Measurement Library

Western Gas Measurement Short Course Publications (1989)

Western Gas Measurement Short Courses

Methods, Detection And Prosecution Of Gas Theft
Author(s): V, Gary Hansen
Abstract/Introduction:
Service diversion or theft of service has heen and will continue to be a problem that exists within the energy distribution industry. From early documented accounts, service diversion of public gas utilities has existed. The example comes to mind where coin operated gas meters were used, and individuals would freeze water in the size of a coin and place the frozen slug in the meter to receive service without compensation to the utility, and without any provable evidence remaining after the slug melted.
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Document ID: 65F029AB

Regulator Statu Dot Compliance Design For
Author(s): Craig J. Louttit
Abstract/Introduction:
The Department of Transportation (DOT) Pipeline Safety Regulations Part 192 establishes the requirements which define the minimum federal safety standards for the design of pi peline facilities and the transportation of natural and other gas by pipel ine. This paper will discuss the design of natural gas regulator stations for compliance with DOT Regulations. This paper is intended to be a general guide 1 ine and cannot include all situations that may be encountered.
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Document ID: 2A5E00BD

The Federal Pipeldie Sakciy Program
Author(s): Jack C. Overly
Abstract/Introduction:
The U. S. Djartment of Transportation (U.S. D. 0. T.), Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) is responsible for the develcpnent and enforcement of nationwide safety regulations regarding natural gas systems, liquified natural gas (ING) facilities, LPG distribution systems, and hazardous liquids, including crude oil, petroleum products, and anhydrous ammonia pipelines.
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Document ID: A89F91EB

Natural Gas Sampling
Author(s): Mark Zeck
Abstract/Introduction:
In the past, natural gas sampling has been regarded as the stepchild of flow measurement. Meter tubes were carefully designed and built to standards. Orifice plates were sized and maintained. Chart recorders were carefully installed and calibrated. The statement would then emerge Now - Where are we going to stick that sampler
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Document ID: C9AB471A

Fundamentals Of Spring Loaded Actuators
Author(s): Les Zuck
Abstract/Introduction:
BEFORE REGULATORS - SOMEONE WOULD HAVE TO WATCH GAGE-PRESSURE DROPS, SIGNALLING AN INCREASE IN DEMAND (VELOCITY INCREASE, GAS GOING TO MORE VALVES, 50 PRESSURE DROPS) - PERSON WOULD OPEN VALVE.
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Document ID: C0ECD214

Fundamentals Of Pilot Loaded Regulators
Author(s): Richard Mooney
Abstract/Introduction:
An overview of any natural gas system would be described as a interconnected network of piping systems, operating at a wide variety of pressures, transporting gas from productions wells to the point of use in homes and industry. PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATORS control the flow of gas as it is cascaded from systems of higher pressure to systems of lower pressure. Additional PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATORS and BACK PRESSURE REGULATORS
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Document ID: 121C7983

Overpressure Protection Design Principles
Author(s): Joe Ewing
Abstract/Introduction:
The safety record of U.S. gas transmission and distribution compafies is excellent, in part because the components and installations which control gas pressure operate reliably and safely until they are retired from service. However small, the chance of failure does exist. Internal and external corrosion, particulate matter in the pipeline, contractor damage, natural causes,
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Document ID: 873B6E65

Elastomeric Element Regulators
Author(s): Jeff Hoffman
Abstract/Introduction:
In todays regulator marketplace regulators are normally classified in two categories, self-operated or pilot-operated. Within the pilotoperated category, they are further defined as pilot-operated two-path control or pilot unloading systems. In a pilot-operated two-path control system, the downstream pressure is registered on the pilot diaphragm and the main valve diaphragm simultaneously.
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Document ID: 880EB7BA

Applications Of Chromatography Gas
Author(s): Glade L. Hall
Abstract/Introduction:
The gas chromatograph operates by separating the individual components of a gas mixture and then detecting the relative concentrations of each. Natural gas is a complex mixture of over 100 individual gases, composed of molecules of varying size, complexity, and boiling point. The compounds typicly range in concentration from over 85% for methane to 1 or 2 parts per million for some of the heavier compounds.
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Document ID: 43AF9D71

Troubleshooting Of Regulators Including Freezing
Author(s): Edward J. Harrington
Abstract/Introduction:
The number of type of problems which affect even the most basic regulator are impressive. This paper will address some of these problems and the repair and action taken to prevent a recurrence. The subject material is a basic farm tap regulator (FIG. 1) and a pilot controller (FIG. 2).
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Document ID: EA7F9C4F

Bits, Bytes, & Bauds Or( Basic Computer Concepts)
Author(s): Steve Damato
Abstract/Introduction:
Suppose for a moment that the automobile industry had developed at the same rate as computers and over the same period: how much cheaper and more efficient would the current models be? If you have not already heard the analogy, the answer is shattering. Today you would be able to buy a Rolls-Royce for 2.75, it would do three million miles to the gallon, and it would deliver enough power to drive the Queen Elizabeth II. And if you were interested in miniaturization, you could place half a dozen of them on a pinhead.
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Document ID: AE4F2F93

Overall Measurement Accuracy
Author(s): Tom G. Lam
Abstract/Introduction:
How accurate is our gas metering equipment? Are we being billed correctly? Are we billing our customers accurately? In order to answer these frequently asked questions, we need to look into the overall measurement accuracy of the measurement system. Today, I would like to discuss with you the following
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Document ID: 0025E065

Quality: The People Story...
Author(s): James W. Teegarden
Abstract/Introduction:
Its truly a great pleasure for me to speak at this meeting today. It wasnt so long ago that I was sitting in an audience like this, listening to an important customer of ours, having my concept of quality broadened and enlivened. That was five years ago. And since that day, Ive seen our company change in ways I never could have predicted.
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Document ID: 4F4C5FDA

Automatic Meter Reading Industrial & Commercial Applications
Author(s): Bob Riley,
Abstract/Introduction:
It is not unusual for a natural gas utility to have a disproportionate amount of their total sales concentrated in a small group of industrial customers. Due to fundamental changes in this market and the shear size of these accounts, even a slight improvement in speed and reliability of measurement can have a significant impact on cash flow and utility revenues
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Document ID: A08C86AC

Field Proving
Author(s): R. J. Msch
Abstract/Introduction:
The escalating cost of natural gas, and greater emphasis on accurate measurement by gas companies has enhanced the need for better methods of field testing meters. There are presently three methods for field testing meters:
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Document ID: 0AF2C0A6

Orifice Chart Calculations
Author(s): Lanny Wilkin
Abstract/Introduction:
The orifice meter, though one of the more reliable methods of measurement in the gas industry, often offers the most challenge for the measurenent department in arriving at rapid, accurate volume calculations. Errors most easily occur in orifice calculations, due to the greater nunber of variables involved in the orifice flow equation and its relative complexity. In addition, the gas chart itself is often found to be a major source of error. Those involved in measurement must have a basic understanding of the associated flow calculations and proper chart integration techniques in order to avoid many of the mistakes commonly made.
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Document ID: 26BDF226

Selection, Testing, Maintenance And Operation Of Electronic Flow Computers
Author(s): Pred De Busk
Abstract/Introduction:
Selecting the right Electronic Flow Computer (EFC) device for your company or application will determine its success. Such Acronyms as EFC, EFM, and/or EGM will be used around the industry.
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Document ID: BDA23EF0

An Overview: Pressure And Temperature Measurement
Author(s): David V. Beitel
Abstract/Introduction:
The measurement industry is going through some great changes. These specific changes that I am referring to are the Influx of electronics that we are seeing today. It is no longer required that we are not only experts in dead weights, Pk testers, orifice plates, and turbine meters, but as measurement people we have to become knowledgeable in items such as bytes, bits, RAM and ROM. The age of electronics and computers has invaded the measurement industry: Secondary elements such as the chart recorder are being replaced by flow computers that can perform a multitude of tasks, only limited by the imagination allowed by the budget
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Document ID: 04CC01AD

Production Measurement
Author(s): Don Klempel
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas Production Measurement has always been a challenge because of the diverse gas quality conditions, varying pressure and flow ranges, adverse climatic conditions and general access to facilities. Because of the current energy industry business climate, its imperative to provide accurate, dependable measurement yet maintain operating costs at an acceptable level.
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Document ID: F402A0E9

Lov Flow Measuremekt Systems
Author(s): Joseph R. 3ANNEY
Abstract/Introduction:
Increased natural gas rates and fuel mixing or switching by large customers with alternate fuel capabilities created a need for measurement systems with a high degree of accuracy and wide rangeability. A single large meter run of the widest rangeability available will sometimes not be adequate to accurately measure the low flow rates encountered today
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Document ID: 3BF86B44

Electricity And The Gas Measurement Technician
Author(s): Robert 0. Buse
Abstract/Introduction:
Why is electricity important to a gas measurement technician? Thats an important question. As you must know, in our present day gas systems we use flow computers and electronic correcting indexes on meters and also in our SCADA systems. We also have the communication portion of the SCADA systems. These are all electrically powered and contain various electronic devices. Lets take a look at some of the measuring quantities and make some comparisons with the gas industry,
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Document ID: 8D930D1E

Basic Fundamentals Meter Measurement Of Orifice
Author(s): Mike Rathbum
Abstract/Introduction:
Fluid meters s.r5 divided into two functional groups - One measures primarily quantity (Positive Dis place FT! ent) the other measures primarily rate of flow (Inferential.) All fluid fTieterSr however, consist of two distinct partsr each of which has different functions to pierforfTi. The first is thie pr imary element, which, is in contact w i t l t li e fluid, resulting in sorrie forrri of interaction. Thiis interaction may be that of imparting motion to the primary e lemsnt the fluid may be accelerated etc. The second or secondary element
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Document ID: 747DDC7E

Fundamentals And Maintenance Of Diaphragm Meters
Author(s): Russel K Brooks
Abstract/Introduction:
The control and measurement of the ever expanding consumption of natural gas in the United States and Canada has placed a greater emphasis on accurate metering. Literally speaking, the gas meter is the cash register of the gas industry. The analogy of course, would be truer if the index were calibrated in dollars and cents. As it stands today, the meter is the basis for correct billing to customers. . -
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Document ID: 4D8E92F9

Fundamentals Of Gas Measurement
Author(s): Gary L. Hanson
Abstract/Introduction:
An understanding, and proper application, of the basic physical laws which govern the behavior of gases is of fundamental importance to those engaged in the production, transmission and distribution of natural gas. In every phase of operation, from the wellhead to the burner, the basic gas laws are applied several times. They must be understood when designing the gathering system, when designing a compressor station, a regulator station and most certainly when designing and operating a gas measuring facility.
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Document ID: BC3209C6

Turbine Meters
Author(s): Richard H. Schieber
Abstract/Introduction:
Gas measurement in the U.S. and around the world is dominated by diaphragm, rotary, turbine and orifice meters. Each serves different segments of the industry and each has its own set of measurement advantages and disadvantages. The four types of gas meters can be broken down into two distinct categories positive displacement meters and inferential meters. Diaphragm and rotary meters fall into the positive displacement group because they each have well defined measurement compartments that alternately fill and then empty as the meter rotates. By knowing the volume displaced in each meter revolution and by applying the proper gear ratio, the meter is made to read directly in cubic feet or cubic meters.
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Document ID: 1CFCCC85

PUKDAffiNTALS & Maintmange Op Rotary lTETERS
Author(s): Ria-I S. Lfoncavallo
Abstract/Introduction:
The first positive displacement rotary gas meters were built in 1920 by the PH & FM ROOTS Company and the Connersville Blower Company, both located in Connersville, Indiana. In 1966, this gas meter operation was renamed Dresser Measurement Division. However, these rotary meters today are still known as ROOTS METERS
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Document ID: CC9B350C

Features Of Electronic Correctors
Author(s): Richard J. Ensca
Abstract/Introduction:
In this why do we integrators The primary economics. economical INTRODUCTION era of high technology, see so many mechanical still being utilized? reason is a matter of Until recently, electronic integrators were not available. The technology to produce electronic integrators has been around for a long time (since the mid-/0s but the cost of manufacturing to meet the harsh environmental conditions that this equipment must operate in has been ouC-of-sight.
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Document ID: 61030A73


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