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Document ID: DFBFACC9

New Vent Sizing Tables- A Result Of Gri-Sponsored Research
Author(s): R. A. Borgeson, D. D. Paul, L. R. Brand
Abstract/Introduction:
The appropriate American National Standards Institute groups are currently considering substantially updating the venting guideUnes in the National Fuel Gas Code including new vent sizing tables for Appendix G. These new standards are expected to include improved methods of categorization which will ensure that the vent design is consistent with the appliance operating characteristics. The technical background for these changes was developed by the Gas Research Institutes Venting/ Flue Gas Management Project. This paper will begin by providing an overview and status report of the entire Venting/Flue Gas Management Project. Then, it will illustrate the practical effects in the field that are expected to result from these revisions. First, the expected changes to apphance design will be discussed. Then, a comparison of the new and revised venting guidelines will be used to show how vent sizing and material selection will be modified. Throughout, the rationale motivating these changes will be explained.
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Document ID: 39800AAD

Gas Energy Diversion Protection
Author(s): James R. Stansbury
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper reviews NI-Gas efforts in the prevention and detection of gas energy theft. Our on-going meter and swivel seal programs are discussed and two special projects to evaluate the effectiveness of seals are described. In the seventies, NI-Gas, like the rest of the industry, reahzed that we were vulnerable to large-scale, premeditated theft. There had been no concerted efforts to secure our facilities. Our accidental discoveries were not pursued with the idea of criminal or civil prosecution. Our attitude was, bill conservatively and avoid aggravating the customer. Inspection of meters in the field was limited to the larger installations -mostly those with special regulation or instrumentation. Smaller meters were only scrutinized in the meter shop after a meter exchange/removal and then we only effectively proved the bellows and test hand drive.
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Document ID: 86522707

Evaluation Of Computer Aided Dispatch
Author(s): Jay O. Carmean
Abstract/Introduction:
Delmarva Power faces the same challenge as most other electric and gas utility companies across the nation which is to provide an improved quality of service to our customers while maintaining costs through efficient use of resources. To those of us in Customer Service, this means an ongoing test of our ability to match available resources to the daily demands of our customers. Delmarva recognized that our work scheduling and same day dispatching techniques were encumbering our ability to meet these increased customer expectations and chose computer aided dispatching as our long term solution. This paper will outline our original objectives, progress to date after two years of operation, and where we want to be in the future.
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Document ID: AA4407C6

Cathodic Protection Of Gas Storage Well Casings
Author(s): A. W. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
Consumers Power Company and its subsidiary, Michigan Gas Storage Company, have underground natural gas storage facilities in four geographically separate areas of Michigans Lower Peninsula. Storage fields are in depleted production areas with additional wells drilled to provide optimum field efficiency. We presently have 857 facility wells and 165 observation wells in the system. Underground piping includes approximately 340 miles of well casings and 300 miles of gathering system piping. Cathodic protection was applied to the gathering system lines prior to 1965. In 1967, a survey was initiated to determine: 1. If conditions conducive to external casing corrosion existed in our storage fields. 2. If appreciable corrosion damage had already occurred. 3. The most reliable and economical method of determining cathodic protection current requirements and providing for optimum distribution of current if protection was found necessary. Galvanic conditions conducive to corrosion of storage well casings in our fields were found to include variations in soil composition and resistivity with depth differential aeration cells, caused by limited access of oxygen downhole original drilling conditions such as use of salt saturated drilling mud and cement and the presence of 300-ft to 400-ft layers of very low resistivity salt and salt water.
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Document ID: B21324FE

The Dependence Of Saddle Fusion Bond Strength On Joining Conditions For Polyethylene Gas Pipe
Author(s): Sudheer m. Pimputkar, J. A. Stets, Michael m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
Polyethylene is commonly used for gas distribution piping where pressures do not exceed 100 psi. The most common method of joining polyethylene pipe together and to polyethylene fittings is by heat fusion. Typically, surfaces to be joined are heated, melted, and then pressed together. Part 192 of the Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, which contains the Minimum Federal Safety Standards for the transportation of gas and pipeline facilities, requires that the joining procedures be qualified, the joiner be qualified, and the inspector of the joint be qualified. Butt, socket and saddle joints are common types of heat fusion joints. The dependence of the strength of butt fusion joints and socket fusion joints on the joining conditions was investigated previously (References 1 to 4) while saddle joints are discussed here. The joining procedure for saddle joints is shown schematically in Figure 1. The external surface of the pipe and the under surface of the saddle fitting are heated simultaneously for a specified time by bringing them into firm contact with the heater which is at a specified temperature. The adequacy of the melt is determined by the heating time. After the heating phase, the heater is removed quickly and the fitting is positioned so that it is perpendicular to the base pipe. The time between heater removal and insertion of the pipe is termed dwell time. The joint is held and allowed to cool without movement for a prescribed time, termed cooldown time.
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Document ID: 312A9A00

Gas Transmission Measurement In The United Kingdom
Author(s): R. S. Davidson
Abstract/Introduction:
British Gas currently purchases natural gas to the value of u3 billion each year and delivers it to more than 17 million industrial, commercial and domestic customers throughout the mainland of Great Britain. A National Gas Transmission System (NTS) receives the gas from the North Sea and the Irish Sea through five shore terminals and delivera it to the twelve local Regions of British Gas and to seven major industrial customers. Most of the gas is purchased from the oil majors who bring it ashore and process it to meet contract conditions before delivering it to British Gas through Custody Transfer and Fiscal meters. These are currently orifice based and are designed and installed to a very high specification based on the latest international standards. After entering the NTS the gas is delivered to the local Regions, to major industrial users and to onshore and offshore storage facilities.The associated metering systems are also designed to a high standard and are mainly orifice based except for the smaller loads where turbines are used. In addition the metering stations for gas deliveries to the Regions and major industrial Users incorporate pressure reduction to meet the requirements of the local Grid or the Customers plant.
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Document ID: C0EF7E32

Gas Transmission Measurement At N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie
Author(s): Pieter, m. A. Van Der Kam
Abstract/Introduction:
A review is given of the gas metering practice at Gasunie, the gas transmission company in the Netherlands. Emphasis is put on the volume measurement, that is for the largest part based on turbine meters. Research leading to optimal solutions for calibration and installation effects is summarized. Last year the type of flow measurement in Gasunies export stations has been considered in the process of a drastic renovation. It was decided to replace the orifice plates also with turbine meters. Some envisaged future developments in Gasunies metering practice are discussed.
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Document ID: BF11F8F3

Coriolis Mass Flowmeters-Theory Of Operation And Gas Application
Author(s): Chuck Strawn
Abstract/Introduction:
For over a decade, the Micro Motion Coriolis Mass Flowmeter has been successfully applied in just about every kind of fluid measurement service. The advantages of a direct mass measurement have produced improved accuracy and reliability, while eliminating the temperature and pressure corrections required in many conventional volumetric measurement approaches. This paper presents a brief description of how the CorioHs Mass force is measured, and a cursory discussion of application on the measurement of gases.
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Document ID: 949FDDC6

Summary Of Gas Metering Research Priorities For The Gas Distribution Industry
Author(s): John G. Gregor, Robert L. Bass, Robert J. Mckee
Abstract/Introduction:
In the competitive years ahead, flow measurement equipment will need to perform more accurately, more efficiently, and more economically over a wider range of conditions. The Gas Research Institute (GRI) Metering Research Facility (MRF) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been developed as a test and calibration facility to evaluate and develop metering technology in order to improve the state of the art of field measurement. The Low Pressure Loop (LPL) of the MRF is uniquely suited to conduct research for distribution measurement applications. The research priorities of the distribution industry have been identified through an industry survey and contacts with key industry committees. The resulting priority topics include effects of elevated delivery pressures on diaphragm meters, evaluation of electronic P/T correctors, improved electronic flow measurement, and others. The research plans, which have been developed for the GRI MRF program, address these needs and will develop the procedures and credentials for use of the MRF LPL in distribution metering research, testing, and calibrations activities.
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Document ID: A7F35F55

Training Certification
Author(s): Lawrence S. Laszko
Abstract/Introduction:
The Certification Program at Consumers Power Company provides a conformation of training and improves job performance in the field. Any student completing one of our courses and certifying is recognized within Consumers Power Company as meeting specific skill levels necessary for quality job performance. Certification also opens lines of communication between the training staff and field personnel. This keeps training information tuned to the needs of the field and keeps field personnel up to date regarding technical changes.
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Document ID: FA1F6281

New Ideas And Developments In Natural Gas Measurement
Author(s): Paul J. Ziegler
Abstract/Introduction:
Developing better methods and implementing them can result in cost savings making us more competitive. It can also improve employee morale. Fortunately we work in an industry where people are willing to share success. Following are new ideas submitted by members of the A.G.A. Distribution Measurement Committee. There is a wide range of ideas that should prove to be beneficial to many within the natural gas industry.
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Document ID: 19E1BD23

An Update Of The Natural Gas Industrys Research Related To Indoor Air Quality
Author(s): Irwin H. Billick
Abstract/Introduction:
Indoor air quality is an important issue for the natural gas industry, as well as, the residential user of natural gas. The U.S. natural gas industry has sponsored research aimed at producing scientific data, analysis and information to describe and understand the contribution of emissions from unvented gas appUances to indoor air quahty, the risk, if any, to the public, as well as, steps that can be taken to reduce emissions. The focus of this paper is to summarize the current status of some of the research aimed at determining the population exposure trace emissions from the products of combustion from unvented gas appliances. Emphasis will be given to the research related to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide (CO). Five major program elements are discussed: determination of emission characteristics of unvented gas appliances factors which influence pollution levels in dwelling units the distribution of indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide for various populations the modeling and prediction of indoor population exposure levels and personal exposure to pollutants.
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Document ID: 61E521A8

Managing Your Gas Network For Profit And Performance
Author(s): T. E. Richwine, S. K. Sorem
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents a method for automating key engineering applications used in the management of gas distribution networks. The purpose of this automation is to improve the design, operation and maintenance of the gas network while limiting excessive capital expenditures. The major components of this automation system include a Graphical User Interface (GUI), a Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS), and key engineering applications including steadystate network simulation, automated network design, system isolation, customer load management and other specialized applications. By integrating these and other components into one environment, the gas utility manager can supervise analyses that consider factors which fall outside the typical realm of existing network simulation programs. Such a system processes data from many data sources enabling the manager to make decisions based upon important data and factors that are unavailable in a non-automated environment.
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Document ID: 0F52D0F6

Development Of Simulator Training And Real Time Modeling
Author(s): A. Pringle
Abstract/Introduction:
The Consumers Gas Company Ltd., is the largest gas distribution company in Canada, servicing communities in Central and Eastern Ontario, Western Quebec, and Northern New York State. At the end of the fiscal year in September 1990, Consumers Gas served 1,058,447. Customers, the breakdown being 943,968 Residential, 106,957 Commercial, and 7,522 Industrial accounts. The Company has annual sales of 370 Bcf, and in January 1991, experienced a peak day sendout of 2.4 Bcf. While Ti-ansCanada PipeLines transports most of our supply through their northern system, volumes are also delivered through the Great Lakes system. Our storage facilities are located in southern Ontario, one being Tecumseh Gas, which is wholly owned by Consumers, and has a working inventory of 75 Bcf with a maximum daily withdrawal of 1.2 Bcf. Storage space of 20 Bcf is also purchased from Union Gas who transport all storage withdrawals, U.S. purchases and TransCanada PipeLines deliveries from the Great Lakes system, for delivery to Consumers market in Toronto.
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Document ID: 3291302C

Comparison Of Orifice And Turbine Meter Accuracy
Author(s): P. Genetiemstra, Rick Bans, Howard Backus
Abstract/Introduction:
Both orifice and turbine meters have similar systematic uncertainty characteristics, however, their random uncertainty characteristics differ. This paper compares the uncertainty calculations for single and multiple run orifice and turbine meter facilities. The design considerations that affect measurement uncertainty are also discussed.
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Document ID: 43AF51D0

Computer-Aided Dispatching System- Development & Implementation In-House()
Author(s): Edward W. Bercofski
Abstract/Introduction:
Several years ago, I reported at the Customer Service session at the Distribution Conference held in Las Vegas, Nevada on our pilot program which PGW had installed prior to making a decision to purchase and implement a new and complete Automated Dispatch System. I would like to give you some background on PGW. PGW services the Philadelphia metropolitan area which is approximately 140 square miles. We provide natural gas to 520,000+ customers and complete over 500,000 service and 35,000 repair order calls per year. Emergency service is provided 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. Service and repairs are scheduled Monday through Saturday as well as Sunday during the house heater peak period. PGW first utilized MDTs and a CAD application in a pilot test from April 1987 until April 1988 in order to evaluate the performance of radio based digital communications for the Customer Service Department. This pilot consisted of 9 MDTi and 1 handheld data terminal and CAD software which ran on an AT&T 3b2 mini computer. As a result of the successful pilot program. Customer Service in April 1989, distributed RFPs for hardware and combined hardware/software solutions. In July of the same year, PGW signed a contract with Kustom Electronics of Kansas City, Kansas to supply all necessary MDT hardware and PGWs Information Systems Department was selected to provide the CAD application software.
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Document ID: CE4E6AE4

Environmental Training Requirements For The Line Manager
Author(s): Hector A. Madariaga
Abstract/Introduction:
Traditionally, company environmental programs have been based on having strong centralized staffs. As the number and complexity of regulations increase, it is becomming more important to tranfer environmental knowledge and expertise to where most compliance actually takes place -in line organizations. Transferring environmental knowledge to ensure effective management of line operations requires appropriate management communication systems, training and education. This paper discusses the education and training recommended for line managers, supervisors and other personnel to ensure regulatory compliance and effective management of environmental issues. It also describes federally required environmental training programs. The overall management approach and programs used by the Southern California Gas Company to train, educate and support the line organizations are also decribed.
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Document ID: A4C91496

Computer Mapping Of Field Survey Information
Author(s): John T. Stenger
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper describes how we are utilizing a coordinate geometry software package to process field survey information and convert it to a plan view for the preparation of construction drawings. I would like to begin by offering some background information, Cincinnati Gas & Electric is a combination utility. In our engineering functions, we basically maintain separate design departments for gas and electric. In my department, we are responsible for the design of all new gas installations, whether they are new extensions or replacement of existing facilities. The last four years, we have designed an average of about 1,000,000 feet of pipe per year. We have to provide a base map for our designs for approximately 200,000 feet of this total per year. The rest is provided via design drawings from new developments or from street improvement projects. In years past, for various reasons, our design process included having our engineers and designers survey their own jobs and draw a rough base map for the design. Our construction drafting department then produced a drawing of the base map and the design to create a set of construction drawings.
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Document ID: 302D0BFF

Acoustical Filter Design
Author(s): Henry W. Poellnitz
Abstract/Introduction:
Acoustic filters are used to dampen flow pulsations generally caused by reciprocating compressors. Measurement inaccuracies attributable to pulsating flow are recognized as a major problem in the natural gas industry. The phenomenon of square root error (SRE) in orifice measurement has been discussed for more than twenty years, but only recently has technology made it possible to develop equipment that can accurately measure SRE by use of a square root error indicator (SREl). An acoustical or pulsation filter normally consists of two volume bottles, or chambers, interconnected by a choke tube. This paper presents one method for designing a symmetrical low pass acoustical filter for meter station installations. The compressor station acoustical filter design is not addressed in this paper, but the basic concepts and equations are the same.
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Document ID: 37CA4257

Evaluation Of Decommissioned LNG Storage Tanks At Chula Vista, Califomia
Author(s): James P. Lewis, Ted A. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The dismantling of the San Diego Gas & Electric LNG facilities offered an opportunity to evaluate two of the first 9 percent nickel steel LNG storage tanks in the U.S. The metallurgical evaluation concluded that: There was no slow crack extension from pre-existing crack-like discontinuities. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties of base 9 percent nickel plate and weld metal were consistent with both the present requirements of API 620 Appendix Q and the requirements current at the time the tanks were built. The tank materials had good resistance to crack initiation as well as the capability to arrest cracks that might be accidentally initiated. There was no significant amount of corrosion found. The structural and operational performance evaluation concluded that: No evidence was found of distress at the joint between the shell plate and the footer plate of the inner tanks The compaction control blankets performed as intended and there was no evidence of perlite compaction. There was some loss of Foamglas insulation under the concrete bearing pad in Tank T-80 attributable to lack of a load distributing material at Foamglas surfaces. A computer program was developed which allowed the stress environment to be established for the fracture mechanics analyses. From this, crack initiation resistance and crack arrest capabilities were determined. The retention of construction and operational records for extended life operations is important.
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Document ID: FF167871

Gas Research Institute Pipeline Pcb Research Program
Author(s): David G. Linz, John R. Woodyard
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a research program in 1989 addressing technical issues associated with proper management of PCB residues from past natural gas industry operations and practices. Initial GRI activities have focused on (1) measurement and statistical analysis of data associated with PCB contamination of transmission pipeUnes, and (2) a review of PCB management technology for various media of interest to the industry during assessment and remediation programs, including condensate, soil, pipelines and facility surfaces. Work in 1991-92 is focusing on an assortment of specific technical issues identified by gas industry representatives as critical to PCB management decisions and environmental assessments. Active project work areas include developing information on physical properties and analytical methods for PCB/condensate mixtures the soil/water partitioning behavior of these mixtures and a formal evaluation of the potential range of risks associated with typical pipeline operations or abandonment in place. Future work will buiid on the findings of these key scientific and technical areas, and will focus on understanding the migration of PCBs in pipeline systems and evaluating and developing treatment, control, and innovative analytical technologies for PCBs in various media.
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Document ID: 6D6957BF

Quality Of Service Study: Gas Appliance Service
Author(s): Joseph Defuria
Abstract/Introduction:
What is customer service? What is good customer service? What is bad customer service? How do you know if the service you are providing is good or bad? If you know what it is, do you know what you have to do to change it? Are resources being committed to areas not important to customers and not enough where it is needed? These are all legitimate questions concerning customer service and by no means is this list complete. At PSE&G, we are wrestling with these and other questions because we want to provide excellent service and at the same time maximize the efficient utilization of our resources. In order to do this, answers to these questions had to be found. Our customers needs, wants and expectations had to be determined and PSE&Gs performance in customer service evaluated. Customer service is an extremely broad issue. To limit the parameters of this study, the scope was focused on Gas Apphance Service. PSE&G has a very large appliance service operation. To put this into perspective, I would like to give you some background information. PSE&G has 1.5 million customers, of which, one million have gas heat. Each year about 2 million service calls are responded to by our servicemen. There are 725 servicemen who report to 13 locations in N.J. As you can see, appliance service is a big part of PSE&Gs operation, and doing it well or poorly has a large impact on how customers and the regulators view us.
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Document ID: DDCD0CEC

Avoiding Environmental Liabilities During Property Transactions
Author(s): Don C. Porter
Abstract/Introduction:
Buyers of contaiminated real estate are liable for cleanup cost regardless of whether they contributed to the coniaimination or knew that the contamination was present prior to the purchase, this is the ruling of the Federal Courts on the basis of the Superfund Law of 1980. Not to be left out, New Jersey, Connecticut and Illinois have enacted property transfer laws that address environmental issues. Numerous other states have proposed similar statutes. These laws are usually geared toward transfers of industrial or commercial property. In the natural gas industry, property transactions occur on almost a daily basis. Most of the property should be exempt from statutory requirements. However, maintenance shops, equipment yards and even office buildings can be affected by the regulations. A company must protect itself from a surprise, that is a liability that at a minimum slows a project or creates an on-going expense for years. This is accomplished by an environemtnal site assessment performed prior to closing. The leaders and driving forces in developing environmental assessments have been federal lending regulators such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), which has published a guidance document entitled Environmental Hazards Management Procedures (1988). This has influenced many banks to require assessments on all industrial or commercial property transactions. A bank in Houston advertised recently for an environmental coordinator to review the reports submitted for such loans. Even when banks are not involved, the assessment has become a regular part of the transaction.
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Document ID: F886DAE4

VISA-A Computer System For Bringing Data Bacic To Its Roots
Author(s): John L. Grafe
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past decade many changes have taken place in the Natural Gas Industry, none the least of which is the way in which information (Data, if you will) is acquired, transferred, compiled, integrated and disseminated within an organization. At El Paso Natural Gas Company the Systems group within the Operations Control Department has been at the center of these changes and has been instrumental in planning and developing computer systems that not only acquire and store data, but make it readily available to anyone within or outside of the company to use in carrying out their business. The computer programs currently comprising the VISA System are discussed within this paper and future projects, further enhancing user access to centralized data, are presented.
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Document ID: B36BE14D

The Merging Of Technologies-Sonic Nozzles And Computers
Author(s): Robert J. Rozum
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of inexpensive high speed personal computers and their merge with sonic nozzles technology, it is possible to improve a number of critical concerns in meter shop and billing operations. The advantages of this marriage lies in the areas of reduced space requirements and mobility, accurate and repeatable test results, timely meter inventory and customer billing information, and the ability to automate the reporting of test results.
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Document ID: 8CB3BEF1

Managing Your Corporate Travel Function
Author(s): R. E. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Travel expenses do not normally get recognized as a major business expense, but they represent the third largest controllable expense following labor/benefits and material/equipment expenditures. The management of your travel function relates to three major areas. These are: (1) Establish a corporate travel policy, (2) Know when and how personnel travel, and (3) Establish an effective travel reservation system. Columbia Gas System followed these principles in consolidating seven different and independent travel functions into one consolidated network. The network utilizes one travel agency or a hub for seven onsite travel reservation officers equipped with computer terminal and ticket printer.
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Document ID: 8444A2C4

A.G.A. Publications For Design And Operation Of Meter Stations
Author(s): Lori S. Traweek
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association has provided guidance on the measurement of natural gas for over six decades. In 1929, the A.G.A. Gas Measurement Committee published its first report exploring the state of natural gas measurement using orifice meters. Report No. 2, Recommendations Covering Use of Certain Types of Orifice Meters in Measurement of Natural Gas followed in 1934. The first comprehensive single-volume work on gas measurement, the A.G.A. Gas Measurement Manual, was published in 1963. Today, A.G.A. offers over twenty publications relating to the measurement of natural gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe A.G.A.s meter station design and operation publications.
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Document ID: 2543F4E7

Training Sources, Thie Mechanic Development Resource Manual And A.G.A./EEI Mechanic Development Sub-Committee Activity Update
Author(s): Nicholas R. Mcclain
Abstract/Introduction:
We appear to be on a collision course between a work place that is exploding in technological advancements and two significant upcoming shortages in the work force which are: A shortage in the number of new workers available and a shortage of skills these new workers possess. Recognizing that these opposing forces are fast approaching, fleet managers will have to develop solid training strategies and implement effective training programs to maintain a highly skilled work force necessary to survive in a more competitive environment. A report on the Mechanic Development Sub-Committee activities, mission statement, goal and recently completed Mechanic Development Resource Manual is included and a copy of the manual is attached.
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Document ID: CFA5A946

Excess Flow Valves
Author(s): Raymond C. Henrich
Abstract/Introduction:
Minnegasco, headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota, provides natural gas to 659,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers in 235 communities in Minnesota, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Minnegascos service territory is one of the coldest in the nation. A merger in November 1990 made Minnegasco a division of Arkla, Inc., an energy company headquartered in Little Rock, Arkansas, and Shreveport, Louisiana. Arkla focuses on natural gas exploration and production, natural gas transmission, and natural gas distribution. When combined with the other two distribution companies of Arkla, Minnegasco is part of the third largest natural gas distribution company in the country serving more than 2.6 million customers in over 1,200 communities across nine states.
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Document ID: 942C00A3

Developing An Emergency Operations Center
Author(s): Fil A. Bernal
Abstract/Introduction:
The Southern California Gas Companys Emergency Operations Center (EOC) incorporates lessons learned over thirty years. Its primary function is to collect information from company facilities in the affected area and to communicate requests for resources The size and type of an EOC is determined by the functions it is intended to serve. Typical options include dedicated space, a multipurpose room, leased space, space shared with another company or a mobile EOC Essential features include a ground-floor location, an emergency power generator, priority phone lines, radio communications equipment, status boards, and an adequate stock of food rations and office supplies The EOC staff must be large enough to allow for work shifts and all members should participate in annual EOC exercises. Companies should prepare facilities in other locales to function as alternate EOCs.
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Document ID: EBD326B4

Electrostatic Discharging Techniques For Polyethylene Pipe
Author(s): Oren Tranbarger, Michael m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
Internal and external spark discharges from the surfaces of polyethylene (PE) gas pipe may ignite flammable gas-air mixtures during leak repairs. The wet soapy burlap wrap technique presently used in the gas industry for controlling exterior charge has several disadvantages and does not dissipate interior charge. Successful discharging techniques have been demonstrated for both problems. For exterior charge, a dry sparkless antistatic PE-film wrap overcomes the disadvantages of wet burlap wrap. Interior charge is neutrahzed by injecting an antistatic spray inside the pipe through a self-tapping fitting. NOTE: Two Gas Research Institute (GRI) patents are pending on: (1) the application of antistatic PE-film wrap forexterior discharging and (2) the discharger device for neutralizing interior charge that are described in this paper.
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Document ID: 45AF960E

Mobile Equipment Standardization Can Be Beneficial
Author(s): J. Douglas Mcclymont
Abstract/Introduction:
The members of the A.G.A./EEI Automotive and Mobile Equipment committee made the bold decision to set up a new subcommittee to investigate the possibility of standardizing the designs of major Utility mobile equipment and could it have a positive economic impact on our industry. As chairman of this new Vehicle Standardization Committee I will be presenting today an overview of the direction this committee will be heading. The committee mission is to collect and provide A.G.A./EEI member companies with information from users and manufacturers to aid them in attaining reduced equipment cost through standardization vehicle designs.
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Document ID: 4CCCE0B3

Installation Of An 8000 Hp Mopico Gas Pipeline Compressor
Author(s): George S. Mclean
Abstract/Introduction:
The MOPICO is an oil free, variable speed, gas cooled motor driven, series-parallel, centrifugal pipeline compressor with its rotor suspended in levitation by magnetic bearings. This paper deals with the unique installation requirements necessitated by the variable speed drive and magnetic bearing features. Specific references are made to the prototype installation at a pipeline compressor station in Alabama.
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Document ID: 2686EFC1

Managing A Cast Iron System
Author(s): Robert J. Miller
Abstract/Introduction:
Cast iron mains play an important role in Brooklyn Unions distribution activities as they do for many other utilities. In fact, there are approximately 70,000 miles of cast iron gas distribution mains in the United States today. Brooklyn Unions 2,120 miles of cast iron accounts for 55 percent of our distribution network. While some utilities have initiated planned cast iron replacement programs, after careful analyses of the current and projected future operating performance of our cast iron mains, Brooklyn Union has made the commitment to maintain rather than replace.
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Document ID: 5430533E

Pipeline Crossings Of Railroads And Highways
Author(s): H. E. Stewart, T. D. Orourke, A. R. Ingraffea
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper summarizes research on pipeline crossings of railroads and highways and a resulting, comprehensive methodology for evaluating stresses conveyed to uncased pipelines in such environments. The research was performed at Cornell University under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute with guidance from representatives of the gas, railroad, and highway industries. The paper begins with a description of state-of-the-art reviews summarizing specifications of various professional societies and regulatory institutions, construction techniques, loading conditions at crossings, corrosion protection, and design practices. Next, the analytical methods used to evaluate pipehne stresses are described, with emphasis on the modes of pipehne deformation which need to be modeled in a comprehensive analytical approach. The design methodology, which was derived from analytical and field studies, is summarized. Comparisons between the new methodology and conventional design procedures are made. Full scale field tests performed at the Transportation Test Center operated by the American Association of Railroads are discussed. These tests were undertaken to validate the design methodology under actual rail loading conditions. Field measurements are compared with the strains and stresses predicted by various analytical models. Guidehnes pertaining to stress analysis and good practice at railroad and highway crossings are discussed. Steps being undertaken to adopt the guidelines by various professional groups are reported, and software being developed to facilitate the stress analysis is described.
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Document ID: 8A4AA019

The Clean Air Act Amendments Of 1990 Title Two-Mobile Sources 1991 Clean Air Act Workshops
Author(s): William P. Rebarick
Abstract/Introduction:
I am excited about the challenge I bring to you. On November 15 when the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were signed into law, roles in the gas industry changed dramatically. It is important that we understand our new role so we can make positive contributions. Ill talk about where we were, where we are now and where we are going. Most importantly, Ill discuss what we need to do to reach our destination. The good news is the road is wide open, and we have the ammunition to finish first and to finish best. Lets not lose sight of the benefits of the Clean Air Act. It is good for the environment, and it is a real shot in the arm for the natural gas vehicle market growth.
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Document ID: E65F7104

Revised A.G.A- Report No. 3: Changes And Impacts For Gas Distribution/Transmission Companies
Author(s): Anita m. Raether, John W. Stuart
Abstract/Introduction:
A.G.A. Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids, officially published as ANSI/API 2530, is the standard used in the natural gas industry which specifies the installation requirements and flow rale calculations for orifice meters. The 1990/91 revision to this standard has many significant improvements which will impact gas distribution and transmission companies. The new orifice coefficient equations, new calculation procedures, and revised meter installation specifications substantially reduce the measurement uncertainty associated with orifice meters. Companies will need to revise their related in-house documents and volume calculation software. The purpose of this paper is to inform the users of orifice meters that the A.G.A. Report No. 3 standard has been changed in a significant way. and to alert them on what the impacts may be on their operation. The 1990/91 revision includes the biggest changes that have been incorporated into this standard in 55 years!
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Document ID: E0BA26CA

A Personal Computer Pc() Based Scada System
Author(s): James W. Bogdan
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper outhnes the design and development of a new Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system installed at National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation. The SCADA system is used for monitoring and controlling the distribution, storage, and transportation of gas in Western New York and North Western Pennsylvania. The new system was designed to replace three existing ones, each located at a different site. It consists of a network of 80386 and 80486 based microcomputers, running under the OS/2 operating system. The Network operating system is LAN Manager, and the three operating locations are interconnected over Tl circuits, to form a Wide Area Network (WAN).
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Document ID: 965FBBB8

Customer Dispatch And Monitoring System
Author(s): Gerry Saccente
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to report to the American Gas Association on developments at Brooklyn Union in the area of Computer Aided Dispatching, or what we refer to as CDMS, or Customer Dispatch and Monitoring System. Our customers, servicepeople, first line supervisors and management personnel have experienced tremendous operating benefits since the inception of CDMS in late 1989. But even beyond that, our work force from serviceperson to top management are realizing that CDMS is more than just a tool for efficiently completing service calls. Innovation amoung our work force is at a high, with employee suggestions for the first five months of this fiscal year running 300 percent over the level of the entire prior year. Our work force is motivated, enjoying the reduction of paperwork, accepting the responsibility for care of their personal data terminals, and striving for more efficient ways to complete service calls while satisfying our customers. Brooklyn Unions service territory may not be that large as compared to some other gas distributors, but the population density is rather high, averaging about 34 people per acre of land. Our 425 servicepeople respond to about 900,000 service calls per year. Although the distance between customers served is short, our average job to job travel time is still about 8 minutes because of the heavy traffic and congested highways.
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Document ID: 01F481AD

Development Of In-Situ Pe Gas Pipe Repair Methodology
Author(s): S. C. Grigory, m. m. Mamoun
Abstract/Introduction:
Repair methods for polyethylene gas pipe is being conducted at Southwest Research Institute under contract with the Gas Research Institute. Technology available for fusing polyethylene were reviewed with the objective of utilizing at least one or two techniques in the development of a prototype method for field repair of polyethylene pipe. High technology methods were eliminated on the basis of complexity and cost for the intended application. Tools for heat fusion and spin friction fusion of patches on small nicks, scratches, gouges and punctures were chosen for prototype hardware development. A special thermochemical material that will bond to unscraped surfaces has been also been developed on this program.
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Document ID: B1022BB2

Putting The Gas Company On The Offensive Through The Use Of Excess Flow Valves
Author(s): John B. Mcgowan
Abstract/Introduction:
UMAC has been serving the gas industry naturally for over 20 years providing products that promote safer natural gas service. We have worked diligently with gas utility companies across the country to assist them in enhancing public safety with a variety of equipment - including excess flow valves. Consumer gas safety is not a topic often discussed or addressed in our industry. As an industry we have an excellent safety record. We serve over 50 milhon consumers throughout the United Stales. But the fact remains, according to the Federal DOT, that since 1985, 59 fatalities and over 220 injuries have occurred due to service line breaks. Additionally, hundreds of buildings were evacuated and over 30 million dollars in property damage was reported due to natural gas distribution service line accidents. Many of these accidents were caused due to third party excavation damage. In fact, one gas company official was recently quoted as saying that Every day, we have people damage our lines, and 75 to 80 percent of the time its a service line. Though most of these accidents are the result of third party damage and are not actually caused by the gas company -gas companies are often blamed for the accidents and the media is continually nipping away at us with each accident making it more and more difficult for us to defend ourselves.
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Document ID: 7F2E28D0

Meter Shop Automation And Experience In Converting To Automation
Author(s): Jon Payne
Abstract/Introduction:
In 1989, Atlanta Gas Light Company began construction of a new meter repair facility. The objective in building this facility was to use automated equipment and computerized systems to improve the efficiency of the meter repair operation. Based on the experience of Atlanta Gas Light Company, a four step approach to meter shop automation is suggested. Economic analysis of the proposed automation project is necessary to establish the feasibility of committing the needed financial resources. The project must provide efficiencies that will reduce the operating expenses associated with meter repair or the capital resources associated with replacing meters. Operational analysis of the meter repair sequence is necessary to determine which areas of the process can most benefit from automation and which are most adaptable to automated systems. A wholistic approach that considers what effect automation of a particular process will have on the entire repair operation is strongly recommended. Equipment selection requires a commitment of time to become knowledgeable regarding what types of automated systems are available and the advantages and limitations of each type. Equipment installation and system start-up require extensive planning and coordination. Large and complex pieces of equipment are often involved. Assistance from manufacturers representatives and from experienced installers may be necessary to insure a successful installation.
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Document ID: FF16783B

Grl Transmission Measurement Research Program And Recent Findings
Author(s): Kiran m. Kothari, John G. Gregor
Abstract/Introduction:
In the area of gas operations, Gas Research Institute (GRl) is managing a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program in gas flow measurement to improve the gas metering accuracy and reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. An element of the program has centered on construction of the Metering Research Facihty (MRF) and collecting experimental data over a range of Reynolds numbers to determine effects of upstream flow conditions on orifice and turbine meters. A complementary program includes numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters. In addition, GRl is sponsoring development of new concepts to measure energy content and energy rate, and considering an R&D program to develop a low-cost, low-power Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) devices. A program on development of accurate gas mixtures for use with current energy content measurement devices is also being conducted under the GRl sponsorship. This paper presents the recent results from these programs.
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Document ID: 741EBB25

Compact Gas Meter Technology
Author(s): Paul C. Brooks, Carl H. Griffis
Abstract/Introduction:
To maintain the attractiveness of the gas option to residential and commercial customers, it is essential to develop an efficient, economical and safe gas distribution system which can be installed easily in new or retrofit applications in a single or multifamily dwelling, or a commercial structure. Existing residential meter systems can pose problems where space is at a premium or even be viewed as an eyesore to the building tenant or architect. This paper will discuss the needs and benefits for a compact gas meter system, the available options utihties are currently exploring and the strategy and status of the compact gas meter program at the Gas Research Institute.
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Document ID: 40072F1E

International Standardization Of Natural Gas
Author(s): J. A. Van Den Born
Abstract/Introduction:
At the first International Congress of Gas Quality in 1986 in The Netherlands one of the presentations dealt with standardization. Standardization means drafting and applying rules so as to create order and unity in those fields where diversity is superfluous or unnecessary. This is done with the active participation of all interested social groups. These rules are called standards. Standardization is not a goal in itself but more a means of general improvement of efficiency and interchangeability. On the other hand standardization facilitates the transfer of goods and know how it improves communication, safety, healthcare environmental protection, quality control and consumers research and information.
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Document ID: B4967EF3

Flow Rate Proving And Checking Orifice Ivieter Installations
Author(s): Emrys H. Jones, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
Chevron Oil Field Research Companys experiences with flow rate proving field meters are discussed. These experiments were conducted in three locations on two types of meters. Provings were conducted on high pressure (600-ll(X) psig) processed and also low pressure (100 psig) unprocessed gas. The value of flow proving meters in situ is demonstrated by the results- Results are also presented for a high pressure, natural gas, piston proving device and a muhiport Pitot tube, which is used to measure velocity profiles. Velocity profile measurements can determine if an orifice meter is affected by an installation problem.
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Document ID: F5B96BDF

Casing Repair At A Cavern Gas Storage Field
Author(s): Brad Hollenbaugh
Abstract/Introduction:
Damaged casing was repaired at two wells in the Leyden Gas Storage Field. Logging technology was instrumental in locating the casing damage, identifying the extent of the damage, and assuring a successful repair. Repair was made by installing a liner between two packers with one packer set above the damage and one set below it. The Leyden field is different than a typical underground storage field in that it was once an underground coal mine. The storage depth is between 800 and 1100 feet below the surface. Special equipment and procedures are required for workover and drilling operations because of the complications associated with cavern storage.
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Document ID: 543FEE97


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