Measurement Library

International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement Publications (1990)

Download collection of documents about ISHM 1990 including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, etc.


International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

Correcting And Recording Instruments As Applied To Displacement And Turbine Meters
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas is traditionally purchased and sold in standardized volume units, such as the Standard Cubic Foot (SCF). The SCF volume is referenced to a particular pressure and temperature, called the base or contract pressure and temperature, commonly 14.73 PSIA and 60 deg. F. By converting gas volume measured under different conditions of pressure and temperature to the equivalent Standard Volume units, the purchased quantity is measured consistently, and equitable custody transfer is achieved.
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Document ID: F8EE08A5

Theoretical Uncertainity Df Orifice Flow
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
The concern for evaluating and reducing uncertainity in orifice flow increases as the costs of the energy goes up. Oncertainity is a necessary part of any measurement system and as such a study of measurement uncertainity and its impact on gas accountability and revenue is essential.
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Document ID: 7376299E

Flow Measurement By Vortex Shedding Meters
Author(s): Jim Storer
Abstract/Introduction:
As the process control industry moves into the 1990s there is an increasing demand for precise flow measurement. Thirty years ago the accuracy and rangeability provided by the orifice plate and differential pressure transmitter combination was good enough for the typical process. Today as plants become more efficient there is a demand for wider rangeability and greater accuracy than the traditional flow measurement devices can provide. This demand will intensify as our domestic industries move into a more global economy, one in which efficiency will be the measure of profitability.
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Document ID: 6A957EFA

Fixed Factor Pressure
Author(s): James L. Robertson
Abstract/Introduction:
To briefly describe fixed factor pressure measurement and the factors that determine the accuracy of this method of gas measurement.
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Document ID: C333259D

Determination Of Unaccounted-For Gas - Distribution
Author(s): R. Michael Cowgill
Abstract/Introduction:
The increased competitiveness of natural gas and the environmental significance of the emissions of methane into the atmosphere have focused attention on the subject of unaccounted-for gas UAF). UAF is defined as the difference between the quantity of gas received into and delivered out of a system for a specific period of time.
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Document ID: 9F822631

Selection Of Control Valves And Associated Instruments
Author(s): Dannie Mercer
Abstract/Introduction:
A control valve is used to control fluid flow (i.e. gas or liquid) based on the process demands. Control valves are used in the gas industry primarily as a throttling device to control pressure and flow rates. They are also used for On/Off service such as meter tube switching or for liquid level control.
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Document ID: AF7C76F1

Gas Measurement Laboratory
Author(s): John Renfrew
Abstract/Introduction:
It is the objective of any Taboratory to obtain a sample from the system in question and analyze the sample product without changing the composition or its environment. To obtain this goal, the following procedures are extremely important. LABORATORY PROCEDURES 1. CONDITIONING OF SAMPLE CYLINDERS 2. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 3. LABORATORY SYSTEMS 4. CUCULATION OF DATA 5. CONCLUSION
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Document ID: 7EE06D0A

Leak Detection On Petroleum Pipelines
Author(s): Richard m. Sheppard
Abstract/Introduction:
The prime objectives for a leak detection system are to enhance public safety and limit environmental damage. These objectives are achieved through reduction of lost product In the event of a line break or le.ak. To be effective a leak detection system must meet the following criteria: 1) Monitor pipeline operating conditions during operation and shutdown. 2) Avoid generating false alarms. 3) Identify and determine size and location of leak quickly to reduce leak-response time.
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Document ID: F7203593

Proving And Repairing Domestic Meters
Author(s): G. B. Lynn
Abstract/Introduction:
Before we begin to address the subject of proving and repairing domestic meters, we first need to determine their significance to our industry. Domestic meters far outnumber any other type of gas measurement equipment. There are probably over 100 million domestic meters in service and probably not over 5 million other gas meters combined. The domestic meter is typically used at a residence and has a capacity of 175 to 250 cubic feet per hour. Domestic meters are small in size but are of great importance to our industry since one-third of the gas sold to end users is measured by these domestic devices. The domestic customer is very important to local distribution companies and that importance has remained virtually unchanged by recent ability of the end user to direct purchase gas from its source. In one way the domestic customer is captive and we must treat him with equality of service and measurement.
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Document ID: 4286FB0F

Ultrasonic Flowmeters For Liqdid Measdrqient
Author(s): Mark W. Stein
Abstract/Introduction:
With todays emphasis on cost and productivity, the petroleum and petrochemical industries are searching for new measurement techniques that can lower operating expenses without sacrificing accuracy. In many applications, ultrasonic flowmeters are proving to be a solution. This paper will briefly discuss the types of ultrasonic flowmeters currently available, with an emphasis on insertion doppler flowmeters, this authors preference.
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Document ID: EF35B47C

Determination Of Water Vapor Content And Hydrocarbon Dew Point In Natural Gas
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement of the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point in natural gas is of major importance for the maintenance of good quality control in a gas transmission pipeline- The following discussion will cover typicsil methods used by gas transmission pipelines to determine the water vapor content and hydrocarbon dew point.
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Document ID: D5467D28

Training And Certification Of Pipeline Controllers
Author(s): Jim West
Abstract/Introduction:
The number of pipeline incidents and accidents during 1988 and 1989 in addition to some very spectacular incidents that occurred earlier has brought the attention of regulatory and legislative bodies in focus on pipeline operation.
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Document ID: 96F59A6D

Theory And Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter factors are reported to four decimals, or to one part in ten thousand. Therefore, in order proper resolution of data a meter proving with a prover, there should be at least 10,000 pulses accumulated for each pass of the displacer. If the product of pulses per unit volume emitted, times the volume (in consistent units) displaced between the two detectors is less than 10,000 pulses, the prover is defined as a small volume prover for that particular proving situation.
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Document ID: 9E6AA3B0

Critical Flow Testing Of Gas Wells
Author(s): Jack W. Chisum
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is a discussion of the critical flow testing of natural gas wells and the calculations relating to these tests. A discussion of facts relating to backpressure testing will follow and can be applied to all types of backpressure testing no matter which method of measurement is used.
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Document ID: 01C332A5

Fuhdamentals Of Gas Chromatography
Author(s): Lou Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
Gae chromatography is a physical method of separation where the components to be separated are distributed between two phases - a stationary bed of large surface area, and a fluid that moves through the stationary bed. A gas or vaporized liquid mixture is physically separated into its individual components through this stationary bed.
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Document ID: C804A9D2

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Thomas R. Comerford
Abstract/Introduction:
There is a great deal of interest in applying electronic measurement and computing techniques to gas volume correction. What are the advantages of digital electronics which have caused so much anticipation? What benefits can really be expected?
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Document ID: 7F80AC02

Theory & Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses a fractional pulse counting technique, which in its application to flow measurement (proving), has made small volume provers a practical reality.
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Document ID: 9AA80488

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Chuck Allen
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow measurement with todays state of the art liquid turbine meter combines the mechanical aspects of the meter and electronics to measure 1:atal flow and/or flow rate within a piping system. The liquid turbine meter is a volumetric measuring instrument. By sensing the linear velocity of the fluid flowing through the open cavities of the meter, the volumetric flow rate can be determined. Ttie flow or linear velocity of the fluid is sensed by the rotation of the rotor which is supported within the meter housing.
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Document ID: 6C625D3A

Theory & Application Of Pulse Interpolation To Prover Systems
Author(s): Peter P. Jakubenas
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper discusses a fractional pulse counting technique, which in its application to flow measurement (proving), has made small volume provers a practical reality.
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Document ID: 9BE71DF1

Chromatograph Haintekance Ahd Trouble Shooting
Author(s): Louis N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The Gas Chromatograph used in energy measurement system and control system are designed for minimum amount of ma intenance and high reliability.
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Document ID: FD3D47DC

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement- I
Author(s): D. A. Tefankjian
Abstract/Introduction:
In any field of endeavor for a person to completely understand the endeavor, he must have a knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals involved. People can do well in the performance of their work without knowing the basic principles, but to excel and progress knowledge of the fundamentals is necessary. This is particularly true i f ones work is technical in nature.
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Document ID: 0BE79C57

Real Time Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Fred N. De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural Gas as one of our natural resources has now come into its own realm of importance. As a result of this change, it has become ever so important that companies that deal in natural gas know, real time, what is happening to their product. Therefore, the only way that this can be accomplished is with the use of Electronic Flow Measurement Computers.
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Document ID: 97DD0819

Communication Systems For Gas Measurement Data
Author(s): Bob Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
The optimum communication system for SCADA applications generally includes more than one transmission mediuni. Uhen more than one medium is used, you have a hybrid communications system. Microwave, VSATs, leased lines, USATs, radio, and dial telephone lines all have their place in SCADA. Most of these technologies can be used simultaneously on a single network.
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Document ID: 6F4E50BC

Fundamentals Of Liquid Turbine Meters
Author(s): Jack Harshman
Abstract/Introduction:
The development of any area of technology is usually a slow step-by-step, conservative evolution of many ideas, flashes of inspiration, and slogging persistence. The present day turbine meter can ha traced to the efforts of two men - David M. Potter and Edward E. Francisco Jr.
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Document ID: A7C32938

Measurement Of Lp Gas
Author(s): R. F. Wilson
Abstract/Introduction:
The Liquified Petroleum Gas industry is relatively young. In the 1920s when companies started transporting the associated or casinghead gas that was produced with the oil, they found they needed to handle the condensate that was being produced during transportation and compression. They found with stabilization they could produce drip gasoline. They found they could sell this to mix with motor gasoline to meet vapor pressure and octane requirements due to higher compression engines. The companies agreed to a need for a organized development of the market. They did this through the Natural Gasoline Producers Association, developed standardized gas contracts, improved gas tests for gasoline content - charcoal and compression tests, defined specifications for natural gasoline, and improved transportation.
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Document ID: 63B7033D

Application Qf Flow Computers And Telemeterihg System
Author(s): Fred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
Flow c o m p u t e r a p p l i c a t i o n s :.n a companys measurement system have an impact far g r e a t e r than simply another k i n d of m e a s u r e m e n t d e v i c e . The r e a s o n for t h i s impact is the many d i f f e r e n t groups of people that use i n f o r m a t i o n from the m e t e r i n g site,, This l i s t i n c l u d e s: 1. Measurement Group 2. Maintenance Group 3. Operations Group 4. Accounting Group 5. Management
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Document ID: 38484FBF

Prover Computers For Liquid Hydrocarbons
Author(s): Guy R. Williams
Abstract/Introduction:
The accuracy of a Hquid meter is highly dependent on the calibration of the meter. With the cost of petroleum staying near the 20 per barrel, it is essential that the meter is calibrated accurately to a known reference. Provers (sometimes called Meter Provers) are the known reference needed for calibrating a meter. The procedure of calibrating a meter is normally done in accordance with standards set forth by the API (American Petroleum Institute) in the manual of petroleum measurement standards.
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Document ID: 313B4463

Positive Displacement Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Norman A. Alston
Abstract/Introduction:
The art of Liquid Flow Metering has taken many forms with varying levels of precision over the years. One liquid meter type known as the Positive Displacement Meter operates exactly as stated wherein an Exact or Positive known volume of liquid is contained or displaced sequentially and each segment or volume unit is counted. Therefore, Positive Displacement Metering qualifies as one of the oldest forms of liquid metering since any bucket, can, jug or jar could be classifiiad as a means of sequentially delivering a known liquid volume that can be counted even though the precision of the measurement may be in question.
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Document ID: 8818D574

Development And Implementation Of Portable Computers For Fieid Gaugers
Abstract/Introduction:
This session Is split into two major sections: A Systematic Approach to Development and Hardware Selection. The first, A Systematic Approach to Development, discusses the various stages of the development process and provides practical guidelines on the development of portable computers for field gaugers. Attendees should come away with a good understanding on how to tackle projects of this nature whether it be an in-house development or in conjunction with a vendor. This section primarily concentrates on the software development aspects of the project.
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Document ID: 111E4A2A

Gas Theft And Meams Of Prevention
Author(s): Joseph A. Becia
Abstract/Introduction:
Northern Illinois Gas is a gas distribution company serving 1.6 million customers in a 17,000 square mile territory in the northern third of Illinois, generally excluding Chicago.
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Document ID: B27A054E

Design Of Distribution Metering And Regulating Stations
Author(s): Mickey Ashcraft
Abstract/Introduction:
Data gathered from distribution metering and regulating stations is used to determine the income of gas distribution companies. Since these stations are the cash registers of each company, proper station design is imperative. Obviously, improper design of these stations can cause problems with customer bills, but less obvious problems are also created. One major problem is the introduction of wrong information into the decision making process. For example, statistics created by poorly designed stations may result in inaccurate lost and unaccounted for gas figures and could cause needless expenditures in that area.
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Document ID: 9E95E016

Determination Of Hydrogen Sulfide And Total Sulphur
Author(s): James W. Canterbury
Abstract/Introduction:
Hydrogen sulfide (HS) and total sulfur, in varying amounts, are found in almost all natural gas fields. In some cases, it is so small that the product is referred to as sweet gas. Many fields, however, produce sour gas, which is a gas with an HS and total sulfur level high enough to require its removal or sweetening. Several methods are available to do this sweetening. However, that is a separate subject and not a part of this paper.
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Document ID: 8735060A

High Pressurii: Measuring & Regulator Station Design
Author(s): Melanie A. Acord
Abstract/Introduction:
Introduction Station design begins with determining basic requirements of the station itself. These basics include determining class location, maximum and minimum station inlet pressures, maximum and minimum flow rates, and controlled pressure. Once these have been de:er mined component selection can be made.
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Document ID: 09E5F8A6

Causes And Cures Of Regulator Instability
Author(s): William H. Earney
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address the gas pressure reducing regula torinstallation and the of erratic control of the downstream pressure. A gas pressure reducing regulators job is to manipulate flow in order to control pressure When the downstream pressure is not prop controlled the term unstablecontrol is a p p l i e d . Figure 1 is a l i s t of other te used for various forms of downstream pru I n s t a b i l i t y . This paper w i l l not addre5 mathematical methods of describing the automa t i c control system of the pressuru reducing s t a t i o n , hut w i l l deal with mor the components and t h e i r a f f e c t on the stabi1ity.
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Document ID: A051E681

Evaporation Loss From Storage Tanks
Author(s): Robert B. Wagoner
Abstract/Introduction:
The loss of stored hydrocarbons has been a concern since the early days of the petroleum industry. Initially hydrocarbon liquids were stored In open tanks or in tanks with only fixed roof covers.
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Document ID: CACC88CA

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - III
Author(s): James Keating
Abstract/Introduction:
In the science cf gas measurement there are several fundamentals which must be known in order for a person to do his job well. One of these fundamentals is the gas laws including Royles Law, Charles Law, Avogadros Law, the Ideal Gas Law, and the effects of supercompressibi1ity. These laws form the basic elements in natural gas measurement. Gas laws discovered hundreds of years ago by different individuals are used to convert gas from flowing conditions to contract conditions.
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Document ID: B5B7CC57

Gas Specific Gravity Measurement: A Comparison Of Methodologies
Author(s): Marsha C. Yon
Abstract/Introduction:
The term specific gravity was replaced by the term relative density by the American Gas Association in 1985. By definition, the term is dimensionless, although it is normally referred to in specific gravity units CSGU. This paper uses the outdated term specific gravity as it is currently better recognized by gas industry personnel.
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Document ID: 4B71324F

Manual Chakt Calculation
Author(s): J. F. Shlflet
Abstract/Introduction:
The era of the computer has done much to curtail the need to perform manual chart volume calculations both in the field and the meiisurement office. Mainframe, mini, on-site, flow, and/or personal computers now perform this task quickly and accurately. A trade publication recently contained an article which detailed fiome 364 programming steps necessary to cause a programmable, hand-held calculator to perform orifice calculations. Despite this level of tec:hnology, those seriously involved in the gas measurement Industry should possess both an undeistanding of what variables are required for calculations, and how each effects the volumetric outcome. A thorough understanding can be of enormous benefit to one who must either perform a manual calculation or determine if a calculacion has been made correctly, then one can possibly find what has been done in error and initiate corrective action.
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Document ID: E2224ACE

Light Liquid Hydrocarbon Sampling
Author(s): Chris m. Wilkins
Abstract/Introduction:
The sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons most generally involves one of two types of sampling: (1) flow proportional composite type sampling by a mechanical device, and/or (2) the physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. This paper will discuss in some detail the importance of these procedures, and the proper equipment and techniques needed to perform these operations.
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Document ID: 7536248F

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Author(s): Michael J. Scelzo
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the problems most commonly encountered in the analysis of naturall gas for water vapor content , and to provide details on the successfull application of the thin filmaluminum oxide moisture sensor to this type of measurement.
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Document ID: B9FDDDD5

Computer Application In Liouid Measurement
Author(s): James C. Bozeman
Abstract/Introduction:
It has become common practice in todays petroleum uidustry to utilize microprocessor based devices for various critical, real time activities. Our understanding and trust in the capabilities of computers has allowed these important tools to be applied in all areas of modern society. In a scant two decades, our confidence level in computers has grown tremendously, and to the point where they are trusted with the most important of activities. This is certainly true within the worldwide petroleum industry - and specifically so for the real time measurement of petroleum quantities.
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Document ID: 9153D85E

Auditing Gas Measurement And Accounting Systems
Author(s): Jennifer Merkins
Abstract/Introduction:
In order to conduct a measurement document audit as accurately and comprehensively as possible there are many things to consider and evaluate in the process. This paper will attempt to cover those areas which could impact the final result.
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Document ID: 7D190B15

Economics Of Electronic Flow Measurement
Author(s): Jim Griffeth
Abstract/Introduction:
During the past few years the management of the measurement departments in many of the gas transmission companies, production and distribution companies across the United States and Canada, have been in a quandary about what to do with electronic metering systems vs. the use of charts in gas metering.
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Document ID: E12B4291

Fuhdamental Principles Of Orifice Meters
Author(s): Don Salyards
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter has existed in various forms and has been the standard measurement device for natural gas measurement for many decades. One of the most common misconceptions is defining the instrumentation used on a meter tube as the orifice meter.
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Document ID: 22D08855

Operation Of Orifice Meter Chart Integrator
Author(s): Chuck Gray
Abstract/Introduction:
The UGC Chart Processor is a microprocessor based system designed to translate orifice meter chart records into accurate billing-compatible data of integrated flow (chart extension), flow time and average pressure. It will handle American (Westcott and Foxboro) charts as the pens can be mounted so as to pivot in the same geometric paths as the recording pens of these types of meters. As an option, the Chart Processor can be fitted with pen mounts for Taylor and/or Rockwell charts. The operator directs the pens to follow the records by moving the trace handles as the chart rotates. The rotational speed of the chart table is governed by a variable foot control. The chart is secured to the chart table so its rotation and the motion of the pens by the operator simulate the actions in the recording meter, The Chart Procesor computes and prints (for each chart) the chart extension ( -JH.P), average pressure and flow time. It also stores and prints batch totals on command.
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Document ID: B702AFBE

Liquid Measurement Station Design
Author(s): S. K. Suri
Abstract/Introduction:
Meter stations are found in different areas of the hydrocarbon industry, ranging from the oil well to refinery to pipeline distribution. Some examples are loading and unloading terminals for tanker and barge transportation, pump terminals feeding pipelines, and pipeline distribution terminals.
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Document ID: ED4F3B08

Effects Of Abnormal Conditions On The Accuracy Of Orifice Measurement
Author(s): Taft Snowdon
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter remains the foremost measurement device used in the industry for hydrocarbon flow. The primary element of the orifice meter is the orifice plate and orifice meter tube Consisting of the orifice fitting, or flanged pressure taps, adjacent piping and the flow conditioner or straightening vanes. The complete system also includes the temperature and pressure measuring devices used often called the secondary element and the pressure lines from the taps to the pressure instruments. The American National Standard Institute/American Petroleum Institute Standard 2530 (ANSI/API 2530) also called the AGA-3, provides specific recommendations for the manufacture, inspection and installation of an orifice meter. In order to insure accuracy, with minimum uncertainty, these guidelines and inspection procedures should be adhered to. Most of these specifications can be established by taking relatively fundamental measurements of the primary element components.
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Document ID: 9DCC1864

Controlling Surges In Liquid Pipelines
Author(s): Ron Kennedy
Abstract/Introduction:
Numerous technical papers have been written on unsteady state-surge flow or water hammer. This paper, unlike many of its predecessors, will present a view adapted to the engineer/technician who for one reason or another only needs a basic understanding of why surge occurs and how to control it.
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Document ID: 70F4740F

Turbine Meters For Liquid Measurement Truck( Loading)
Author(s): Christopher B. Laird
Abstract/Introduction:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of turbine meters for truck loading and to discuss some of the more important factors that come into play in this application. In order to accomplish this, it will be necessary to develop a basic understanding of turbine meters in general and to become familiar with the peculiarities of loading rack meters.
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Document ID: 0B1655CF

Overview Of API Activities In Fluid Measurement
Author(s): D. L. Arrlck, R. E. Beaty, U. G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
The Committee on Petroleum Measurement (COPM) is responsible for policy and technical issues related to the measurement of liquid and gas hydrocarbons. Along with its standing committees, it provides scientific data, correlations, and standards to meet industrial and governmental requirements for the more accurate accountability of hydrocarbons.
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Document ID: C45ACAFD

Conversion From Voldme To Energy Measurement
Author(s): Douglas E. Dodds
Abstract/Introduction:
The purchase, transport, and sale of natural gas as a commodity with a specific energy value per cubic foot has transformed the natural gas industry from one of a system based on volume measurement to a system based on energy measurement. The following discussion will review the evolution of the natural gas industry from a system of volume measurement to the present system of energy measurement.
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Document ID: 5291DF80

Charts, Pens, & Ink
Author(s): Coogan Cameron
Abstract/Introduction:
Although the Gas Industrs evolution continues to move towards computers and electronic measuring devices, there is still vast numbers of instruments utilizing charts, pens and inks throughout all phases of measurement. In exploring charts, pens and inks, we will see how the success of accurate monitoring and integration depends on all three and our proper use of them.
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Document ID: 1F4FF7B9

Odor Level Testing: Instruments And Applications
Author(s): Gordon R. Plunkett
Abstract/Introduction:
Odor level determination is a difficult subject, and leads to much discussion. Odor level test instruments have been in use for approximately fifty years and many users are convinced of their reliability. There are others, however, who feel that the test results of these instruments are meaningless. Since both sides in this disagreement are using the same type of instrument, the primary problem appears to surround the manner in which the odor level test is taught and run.
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Document ID: 6F855035

Basic Applications Of Telemetering Systems & Flow Computers
Author(s): Robert F. Schwartz
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will be a basic paper illustrating the various types of telemetering and flow computing systems as utilized in the Gas Industry. The paper will be general in nature, as the subject matter represents an entire field of endeavor. Therefore, only basic fundamentals of the various types of flow computing and telemetering systems will be covered in this paper.
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Document ID: 1817D5A8

Composite Sampling Techniques Of Gas Sampling
Author(s): Ihcsnas F. Vfelker
Abstract/Introduction:
A compposite sanple is gas collected in a saiiple container that is representative of the gas flowing in the pipeline during sane specific period of time. In order for this to be true, the sairpling system mast be installed properly, maintained in workiivg order, and the sanple must be subsequently handled properly,
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Document ID: 76760027

Turbulence And Its Effect In Measuring And Regulating Stations
Author(s): R. H. Welker
Abstract/Introduction:
Turbulence anywhere in a pipeline system is no asset. However, immediately downstream of pressure regulation, its effect can be especially harmful due to the high velocities that are set up within the regulator body. Design engineers and field men alike will be equally interested in keeping turbulence to a minimum. Both are thinking of maximum throughput with the least amount of noise, plus the best site for analytical instruments such as calorimeters, chromatographs or dew point instruments and a steady sense point for control. In addition, we should be fully aware of the effect of harsh noise on the working efficiency of operating personnel. A person with normal hearing will have a tendency to rush his work in a noisy environment and the result of this is a lowering of the quality of the work.
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Document ID: F07AC419

Orifice Meters For Uquid Measurement
Author(s): m. J. Sergesketter
Abstract/Introduction:
While the orifice meter is most commonly used for measuring gas and steam flows, it also has many applications in liquid flow measurement. These applications range from measurement for control purposes only, where flow rate is the important variable, to measurement of dirty or corrosive liquids that would cause excessive maintenance in positive displacement or turbine meters.
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Document ID: 6B0180A7

Prevention Of Freezing In Measuring And Regulation Equipment
Author(s): Don Day
Abstract/Introduction:
Freezing has been a problem faced by gas men since the birth of the Industry. This problem will continue for all time but there are ways to minimize the effects of the phenomenon
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Document ID: 2F2AFF9D

Fundammtrl Principles Of REXUIATORS
Author(s): J.M. Kruse
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Pressure Regulator is an autcrratic device controls the media flow and maintaiios a desired media pressure vdiile reducing the media supply pressure.
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Document ID: 3E0B89F4

Gas Service Regulators - Installation, Selection And Operation
Author(s): Scott Follin
Abstract/Introduction:
A gas pressure regulator is a device utilizing mechanical and pneumatic principles designed to reduce varying high pressure to a constant lower pressure throughout a range of flows. Orig.inally, the regulators primary function was to reduce high pressure to a more usable lower pressure. Today, much more is required of a simple loaded regulator and several operating functions are being satisfied. They are no longer just pressure reducing devices but are an integral instrument of measurement and have the internal ability to satisfy the strongest modern safety codes of D.O.T.
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Document ID: 9C0A8898

Large Capacity Gas Regulators
Author(s): Donald W. Irwin
Abstract/Introduction:
Although gas pressure regulators dominate much of the control applications in the gas distribution and transmission industry, they are usually limited to applications where capacity requirements do not exceed 10 mm CFH. These applications are numerous in any gas distribution system and include commercial, Industrial, and domestic service, farm taps, and district pressure control.
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Document ID: 65812055

Ethylene Measurement
Author(s): C. U. Hilkerson
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate custody transfer of ethylene through pipelines has become increasingly important since it began in the mid-1960s because: 1. The volumes transported have increased dramatically to approximately 30 billion pounds per year. 2. The cost of ethylene has increased from 2 cents per lb. in the mid-1960s to more than 30 cents per lb. at todays cost
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Document ID: F12C749C

Energy Heasdrehent Utilizing ON-.INE Chromatographs
Author(s): Louia N. Cox
Abstract/Introduction:
The use of p r o c e s s gas c h r o m a t o g r a p hs for line energy measurement has increased due to the r e q u i r e m e n ts established by the gas i n d u s t r y . Gas was previously purchased. sold* or transferred by volume only. Today* in a d d i t i o n to volume* the energy content (BTU per cubic foot) is included in the calculations for total energy measurement.
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Document ID: DEFFEB18

Automated Truck Loading Systems
Author(s): John W. Konopa, Michael D. Scott
Abstract/Introduction:
Product accountability continues to be the driving force behind todays terminal automation projects. As petroleum product costs fluctuate, oil company competition intensifies, and government regulations become more stringent, the need to control loss, reduce operating costs, and improve inventory control has become increasingly more important. Historically, the industry in which we operate has been one of change one that has seen the development of countless methods and modes of operation based on immediate need. Now, as accountability comes to the forefront of our priorities, the need for marketing terminal automation becomes even more apparent.
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Document ID: E8785A98

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement - IV
Author(s): Kenneth E. Starling
Abstract/Introduction:
I t is shown that for low g r a v i t y , low carbon dioxide content natural gases A.G.A. Report NX-19 is reasonably accurate in comparison to A.G.A. Report No. 8. For natural gases which have high gravities , due either to carbon dioxide or ethane plus heavier hydrocarbons, A.G.A. Report No. 8 is dramatically more accurate than A.G.A. Report NX-19.
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Document ID: 45C9EAAE

Jquid Flow Provers Conventional()
Author(s): Carroll Teschendorf
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid measurement devices such as turbine and positive displacement meters have been known to be able to repeat output for given flow conditions ve7 well. However, the linearity of these devices are subject to basic meter characteristics on any fluid, shifts in output due to changes in specific gravity, velocity profile (due to viscosity changes, wear of parts, accumulation of paraffin on internals that may change hydraulic area through meter), temperature changes (causing expansion or contraction of housing and/or internals) and various other effects. Therefore, If we can calibrate the meter at the condition it operates Jflow rate ar d fluid condition) with a field standard, we can in essence eliminate most inaccuracies involved in measurement and resolve any doubts about the meter accuracy.
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Document ID: 78250704

Marine Crude Oil - Terminal Measuring System
Author(s): Douglas L. Arrick
Abstract/Introduction:
Crude oil imports are increasing which means that more crude is being received by tanker and barge at marine terminals. Measurement of this crude is becoming more important. This paper wi.ll review some of the important things to be considered when measuring the quantity and quality of crude oil at marine terminals,
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Document ID: B1752BB2

L.A.C.T. Unit Proving - The Role Of The Witness
Author(s): Ken A. Steward
Abstract/Introduction:
The simplest and most effective way to transfer the ownership of liquid hydrocarbons between a buyer and a seller is through the use of an accurate liquid meter. With the aid of additional components, the liquid meter is capable of unattended measurement. This measurement system is commonly referred to as a Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Unit when ownership is transferred at a production lease. When ownership is transferred away from a production lease, such as a transfer between Pipe Line Companies, a measurement system may be referred to as an Automatic Custody Transfer (ACT) Unit.
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Document ID: 86E68529

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Jim Bleda
Abstract/Introduction:
BTU reduction in gas plants refers to the change in quality of a gas stream that occurs as a result of being processed in a plant. By processing, the plant purposely extracts or removes certain components from the gas thereby changing its physical make-up. It is very important that this change be raeasu:red and accounted for accurately because it is the basis for determining the amount of revfinue the producer ultimately receives for the gas he produces and it determines what the processing plant pays for its feedstock. This paper will demonstrate the correct method for calculating the BTU change of a gas stream and wi 11 also discuss the meaning of PBR and its importance in gas processing.
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Document ID: 7663E67F

Orifice Meter Gauge Calibration Using Portaele Digital Pressure Indicator
Author(s): Leo R. Lombardo
Abstract/Introduction:
What is an inch of water? The correct answer to this question has taken on increased importance with the demand for better cLCcuracy and the introduction of digital pressure indicators, For example, lets assume that you have just received your new digital pressure indicator and you decide to verify its accuracy. The manufacturer claims 0.1% accuracy at 100 inches of water. You set up a test using a deadweight tester and a water manometer. After placing a 100 inch of water weight on the deadweight tester, you record a reading of 99.8 inches of water on the digital pressure indicator and 100.2 inches of water on the manometer. Which is right? The answer to this question will be evident after the following discussion of manometers and dead weight testers and their relationship to digital pressure indicators. I wi 1 also include a discussion of accuracy and re5olution as it applies to digital pressure indicators.
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Document ID: DBFB3536

Btu Reduction In Gas Plants
Author(s): Jim Bieda
Abstract/Introduction:
BTU reduction in gas plants refers to the change in quality of a gas stream that occurs as a result of being processed In a plant. By processing, the plant purposely extracts or removes certain components from the gas thereby changing its physical make-up. It is very important that this change be measured and accounted for accurately because it is the basis for determining the amount of revenue the producer ultimately receives for the gas he produces and it determines what the processing plant pays for its feedstock. This paper will demonstrate the correct method for calculating the BTU change of a gas stream and will also discuss the meaning of PBR and its importance in gas processing.
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Document ID: 80FD50DB

Chromatographic Analysis Of Natural Gas Liquids
Author(s): Ralph Batten
Abstract/Introduction:
The first quantification of hydrocarbon vapors began in 1905, with what we call the charcoal methods. A scientist by the name of W. R.imsey, used activated charcoal to separate mixtures of gases and vapors by selective absorption on, or desorption from the charcoal (Ramsey H I ). In 1906, M. Tswett, a Russian botanist, obtained discrete color bands of plant pigments, as they were eluted through a glass tube filled with calcium carbonate (Tswett 316). He coined the name chromatography, which means color writing. This is a misnomer in todas sophisticated analytical chromatography. The basic method using carrier gases, thermal detectors and packed columns, was introduced in 1952, by James and Martin (915).
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Document ID: 08EE69F1

Determination Of Calorific Value Of Natural Gas By Combustion Instruments
Author(s): Richard L. Howard
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper will address calorimetry ie., the measurement of calorific value of natural gases by combustion instruments.
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Document ID: 98236B04

On-Line Computers For Custody Transfer
Author(s): R. C. Leitschuh
Abstract/Introduction:
A discussion of on-line electronic computer systems and their application in custody transfer. Emphasis will be on increased accuracy due to real time consideration of gas measurement parameters.
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Document ID: 8EDCA3F2

Determination Of Energy Flow In National Gas Pipelines: Direct Measurement Vs Chromatography
Author(s): Kenneth R. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
Custody transfer of natural gas requires the energy flow in the pipeline because the price is a function of energy delivered. However, determining the energy flow is a nontrivial exercise requiring standards, accurate equipment and knowledge of techniques employed.
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Document ID: 9C8E983D

Determination Of Specific Gravity Of Gases
Author(s): Faruk Civan
Abstract/Introduction:
3. METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS Specific gravity is one of the basic properties used for characterization and measurement of gases. Instruments used for determining specific gravity are called gravitometers. There are also methods by which specific gravity can be determined indirectly. Accurate determination of specific gravity is essential for accurate measurement of gas flow rate using orifice meters.
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Document ID: 80C8F7A8

UNDERSTANDIW3 Basic Eliectronics
Author(s): Louis A. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
It has been practical for sate time to use electxonic systems to duplicate the control effects that can be produced with fxieumatics. The refinements of solid state electronics has given a decided econanic edge to the electronic systans over the pneumatic. The Intergrated Circuit (IC) has increased the electronic advantage with a conbination of lower cost and higher reliability. The electronic signals may be transmitted to reirote locations and the signal is easily adapted to a variety of control siystem. The electronics systens can be monitored and cxjntrolled by microprocessors.
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Document ID: FA01F55E

Gas Specipic Gravity Measurement: A Comparison Of Methodologies.
Author(s): Thomas E. Sowell
Abstract/Introduction:
The American Gas Association (AGA) has, since 1985, been using the term rel.ative density to describe gas as opposed to the more familiar industry term, speciJiic gravity. Although not technically correct, for ease of understanding,, this paper will use the term specific gjravity.
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Document ID: 2FB7D388

Elenents Of Natural Gas Liquid Contracts
Author(s): R. Taylor
Abstract/Introduction:
The basic secticxis of a natural gas liquid purchase, sale or exchange contract are: Basic Agreement Bas ic Terms Genera1 Terms and Conditions and Exhibits. The Basic Acireement area defines the date, parties, ownership and consideration. The Basic Terms area estciblishes specifics relative to the performance of this particular contract, such as: definitions term delivery/receipt location quantity price i nvoi c i ng, payment, and account i ng product specifications and measurement, sampl-ng and analysis. The General Terms and Conditions area relates detailed legal parameters, such as: Title Force Majeure warranty/taxes notices aws and regulations record and audit severability non-waiver Entire Agreement and assignment. The Exhibit area provides an cf)portunity to include detailed information in a contract without cluttering up the contract.
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Document ID: EC09DA78

The Use Of Manometers In The Gas Industry
Author(s): Tom Hulsmann
Abstract/Introduction:
Accurate gas measurement depends on precise measurement of small pressures and differential pressures. Large volumes of gas are bought and sold every day. Therefore, the utmost accuracy Is desired in our measurement of these voltunes. For this reason the manometer is of prime importance to -the gas Industry. The s Impliclty, inherent g.ccuracy and versatility of manometers lend t:hem to broad application in calj.bration troubleshooting and meter maintenance leak testing,
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Document ID: F87CB339

Testing And Monitoring Sediment And Water In Crude Oil
Author(s): Jane Wiliams
Abstract/Introduction:
The quantity of sediment and water in crude oi 1 must be accurately establ ished as part of the custody transfer process. Purchasers only pay for the crude oil received, and want to minirrize the quantity of sediment and water they must handle. Consequently, monitoring of the sediment and water content is perfonned at the production site location to prevent excessive sediment and water entering the pipeline system. The quantity of sediment and water a pipeline is willing to accept into their system depends on geographic location, market competitiveness and their ability to handle the sediment and water in the system. Each pipeline publishes the quantity of sediment and water it wil1 accept.
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Document ID: 5F0382A4

Instrument Calibratkjn Using The Pneumatic Deadweight Tester
Author(s): M.S. Morrison
Abstract/Introduction:
IMIRODUCTION IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IT IS ESTIMATE13 THAT AS MUCH AS 17 BILLION CUBIC FEET OF UNACCONTED TOR GAS IS WRITTEN OFF EVERY YEAR. WITH HNJERGY PRICES FLIKTTUATING LIKE THEY DO, IT IS NO IiMDER THAT MANAGEMENT INSISTS CW THE MOST ACCURATE MEASUREMENT METHODS AVAILAKE.
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Document ID: 1DD5EC8C

Operational Experience With Small Volume Provers
Author(s): Howard P. Hlnton
Abstract/Introduction:
In recent years, measurement systems have become more accurate and more complex in designs. Bearing this in mind, it, therefore, becomes necessary for proving methods to be improved. The small volume prover using pulse interpolation has come a long way in helping us meet that need.
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Document ID: 4EA9B1E6

High Pressure Regulators
Author(s): Brad m. Frantzen
Abstract/Introduction:
A pressure regulator is an automatic device which reduces the media supply pressure while controlling the flow and maintaining a desired pressure. The purpose of this discussion is to address high pressure regulator (typically considered as a PSIG to PSIG reduction) through the two basic types of regulators SELF-OPERATED and RELAY-OPERATED.
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Document ID: 1BFAA94A

Installation And Operation Of Densitometers
Author(s): Nghleu Q. Pham
Abstract/Introduction:
As the use of a densitometer becomes a dominant picture in liquid measurement, its accuracy performance has been an ultimate goal to many of its users. The key to accomplish this goal, is to obtain a clear understanding of the densitometers operation and establish the proper installations for them. This paper will concentrate on these two areas, and furthermore, share with you our field experiences from many of the densitometer users.
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Document ID: 4235C83D

Application Of Densitometers To Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Richard V. Balcerak
Abstract/Introduction:
Densitometers are devices that determine the density or specific gravity of a fluid at static or flowing conditions. They are used in various industries to measure a variety of clean, dirty, light, heavy, corrosive, viscous, and slurry mediums. Densitometers are applicable in the measurement of Mass Flow Custody Transfer Product Identification Blending Phase Detection Process Quality Maintenance Pipeline Interface Detection
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Document ID: 280516DF

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Giles m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
Accuracy is defined in Webster as freedom from mistake or error. This is contrary to the widespread use of this term since an accuracy statement is usually given as 0.5% accuracy while the real meaning is 0.5% inaccuracy.
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Document ID: 216695AE

Fundamental Principles Of Diaphragm Displacement Meters
Author(s): Jameb P. Micklos
Abstract/Introduction:
A displacement type meter is one that measures directly without regard to temperature, pressure or density. It accomplishes this by physically displacing a fixed volume of gas by pure mechanical movement. A diaphragm displacement meter utilizes flexible diaphragm assemblies to form the measuring chambers and driving members of the meter to accomplish the physical displacement of the fixed volume.
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Document ID: B53E0598

Effective Use Of Deadweight Testers
Author(s): Charles J. Reed
Abstract/Introduction:
One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems.
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Document ID: FE1DF513

Uitnessing Orifice Meter Calibration And Field Testing
Author(s): Steve Hughes
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper is to put Into perspective cause and effect of common gas measurement problems encountered during the inspection of an orifice meter station.
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Document ID: 822C1269

Fundamentals Of Turbine Gas Meters
Author(s): Bernard J. Kempennan
Abstract/Introduction:
According to statistics published by the American Gas Association, the annual consumption of natural gas in the United States amounts to about 17 trillion cubic feet. This gas usually changes hands several times on the way from the wellhead to the final consumer. These points of sale are called custody transfer points. In addition to custody transfer measurements, which have to be very accurate, the gas is also measured several other times for control or other reasons. Here, the ciccuracy requirements are usually less stringent. A number of different measurement devices are used to measure this gas. They essentially fall into two groups: positive displacement meters and inferential meters.
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Document ID: 4A70DC8A

Installation And Operation Of Recording Calorimeters
Author(s): D. S. Lach
Abstract/Introduction:
Tne Cutler-Hammer recording Calorimeter rreasures the total calorific value of combustible gas. It continuously measures, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot. It is frequently calibrated in negajoules per cubic iteter or kilocalories per cubic meter.
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Document ID: 0653E7CD

Orifice Fittings And Meter Tubes
Author(s): Kenneth E. Embry
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter is the most widely accepted device for the measurement of natural gas and other fluids in a pipeline. The primary element of the orifice meter consists of an orifice plate, orifice fitting or holding device and adjacent piping which is more commonly referred to as a meter tube. The properly designed meter tube should follow the guidelines for manufacture as established by the American Gas Association Report No. 3. or American National Standards/ Institute/American Petroleum Institute (ANSI/API) 2 530, herein referred to as AGA #3. This paper will address the application and operation of different orifice fittings and meter tube design considerations according to AGA #3
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Document ID: EB32E35B

Fundamental Principles Of Pilot-Operated Regulators
Author(s): Lon Carlson
Abstract/Introduction:
For all practical purposes, regulators used by the gas industry can be placed In either of two categories: I. Self-Operated, or II. Pilot-Operated
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Document ID: B087A9C3

Control Valve Selection And Sizing For Liquids & Gas
Author(s): Dick Livingston
Abstract/Introduction:
Properly sized control valves are essential to obtain good process control. Simply specifying a valve size to match an existing pipe size leaves much to chance and will likely create an impractical situation in terms of initial investment and adequacy of control. Too small a valve will not pass the required amount of flow, while too large a valve will he unnecessarily expensive and will create instability problems at low flow rates.
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Document ID: 28BD97D1

Temperature Measurement For Orifice Flow Measurement
Author(s): Gerald D. Adklns
Abstract/Introduction:
expansion factor. When we speak informally of temperature and temperature differences, we all understand what we are talking about. We also know the difference between cold compared to hot, but when it comes to defining temperature, many of us are at a loss for words.
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Document ID: 114EDE70

Energy Measurement Using Flow Computers And Chromatography
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Energy Resources, along with many transmission companies, has gone to electronic measurement to: 1. Increase accuracy and resolution 2. Make on-line correction of flow variables 3. Increase speed in data retrieval 4. Reduce capital expenditures 5. Reduce operational expenditures
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Document ID: 2191488A

Pressure Regulation And Flow Control With Flexible Restricting Elements
Author(s): G. m. Crabtree
Abstract/Introduction:
By definition, a valve is a device which can regulate the flow of fluids (starting, stopping, or throttling) by positioning a movable member in relation to a passageway. As is common with other types of valves, its name, flexible element, describes the means by which this type of valve accomplishes its positioning function -the movable member flexes in an elastic manner to control the flow of fluids.
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Document ID: FD0749E5

Fundamental Principles Of Rotary Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Rotary meters are one of the four common types of volumetric measuring devices used in the natural gas industry, the others being diaphragm, turbine and orifice meters. The versatility of the rotary meter has made it useful in all phases of gas measurement at the wellhead in gas fields, in gas processing plants, in transmission line compressor stations and in commercial and industrial distribution measurement. Rotary meters also find application in the measurement of industrial gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and hydrogen. This wide acceptance is based on a history of reliable, accurate performance, a high capacity to size ratio and generally low maintenance.
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Document ID: 5DA0DE80

Gauging, Teidting And Running Of Lease Tanks
Author(s): Clarence L. Strange
Abstract/Introduction:
When gauging, testing and running of lease tanks, five separate measurement functions are required. These are temperature determinations, API gravity determination, gauging, sampling, and sediment and water determination.
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Document ID: DF157DD5

Heasdreheiit Op Larfie Voldhes Of Crow Oil By Nirbiiie- Hetsr
Author(s): Larry St. Germain
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the only deep water port in operation in the United States for the importation of foreign crude oil. The port facility is located in the Gulf of Mexico in Grand Isle Block 59. approximately 18 miles offshore. The deep water port was designed specifically for unloading very large crude carriers (VLCCs) and ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) up to 700,000 dead-weight-tons (DWT) via single anchor leg mooring (SALM) systems, a pumping platform complex (Fig. 1), submarine pipelines, a booster station and a 48-inch Pie. 1 LOOP Marine Terminal Pnmplne Platform Copies pipeline Interconnected to 8 underground storage cavities each capable of a 4.5 to 5 million barrel capacity with a total combined capacity of over 40 million barrels (Figure 2).
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Document ID: A5C6A2E7

Kakl Fischer Vs. H20 Bv Distillatigh
Author(s): Roy J, Barrios, Jr.
Abstract/Introduction:
The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port, Inc. (LOOP Inc.) Measures the water content of over 500.000,000 barrels of crude oil per year using the water by distillation method (ASTH D-4006). Water determination by distillation was chosen because of some measurement problems built Into the LOCI system
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Document ID: 366A1208

Micrometer Measurements Of Orifice Meter Tubes
Author(s): Vic Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
The meter tube is often referred to as the primary device since it, along with the orifice plate, is essential to proper measurement. The ::onditlon of the tube must be correct in meeting the requirements or the specifications of A.G.A. Report #3 and If these conditions are not complied with and maintained, no matter what type of secondary device or meter that is installed, the measurement can never be correct.
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Document ID: C46F7594

Training And Certification Of Pipeline Controllers
Author(s): Jim West
Abstract/Introduction:
The number of pipeline incidents and accidents during 1988 and 1989 in addition to some very spectacular incidents that occurred earlier has brought the attention of regulatory and legislative bodies in focus on pipeline Operation.
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Document ID: 11C8909E

Onsite Proving Of Gas Turbine Meters Using Sonic Nozzles
Author(s): Jim Beeson
Abstract/Introduction:
Arkla Energy Resources developed and curreaitly uses a mobile gas turbine meter proving system on 3 thru 8 gas turbine ineters at station uites under actual operating conditions. It carriiines technology from liquid turbine meter pravirs with new ideas that specifically apply to gas measurement. The prover also contains a gas chroriiatograph which is used in actual mass flow ccirputaliions.
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Document ID: E48F0A85

Determination Of Leakage And Unaccounted For Gas - Transmission
Author(s): L. G. Tidwell
Abstract/Introduction:
Solving the lost and unaccounted for gas problem is a continuing problem directly affecting the companys balance sheet. This topic covers every aspect of measurement discussed in this school and all leak detection devices available to the Gas Industry. This is the most generalized subject one could discuss. Any measurement type instrument including the type of meter, quality of gas, gravity, temperature, or coefficient calculation affects the LUFG. The coding of volumes in and out of the pipeline and the accounting entries are all just as important as the actual leakage.
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Document ID: 5A7097CE

Program For Training A Measurement Technician
Author(s): Vic Crowe
Abstract/Introduction:
The test of a companys ability to survive the rigors of competition and change is not the accumulation of equipment, physical facilities or other material assets. It is the kind of people it has employed and how well their talents are being developed to assure a sufficient number of skilled technicians for the companys need, now and in the future. The need for this type of training in measurement is becoming more apparent with the changes that are taking place in our industry today.
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Document ID: 7CC50B85

Fundamentals Of Pneumatic Controllers
Author(s): Jan Carman
Abstract/Introduction:
Pneumatic instruments and controllers first appeared in the 1940s and rapidly replaced direct-connected process instruments . Pneumatic transmitters and the associated transmission systems made practical for the first time operation of a process plant from a central control room. Electronic instruments gained popularity in the 50s and 60s with improvements in the reliability of solid-state devices. Modern digital technology is the preferred vehicle today in nearly all new control system installations and upgrades.
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Document ID: 0226C51B

Odorization
Author(s): G. m. Johnson
Abstract/Introduction:
Odorization in the United States is separated into two basic groups, Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Odorization and Natural Gas Odorization. Ethyl Mercaptan is used as the odorant for LPGs. Natural Gas Odorants are generally a blend of two or more components with the occasional exception of Thiophane. It is important for each odorant user to first determine their odorization objective or goal. Odorant blend selection along with compatibility to equipment and gas composition is the next important factor in determining your odorization requirements. This paper will give you a basic outline of the major components and blends in use today.
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Document ID: 75ED6E0D

Laboratory Calibration Of Fluid Flowmeters
Author(s): Walter F. Seidl
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas and liquid flowmeters often may be calibrated under laboratory conditions when field proving is impractical or impossible. Calibration in a laboratory offers the advantage of operating in a controlled environment which can be important in flowmeter evaluation. Laboratory facilities are available to provide calibrations to 0.1 percent of reading or better.
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Document ID: 0DC091BD

Measurement With Insertion Turbine Meters
Author(s): Donald E. Davis
Abstract/Introduction:
The insertion turbine meter is well suited for large pipeline measurement. It is presently used in many applications such as compressor efficiency and sUrge control, pipeline leak detection, pacing odorizers, pacing samplers and checking throughput. As a Custody Transfer measurement device, the insertion turbine Meter not only measures with high accuracy, but allows the user cost saving advantages at initial purchase, installation and during pipeline maintenance.
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Document ID: F126EE6B

Methods Of Field Testing Large Displacement Meters
Author(s): Dale C. Shuck
Abstract/Introduction:
It is my opinion that flow testing the meters, regardless of the method Is just one step In assuring accurate measurement when field testing large displacement measuring stations.
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Document ID: 2D5E86E3

Hechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Bernard J. Kemperman
Abstract/Introduction:
In the 1930s, when more and more utilities began to sell large volumes of gas at elevated pressures, i.e. at pressures above inches water column, it became apparent that devices were needed which, clock or meter driven, would correct measured volumes for pressure and temperature. The first such instrument was introduced by the American Meter Company and soon several other companies introduced similar instruments, These were essentially mechanical calculators of which certain inputs were automatically adjusted as the pressure or temperature fluctuated. Their design has remained virtually unchanged through the years and a great many of these instruments are still in use today.
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Document ID: E54D2C6F

Measurement Fundamentals Crude Oil And Refined Products
Author(s): M.J.Yeandle
Abstract/Introduction:
There is no question that the industry needs better flow measurement. Just considering the value of product handled makes that abundantly clear.
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Document ID: 91DAE337

Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Computation of measured volume to base conditions at the meter site has long been the exclusive domain of mechanical correcting devices. Until recently, electronics have been slow to penetrate this area of measurement, and for good reason. Mechanical correctors must operate in a wide variety of climates, under severe temperature conditions and without an external source of power. These are stringent conditions for any product, especially for a device whose primary property is accuracy. While digital computers and advanced transducer technology have made base volume computation not only feasible but highly accurate, their use has generally been restricted to protected areas where electrical power is readily available. Recently, battery powered and solar assisted instruments have been Introduced which offer a solution to the power supply problem.
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Document ID: D79B32A4

Flow Integrator System Overview
Author(s): Richard J. Hnsch
Abstract/Introduction:
The Correcting Data Collection System calculates natural gas flow in a pipeline and reports this back to the seller and or buyer of the gas for the purpose of billing and record keeping. The system is composed of: The Correcting Data Collector (FLINT) The Data Retrieval Unit (DEU) The PC and i t s Software Two or more Modems
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Document ID: 0069AA93

Field Experience With Installation, Operation And Maintenance Of Automatic Chart Changers
Author(s): Gene Herron
Abstract/Introduction:
The automatic chart changer was developed some twenty seven years ago. This relieved the problem of having someone manually change the chart every day. It also helped to eliminate the need of either contract chart changers or company employees having to change charts on weekends and holidays (except to pick up the final dropped chart in a contract period).
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Document ID: 415477FC

Calculation Of Liquid Petroleum Quantities
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock , Tx
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of electronic calculatois and computers, calculations can be performed in chain sequences that allow for less handling and ease of operation. However, it is possible for different operators, using different machines, to arrive at slightly different answers from time to time. Therefore, there is c need to standardize some of the calculation procedures. The API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards addresses this problem in Chapter 12, which is currently under review.
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Document ID: DE0FFFB5

Liquid Meter Proving Techniques
Author(s): Daniel m. Comstock
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid Meter Proving is the physical testing of the performance of a meter, in a liquid service, that is measuring the flow or volume throughput. The meter proof or test, is performed by placing a meter in series with a meter prover, which has a known base volume at standard conditions, in such a way that during any given test run, all the product measured by the meter is also measured by the prover, and equally important, only the product measured by the meter la measured by the prover. Then the meter indication is compared to the known prover volume. Meters can provide more precise measurement of the liquids handled, If they are proved regularly and in actual operating conditions.
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Document ID: 6E7D808C

Other Flow Measuring Devices Gas And Liquids
Author(s): Roger T. Piegza
Abstract/Introduction:
There are many flow measurement devices in the market today. Some are extremely complex and expensive. This, however does not automatically make them the best or most accurate device available. We often tend to equate quality and accuracy as a direct function of cost and/or complexity, while often, the most simple and cost effective devices are as good or even better than their intricate and expensive counterparts. Technological advances and economic pressures continue to encourage the emergence of instrumentation with greater reliability and accuracy. These factors were influential in the development of the Multiport Averaging Pitot Primary Flow Measurement Device. This refined and enhanced version of the basic pitot tube, works on the same principle as the orifice or any other head-type primary. They are based on the same standard hydraulic equation, continuity equation, and Bernoullis Theorem. Through the enhancement of a proven concept, we now have available, a primary flow element offering many benefits. The Multiport Averaging Pitot offers a simple design with equal or better performance for fluid flow measurement and process control applications.
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Document ID: 57BF2702

Orifice Meters - Operation & Maintenance
Author(s): John Lobue
Abstract/Introduction:
Measurement is the life blood of the gas company. Money is made or lost depending on the accuracy. Measurement is either correct or incorrect - close is not good enough. This depends on the time and effort devoted in the maintenance and operation of the orifice meter. A technician needs to be conscientious. He is as important to measurement accuracy as the equipment. It is not good enough to buy the best instruments or testing equipment without the knowledge and ability to maintain the accuracy of the instruments. Some test equipment needs to be certified on a regular basis. Arklas attitude is to keep the equipment certified. The advantages offset the cost involved.
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Document ID: C1FE2049

Calibration Of Liquid Meter Provers
Author(s): James E. Toliver
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid provers are those provers used to prove meters in liquid service. The basic types of provers used are volumetric tank provers and pipe provers. The purpose of the calibration of liquid prover is to determine its certified base volume, with traceability to recognized standards and accepted practices. The base volume is the gross operating volume corrected to standard conditions (such as 60 degrees F and 0 PSIG in U. S. Customary units). The gross operating volume of a prover is the base volume of the prover corrected to the operating temperature and pressure and is the actual volume of the prover at operating condition
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Document ID: 60C9ED30

Mass Meters For Liquid Measurement
Author(s): Carl m. Eibl
Abstract/Introduction:
Liquid mass measurement, using the Coriolis principle, is becoming THE acceptable means for controlling and identifying process fluids. Process industries are accepting this method over conventional metering methods because of its unrestrained ability to meter almost any liquid. The hydrocarbon industry represents a unique part of the process industry in that it supplies much of the raw stock used in other processes. DIRECT MASS MEASUREMENT, USING THE CORIOLIS MEASUREMENT METHOD, IS NOW THE WORLDS FASTEST GROWING FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY.
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Document ID: 975C0240

Electronic Chart Scanning And Related Equipment
Author(s): James L. Hamlin
Abstract/Introduction:
With the advent of on-site electronic flow computers we in the chart processing end of our industry are sometimes overlooked by manageinent when attempts are made to modernize our chart processing operations. As the cost versus benefit factors rise to the surface, this writer believes modernizing the chart processing departments will provide a much more economical and accurate result than on-site EFM devices - with one very important plus - the chart provides an excellent audit trail. In fact, the measurement chart is the only audit trail which can be re-evaluated time and time again.
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Document ID: C1C8F505

Mass Measurement Of Natural Gas Liquid Mixtures
Author(s): Gerald C. Armstrong
Abstract/Introduction:
Natural gas liquids are generally described by use of analyses performed by chromatography. Figure 1 shows a typical analysis. Notice the sample is made up of several single components, in addition to Hexanes and C7+. The last two contain several components each. The actual makeup of a given NGL sample is characteristic for that particular sample. Another sample, having the same smell, color. Specific Gravity, etc., may not, indeed probably wont have the same component percentages.
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Document ID: 69BFF412

Elements Of Gas Contracts
Author(s): Jack. W. Walker
Abstract/Introduction:
Welcome to the ever-changing world of gas contracts. The contract characteristics over time can be roughly grouped as follows:
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Document ID: 9378E3FA

Characterization Of Heavy Components In Ngl And Natural Gas Extended( Analysis)
Author(s): Charles R. Roberson
Abstract/Introduction:
Changes in the custody transfer settlements for natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL) has placed an emphasis on more accurate analyses of these products, especially in the heavier hydrocarbons that fall in the carbon number range from C6 to about C15 or the C6+ fraction. The analyses of natural gas and NGL mixtures moved a major step forward with the development of GPA Tentative Standards 2186, The Extended Analysis of Hydrocarbon Liquid Mixtures Containing Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography and 2286, The Extended Analysis for Natural Gas and Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography. This paper will briefly review these two methods and gas chromatography as an analytical tool.
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Document ID: AB1BF710

Devices For Moisture Measurement In Natural Gas
Abstract/Introduction:
As you know, moisture and natural gas dont mix. Among other things, moisture lowers the BTU r a t i n g , causes freeze-ups and makes for compressor breakdowns. To address these problems, gas contracts generally set an upper l i m i t of seven pounds per mill ion standard c u b i c f e e t of w a t e r . Thus, m o i s t u re d e t e r m i n a t i o n close to that value is very c r i t i c a l . Enter the e l e c t r o l y t i c method of m o i s t u r e a n a l y s i s , a techno1ogy that has h i s t o r i c a l l y proven e f f e c t i v e for natural gas a p p l i c a t i o n s
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Document ID: 861B9FA4

What The Field And Office Groups Expect From Each Other
Author(s): Obie Weaver, Gary Hollars
Abstract/Introduction:
When first asked to help present a paper on expectations between the field and office groups, it was difficult to think of what the field can expect from the office since we in the field are on the service end of the job. We gather the information, change the charts, test the meters, and make the repairs, while the chart section calculates the flow and keeps track of any problems. The office is, therefore, in the position to notify the field people of any problems while field personnel are expected to respond to these requests and correct any problems. However, there are a few things that come to mind that the field people can expect from the office personnel that will help operations run smoothly.
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Document ID: E80B19D1

About Ishm 1990
Abstract/Introduction:
Collection of documents about ISHM including table of contents, event organizers, award winners, committee members, exhibitor and sponsor information, etc.
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Document ID: 37AD1DCF

Design, Operation And Maintenance Of Lact Units
Author(s): Wesley G. Poynter
Abstract/Introduction:
This paper presents an overview of t he design, operation and maintenance of Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) units. These units are used in the automatic measurement of crude oil when it is transferred from a producer to a purchaser or consignee.
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Document ID: 19D62276


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